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Gulf States Historical 
Magazine , 

JOEL C. DuBOSE, Business Manager 



JULY, 1902 to MAY, 1903 


* 590752 

i 902- 1 903. 

NO. 1. JULY, 1902. 

The Beginnings of French Settlement of the Mississippi Valley. 

By P. J. Hamilton 1 

John Adair's Observations on Men and Affairs in the Old South- 
west, 1809. With notes by Reuben T. Durrett 13 

Reminiscences of a Long Life. By Barnard Shipp 19 

The Tragedy of the Commissariat. By John W. DuBose 27 

Texas Newspaper Files in the Library of Congress 33 

Postmasters of the Principal Cities of the Gulf States: Mont- 
gomery, New Orleans, Pensacola 38 

Colonel Edward Lacey, of the Revolution, and some of his De- 
scendants. By Thomas M. Owen 41 

Documents 45 

Minor Topics . . , 51 

Notes and Queries ., 56 

Historical News . , 58 

Book Notes and Reviews • 69 

NO. 2. SEPTEMBER, 1902. 

The Confederate Submarine Torpedo Boat Hunley. By W. A. 

Alexander , 81 

Letters from John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait 92 

The Churches of Alabama During the Civil War and Reconstruc- 
tion. By Walter L. Fleming 105 

Louisiana Newspaper Files in the Library of Congress 128 

The Fisher Family. By Thomas M. Owen , 134 

Documents , ". 139 

Minior Topics 144 

Notes and Queries 150 

Historical News 152 

Book Notes and Reviews 159 

NO. 3. NOVEMBER, 1902. 

The Necessity for a New Life of Andrew Jackson. By Arthur 

S. Colyar 169 

The Continuity of Constitutional Government in Mexico, under 

President Juarez. By Clarence Ousley 179 

Louisiana History in Government Documents. By William Beer 184 
How the News of the Assassination Of President Lincoln was 
Received by the Confederate Prisoners on Johnson's Island, 

in April, 1865. By John W. Inzer 194 

Florida Historical Documents. By Edwin L. Green 197 

Raphael Semmes in the U. S. Navy 203 

Newspaper Files in the Library of the University of Georgia. . 205 

The Ross Family. By Thomas M. Owen 207 

Documents 212 

Minor Topics 215 

Notes and Queries % 218 

Historical News 222 

Book Notes and Reviews 228 


NO. 4. JANUARY, 1903. 

Yancey: A Study. By J. W. DuBose 239 

Executive and Congressional Directory of the Confederate 

StatG3 of America 253 

The Reclamation of an Industry. By Edmund K. Broadus.... 262 
The First Law of the Mississippi Territory. By Dunbar Row- 
land 268 

The Organization and Work of the Iberville Historical Society. 

By Rev. A. C. Harte 273 

Florida Newspaper Files in the Library of Congress 277 

Notes on the Genealogy of the Poe Family 281 

Documents 284 

Minor Topics 289 

Notes and Queries ., 292 

Historical News 294 

Book Notes and Reviews 298 

NO. 5. MARCH, 1903. 

Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr. By Charles E. Jones 301 

Yancey: A Study (Concluded). By John W. DuBose 311 

The Bonapartists in Alabama. By Anne Bozeman Lyon. ....... 325 

The Louisiana Historical Society. By Dr. Alcee Fortier ...... 345 

DeSoto in Florida. By Charles A. Choate 342 

Early Railroads in Alabama. By Dr. Ulrich B. Phillips 345 

Newspaper Files in the Library of the Georgia Historical So- 
ciety. By William Harden 348 

The Abercrombie and Hayden Branch of the Fisher Family. 

By Mrs. F. R. Abercrombie 350 

Brief Memoranda Concerning a Southern Line of the Sands 

Family .' 352 

Documents 355 

Minor Topics 370 

Notes and Queries 376 

Historical News 378 

Book Notes and Reviews 382 

NO. 6. MAY, 1903. 

Forgotten Southern Authors. By A. J. Miller 395 

Louisiana Affairs in 1804 403 

Coal Barging in War Times, 1861-1865 409 

The Absentee Shawnee Indians 413 

Bibliographical Notes. By William Beer 419 

Newspaper Files in the Carnegie Library of Atlanta 423 

Alabama Newspaper Files in American Antiquarian Society 425 

Farley Gleanings. By Mrs. Wm. C. Stubbs 428 

Myths of the Cherokee. By O. D. Street 432 

Documents 438 

Minor Topics 452 

Notes and Queries 455 

Historical News 458 

Book Notes and Reviews 460 


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Peter Joseph Hamilton, 


JULY, 1902. 


Gulf States Historical 

Vol. i, No. i. Montgomery, Ala., July, 1902. Whole No. 1. 

By Peter J. Hamilton. 

We stand on historic ground. Here was the first lasting 
French settlement of the Gulf States, here the cradle of 
civilization of the Mississippi Valley. In the unbroken 
forest which two hundred years ago stood in the place of 
this field, at this same bleak season, after seeing on the 
river what we see to-day, armed Frenchmen were cutting 
down virgin timber, painfully hauling it hither, and build- 
ing of squared logs a fort overlooking that river. Here it 
rose, as large as a city block, its four bastions containing 
the first cannon belonging to this country. Within the 
works were structures for officers and guard, and in the 
center a parade, in which floated the white flag of France. 
On the bluff was the powder pit, to the left 150 paces the 
barracks. Below at the landing a surveyor laid oat the 
town, named like the fort and country from Louis XIV, 
and there, on an eminence overlooking the rest, was the 
residence of priests. Soldier, Priest and Civilian had 
come. The State, the Church and the Home, the three 
foundations of all society and progress, were established 
on the Gulf forevermore. 

Looking on in stolid but not indifferent silence were 

*Oration at the unveiling of a monument at Twenty-Seven Mile 
Bluff on Mobile River, January 23rd, 1902, to commemorate the Bicen- 
tennial of the founding of Fort Louis de la Mobile by Iberville and 

2 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

red men, whose ancestors had so long hunted, and warred 
in this country. Most of them were from what we call 
Mt. Veruon Landing, and bore the name Mobilian, which 
the Spanish DeSoto 150 years before had known too wcf, 
and which in his time marked an extensive empire; a 
name which was to survive even this French attempt at 
perpetuating the memory of their great king, and to cling 
to the river, bay and its chief settlement forever. On our 
river the American Stone Age stood face to face with the 
Iron Age oi Europe, but not in conflict. French diplomacy 
brought here for conference amongst others the neighbor- 
ing Mobilians and Tohomes, the Choctaws from the West, 
the Chickasaws from the head waters of the Tombigbee, 
and the Alibamons from up the river which has named 
our State. The French leader, Pierre LeMoyne, Sieur 
d'Iberville* presided and brought them into peace with 
each other and alliance with his country. The legends of 
the red men were now insensibly to blend with the history 
of the whites. 

What did they seek here in the wilderness, these sol- 
diers of Paris and Versailles, facing savages representing 
antiquity, looking out upon an unkuown future? What 
brought those Frenchmen so far fr jm the Ehine, which 
their king coveted? It was part of the world movement 
of that century, an expansion not yet ceased, the struggle 
for dependencies. The Atlantic coast of America had for 
almost a century been developing as English colonies, 
Borne of Roundheads, who fled from persecution at home 
to be free to persecute abroad, some of Cavaliers in search 
of fortune or adventure. The valley of the St. Lawrence 
had almost as long been claimed for France, and the 
Canada growing up which had now given the LeMoyne 
brothers as her best return to the mother country. To the 
south were older colonies yet, — Cuba, discovered by 
Columbus; Mexico and Peru, the outgrowth of Spanish 
exploration; and Florida, its west part just occupied for 
Spain. f For Columbus had stumbled on a new world 
while trying to open up to China and India some other 
than the Mediterranean trade route, which, alter creating 
Venice, Genoa and other ports, was itself, with the capture 

*The fullest life of Iberville in English, is found in the Mobile 
Begister by P. J. Hamilton, March 16, 23 and 30, 1902. 
fPensacola was occupied by Andres D'Arriola in 1696. 

French Settlement of Mississippi Valley. 3 

of Constantinople, closed by the Ottoman Turks. All 
Europe, Catholic and Kefornied, entered on the race for 
new possessions, supposed to contain mine3, fountains of 
youth and other attractions. The French LaSalle,* under 
the patronage of the great minister Colbert, had from 
Canada discovered the mouth of the Mississippi river and 
taken possession of the great interior, naming it all Lou- 
isiana; but before it could be settled there had come his 
tragic end, and the European wars of ambition which 
Colbert had vainly tried to prevent. The peace of Rys- 
wick between France and England allowed a breathing 
spell and Louis XIV had at last taken up the colonization 
of the country named for him. France now sent the 
famous sailor, Iberville, to anticipate the English in set- 
tling the Mississippi Valley, a territory which might be- 
come either a hinterland for expansion of the Atlantic 
colonies, or, according to European precedent, a separate 
country. Which should it be? A3 LaSalle and Iberville 
planned, Canada facing the Atlantic and Louisiana front- 
ing the Gulf, united by the Lakes and the Mississippi, 
should constitute one vast empire, a ~S"ew France, worthy 
even of the greatest sovereign of his age. The Mississippi 
banks proved marshy and uninhabitable, the temporary 
expedient of Biloxi (Ocean Springs) showed unproductive 
lands and shoal harbors, and Iberville had on his third 
voyage from a sickbed on ship, sent his younger brother, 
Jean Baptiste, Sieur de Bienville, to build the capital of the 
colony here, "sixteen leagues from Massacre (our Dau- 
phine) Island, at the second bluff," — near the great Indian 
tribes, as well as the Spaniards and the English of Caro- 
lina. If Iberville was the head, Bienville was the hand of 
the enterprise, and when, later, the elder came to see how the 
work progressed, he was fully satisfied. Beside the estab- 
lishment, he found under construction the first vessel built 
on our coast, and himself took back to his roadstead at the 
island a mast from these tall pines.f 

*The best account of Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, is found in 
Parkman's Discovery of the Great West. His prise de possession, on the 
river bank, below the present New Orleans, was on April 9, 10S2. His 
assassination by his followers near Trinity River, Texas, occurred 
March 19, 16 37. 

fMany of the original reports, &c, «fe in Margry's Dcco-uverte.*, &c. ; 
vol. iv. The latest study of the original sources of this period is in 
Colonial Mobile (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1897.) 

4 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Time like distance lends enchantment. We are apt to 
remember in the scenes of our childhood the joys and for- 
get the sorrows which were then so keen. We think 
of the days of the fathers as a kind of golden age. 
And so here are we apt to imagine Iberville, Bienville, 
D'Artaguette, Mandeville and others whose names are so 
familiar in the colonial story, as living harmoniously 
together, even amid scenes of danger, sometimes distressed, 
but always working out a grand future for the colony. 
But this is a dream. The settlement here in 1702 was 
made of men ot like passions with ourselves. The gov- 
ernor was often changed, — sometimes it was Bienville, 
sometimes Cadillac, and later others; and when it was not 
Bienville, his friends were dissatisfied; when it was, his 
enemies sulked or worse. The priests complained of the 
lax morals of the colonists, particularly of the numerous 
wood rangers, and of the debauching of the Indians in 
every way. The commis3ary-intendant was almost always 
at odds with the governor, and in fact it was intended that 
one should be a check on the other. The result was, that, 
instead of a responsible head, authority was divided, and 
here just as in Canada the consequences were disastrous. 
The principal unity in the long story of dissension is found 
in the fact that one man lived through almost the whole 
time, working for the general good. That man was Bien- 
ville. He was not perfect. He would have belonged in 
some other place than Mobile if he had been. But his 
great ambition was to advance the interest of France. He 
was a firm ruler, a good general and diplomat, as wily and 
implacable as the savages with whom he contended. Iber- 
ville had founded the colony and his influence at court 
would have done much for it; but he died at Havana in 
1706 of yellow fever, and Bienville is truly to be thought 
of as the father of Louisiana. The best proof of his suc- 
cess is to look at Louisiana as it was founded, and at 
Louisiana as he left in 1743, rememberiug that the colony, 
except for a brief few years under John Law, was left 
almost to its own resources. Louis XIV was forced to let 
his namesake take care of itself. Fort Louis was founded 
at the same time that the war of the Spanish succession 
began, and in the sad years that soon came his grandson 
remained king ot Spain, but the generals of Louis lost 
battle after battle to Marlborough and Eugene, until all 
that was left for France was to accept the best her foes 

French Settlement of Mississippi Valley. 5 

would grant. This came in 1713 at Utrecht, and by that 
time Louisiana had become established well enough to 
justify turning it over to private enterprise, first to Crozat 
and afterwards to Johu Law and his company. U these 
circumstances prevent our blaming the king, they reflect 
all the more honor on Bienville.* 

The local annals of this place cannot be here detailed, 
and at best they were not thrilling. Despite such efforts 
as the home government could make, agriculture was neg- 
lected. We know that cotton has made this section of 
America. Here pass steamboats carrying hundreds of 
bales at once, and the very site of Fort Louis has been a 
cotton field. The staple had long been known in Mexico, 
but the French were slow to introduce it and even then 
did not generally cultivate it. Living on these same lauds 
they raised nothing but little patches of vegetables. There 
were a few sawmills and brick kilus, also mechanics, car- 
penters, and the like. The first creole,f born in October, 
1704, was the son of the locksmith to the colony. One 
reason for the neglect ot agriculture was perhaps the lack 
of laborers. The French early had Indian slaves, but these 
made poor farmers. It was not until 1707 that a negro is 
mentioned, and it was years later, under Law, a half cen- 
tury alter the English colonies began to be systematically 
supplied by royal corporations, that slaves were brought 
in quantity from Africa to Mobile. The colonists who 
were not in the fort spent their time mainly in hunting, 
in trading for skins, and exploring for mines. Their very 
food was brought from France or purchased from the 
Choctaws, and colonial annals record a number of disper- 

*St. Simon's Memoirs present the best view of the court of Louis 
XIV, but have little or nothing to say of the colony. 

fHis name was Jean Francois, and he was baptized by the cure 
Huve, on the day of his birth, October 4, 1704. His father was prob- 
ably named Jean LeCamp. The family name LeCamp can hardly be 
made out in the first church entry, for the priest evidently wrote it as 
it was pronounced, but Prof. Alcee Fortier lately found at Paris, in 
census report of two years later, the name spelled LeCamp. The 
church entries show a Jean LeCamp in 17U9. Thestatement of Pickett 
that the first Creole was the son ot Jousset is incorrect. There is a 
curious entry in the records of 1745 as the death of Robert Tallon, 
cabinet maker, that he was "the first creole of the colony." This 
would indicate, perhaps, that Jean Francois LeCamp had died before 
that, or that Robert Tallon had been born before him— which may 
well be, as the colony had existed even at Fort Louis two years before 
the church records begin.— See church entries given in Colonial Mobile, 
pp. 54, 66, 130. 

6 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

sals of the bulk of the garrison among the friendly savages. 
A modem poet* has even suggested that the French taste 
for frog legs was acquired in the famines here at Fort 
Louis, and certain it is the removal from this site to pres- 
ent Mobile in 1711 was due to a flood which ruined the 
maize tields of the Mobilians and Tohomes. 

True the king, and later the company, sent supplies and 
reinforcements from time to time. The coming of the 
relief or store ship Pelican in the summer of 1704, the dis- 
astrous year of Blenheim, was memorable. For one thing, 
by her came the first installment of women, twenty-three 
in number, an unqualified blessing. For a little while the 
river bankand the woodslooked like picnic grounds. There 
were more couples wandering about and more love making 
going on than ever before or since. Soon all were married 
except one uuusually coy and hard to please, who would 
accept no man in the colony. History has not recorded 
her name or fate. One cannot but fancy that she wa3 a 
leader in the Petticoat Insurrection, which soon taxed the 
patience and diplomacy of that incorrigible bachelor, Bien- 
ville, — a revolt of the Parisian ladies against corn-bread 
and other Southern delicacies. But, in the second place, 
by the Pelican came the marplot curate LaVente, who 
from the death of Iberville was the determined enemy of 
the younger brother; and the third gift of the vessel was 
yellow fever, imported from San Domingo, causing the 
earliest and in proportion to numbers the most fatal of all 
our epidemics. One half of the crew of the ship, thirty of 
the soldiers she brought, a Jesuit, and many of the colonists 
fell victims to it, and scenes of love-making and marriage 
gave place to heart rending separations. 

Among the associations of this spot, and, alas, of that 
visitation, none are s-tronger than those which recall Henri 
de Tonty. Born in Italy, he lost an arm in the French 
service, and in Canada received from the Indians the name 
of Irou Hand because of the substitute he wore. Compan- 
ion of LaSalle on the Mississippi, faithful guardian of the 
rock fort on the Illinois, he vainly watched from above the 
return of the great explorer from the Gulf he helped him 
find. It was Tonty's letter left among the Indians which 
made Iberville certain that he was on the Mississippi at 
last, and it was to welcome the successor of LaSalle that 

*Irwin Ledyard. 

French Settlement of Mississippi Valley. 7 

Tonty descended to Biloxi and came to live at Fort Louis. 
It was his influence that assembled here for Iberville the 
first peace congress of Southern Indians, and it was Tonty 
who ascended with Bienville to inflict the first chastise- 
ment on the Alibamons. I see before me now the daring 
cavalier, the true friend, — stalwart, bearded, brave, with 
iron hand but woman's tenderness. Here, no kindred 
near, his eyes upon the lilies of France, his heart void of 
offence toward God and man, died this last, this best of 
the pioneer explorers. Somewhere in these woods they 
laid him to rest with such honors as the horrors of an 
epidemic permit, and over the unknown grave the pines 
have ever, since sung a re quiem. The waters that carry the 
products of the soil and mines of Alabama from their home 
to the sea yet murmur his praises as they pass his grave. 
Martyr explorer, to thee a shaft should rise! The city, the 
states founded by thee, growing with the life thou gavest, 
watched by so good and great a spirit, must not be un- 

And there was another almost equally deserving of our 
remembrance on this occasion; for here, too, was seen the 
mightiness of the pen; and may this celebration tend to 
rescue from oblivion the fame of Penicaut.* 

No truer painter of Indian customs and of pioneer life 
can be found. His Relation is as interesting as a novel, 
as valuable as a history, and this is the bicentenary of 
Southern literature as well as of Gulf settlement. We can 
picture the "literary ship carpenter" building or repairing 
boats, with quick ear and eye to all that happens, and a 
hand no less ready at the pen than tools. Native of Ro- 
chelle, he came with Iberville's first expedition, sojourned 
at Biloxi, helped build Fort Louis, and lived at the newer 
Mobile. Member by necessity of all exploring parties, ex- 
pert in Indian tongues and traits no one had a fairer 
chance to learn, and no writer has ever told a better story. 
When in 1721 he leaves Louisiana for France to secure 
treatment of his eyes, we teel that we have lo3t a friend 
and that Mobile history has become almost dull. Pleasing 
indeed is the coincidence that her presence enables us to 
associate in this celebratiou the name of Bienville's latest 

*A sketch of Penicaut will be found in the fir.-it number of The 
Alabamian, (Birmingham, Ala.) January 1G, 1902, by the present 
writer. Miss Grace King calls him "the literary ship carpenter." 

8 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

and best biographer with that of the earliest, with Peni- 
caut to think also of Grace King.* 

Another whose name and form is in separately connected 
with this settlement is Pere Davion. The French encour- 
aged missionaries among the Indians, and protected against 
injury as well as they could these intrepid men, laboring 
farin advance of civilization. Among those of the Seminary 
of Quebec already on the Mississippi when Iberville crossed 
the Atlantic was Davion, at his rock among the Tunicas, 
keeping his sacred relics in a hollow tree. A brave man, 
he broke their idols at the risk of his life, but ministered 
to their bodily as well as spiritual ills. He moved to Fort 
Louis, administered the first baptism, and was here to in- 
stall the regular pastor — entries of all of which are still in 
the venerable church registers of Mobile. On this spot he 
inspired the living, comforted the sick, prepared the dying, 
going his rounds like Father Felician in Evangeline. Un- 
selfish, devoted to duty, he is a high type of what the 
French church furnished this country in pioneer days. 

Although young, Louisiana had a foreign policy, so to 
speak, and it is pleasanter perhaps to trace the growth of its 
external relations than to think of its domestic mishaps. 

Noblesse oblige, — empire imposes duties, as Americans 
are even yet realizing. As the sttiement was double, — 
the capital here at Fort Loui3, its harbor on the Gulf, in 
the angle between Massacre and Pelican Islands, — so the 
object of the colony was twofold. The first, commercial, 
was to be carried out in developing trade with the Indians 
and Spaniards, and in shipping to France the product of 
the country, whether timber, peltries or minerals. Mines 
were the ignis fatuus of explorers. The Spanish galleons 
from Mexico and P^ru had for over a century been taking 
to Europe the gold and silver which made Spain the fore- 
most country of the world. Charles V and Philip II 
would have been impossible without the new world behind 
them. And now the French sought gold where even 
DeSoto had missed it. No story was too strange, no glib 
adventurer incredible. Mathieu Sagean told of the king- 
dom of Acaniba, where gold was more plentiful than in 
Peru and women so numerous that the king changed wives 
every day. Such romances are laughable now, but they 

*Life of Sieur de Bienville, in the Makers of America series (Dodd, 
Mead & Co., 1902.) A most valuable book. 

French Settlement of Mississippi Valley. 9 

were then believed and by inflaming the imagination re- 
tarded legitimate growth. 

The second object in colonization was to be found on 
the military side. The original enmity to Spain had been 
checked by the ascent of a French prince to that throne, 
when Louis exclaimed "There are no longer any Pyre- 
nees!" But the hatred to Eugland ouly grew with time, 
and one of Iberville's dearest dreams was to ally all the 
Indian tribes with the object of driving back into the At- 
lantic the English colonists. And had he not so early 
died those of us who are of British descent might not be 
standing here to-day to celebrate his exploits. 

Whether it was to be military or commercial, the coun- 
try must be mapped, and much of the exploration was 
done from this fort and Dauphine island. The Mississippi, 
the Missouri, the Red and Arkansas rivers, the Gulf coasts, 
the Mobile and Alabama waters, all were explored while 
Mobile was the chief settlement, and there was placed in 
Texas the west boundary pillar of Louisiana, as the eastern 
was towards Pensacola. 

The search for mines was not remunerative, but the 
founding of posts, made from Mobile on the one site or the 
other, extended geographical knowledge, increased French 
influence among the Indians and brought a large com- 
merce. Thus arose Natchez, Fort Toulouse, Fort Char- 
tree, and, greatest of all daughters of Mobile, Eew Orleans, 
which became the capital and tar outgrew the mother. It 
was all Canada could do to keep the beaver trade. In fact, 
at first Canada was jealous of Louisiana and there was a 
long rivalry as to the growth of Detroit and Mobile, both 
founded by the French almost in the same year. 

Towards the northeast the neighbors were different. 
The English were there, and by those wonderful men, the 
traders, were selling goods to the Indians even on the 
Mississippi. These traders deserve a special place in his- 
tory. They were the advance guard of Anglo-Saxon civ- 
ilization, and, though fewer in number than the French 
wood rangers, had a greater and most lasting influence. 
Their names and residences are largely lost, and only 
through his book is James Adair an exception.* To them 
was due the fixed hostility of the Chickasaws to the 
French, and in time they even weakened the Choctaw 

* History of the American Indians (1775.) 

10 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

alliance. Cheaper trade must prevail in the long run, 
whether in colonial America in the eighteenth century or 
the world markets of the twentieth, and to the competi- 
tion between the traders and these coureurs de bois was 
largely due the settling of the question whether America 
should be Euglish or French. 

The British were not only the better traders, but in nu- 
merical increase were niore prolific. It was the beginning 
of a world process which we see going on in still increas- 
ing ratio. The Latin races — Spanish and even French, 
despite their Germanic infusion — are almost stationary in 
population, as their predecessors became in imperial Rome; 
the Teutonic, including English and American, are in- 
creasing and can better spare their blood. Incidental to this 
are their different methods of colonization. The Latins 
have colonized half the world, but in has been principally 
a veneering of the natives. Mexico is still largely Indian; 
South America perhaps even more so. On the other hand, 
although Anglo-Saxons rule the natives in India and other 
tropical countries where they cannot themselves nourish, 
their typical settlement is where they push them to the 
wall and take their places in more temperate zones, as in 
America and Australia. They either rule or exterminate; 
they do not largely cross their blood or adopt darker races, 
vvhatever the cause, when the struggle came the total 
English in America were one million and a half; the total 
French in Canada and Louisiana hardly ninety thousand! 

And yet at first this disparity was not felt, for the better 
diplomacy and strategy of the French were long able to 
prevail against numbers. It was due to Iberville that the 
French arrived first in the coveted field, and then, as they 
held the rivers and the English were barred by the moun- 
tain, French influence dominated and French settlements 
came to dot the whole Mississippi valley. But in time 
numbers told and invasion, commercial and military, came. 
There were intermediate gates in the Apalachian barrier 
range, — one by way of the Hudson river and the Great 
Lakes; a second, the Ohio river, at FortDuquesne or Pitts- 
burg; a third, along the Tennessee river. But these do not 
concern us so much as the northern and southern flanks. 
Locally we have to do only with the route around the 
southern foothills of the Alleghauies, watched from Mo- 
bile, — and the field was not lost here. Mobile did her 
duty and guarded her passes well, even after Xew Orleans 
was capital and Mobile head only of a department. The 

French Settlement of Mississippi Valley. 11 

inevitable conflict was settled, not on the Gulf, but far away 
on the St. Lawrence river. Only when Quebec was captured 
and the northern flank of the mountains became English 
in the Seven Years' War did the weaker colony of Louisiana 
fall. Settled from Canada, by poetic justice she tell with 
it. Then the peace of Paris in 1763 dismembered Louis- 
iana, transferring almost ail east of the Mississippi to Great 
Britain, and all west, with JSTew Orleans, to Spain, — never 
again to be united under one flag until Wilkinson took 
possession of Mobile in 1813.* 

On such an oceasirn the temptation is strong to pursue 
the subject further. We could study the interesting local 
story, or we could consider the development of this part 
of the country under its five flags, more than ever waved 
elsewhere in the Union outside of Texas. To no section 
does this yield in romantic and historic interest. But such 
thoughts would distract our attention from the one thing 
which chiefly concerns us to-day, the foundation on this 
spot two hundred years ago of Fort Louis de la Louisiane. 
True, the exact place of almost everything has been oblit- 
erated, the outlines and street names of the settlement pre- 
served by no plan I may perhaps claim to have recovered 
within the past five years the site of the fort, a discovery 
confirmed a few days ago Dy the finding of French bricks 
from the powder magazine over the bluff, f And at first 
blush it seems strange that people speaking the English 
tongue should gather here to celebrate what was done so 
long ago by Frenchmen, who would not recognize their 
very names as we pronounce them. 

And yet therein lies the significance of the event. They 
builded better than they knew. What they intended as a 
dependency of France has become a part, is becoming the 
chief part, of independent America,— that strange modern 
complex, the resultant of British colonization from the 
East, French and Spanish from the Southwest, and immi- 
gration from all the world besides. We must not think 
that we are celebrating an event in foreign history because 
we speak English and Bienville spoke French. The rule 

♦See original documents, first published in Hamilton's Colonial 
Mobile, p. 359. 

f This discovery of bricks was made by Cary W. Butt, of the Iber- 
ville Historical Society of Mobile, who at the risk of his life from the 
high river climbed down and secured several of the thin, red, Roman 
bricks. Several specimens are in the Department of Archives and 
History of Alabama, at Montgomery. 

12 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

of this Gulf country by the English as such lasted but a 
few years and in its turn gave way to Spanish; and At- 
lantic America became an independent power in its Revo- 
lution only by the negative help of the Spanish, who 
swayed the Gulf, and "by the effective military co-operation 
of the French from Europe. Lafayette stands next to 
Washington in the affection of us all, and Washington 
deemed Galvez a true friend of the Americau cause. Even 
the expansion of these British colonies over the mountains 
to embrace our section was modified by the interacting 
Latin influences. So that while America is now one, with 
one world-wide future opening before us all, its roots are 
various and the planting of Latin civilization in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley is as much a part of American history as 
Jamestown and Plymouth Rock. What these mean to 
the Atlantic seaboard, the foundation of Fort Louis means 
to the great Mississippi Valley, which in our own day is be- 
ginning to realize Iberville's vision of a dominating country 
instead of merely a hinterland to the Atlantic settlements. 
Therefore* do we in the name of the Mobile they founded 
dedicate this piece of granite to the memory of 'he illus- 
trious brothers LeMoyne. And we may, like Jacob of old, 
name this stone Bethel; for we can see the great spirits 
which have immortalized the spot and can mark the hand 
of Providence in our country's history since their day. 
"Hither by God's help we've come." Let us leave this 
scene in full appreciation of the event we celebrate, and 
with the covenant that we will do our duty in America's 
present as well as the LeMoynes and their compatriots did 
theirs in America's past. We place thee, lone monument, 
on a spot still almost as desolate as when Bienville left it 
for the lasting site at the river mouth; but a spot made 
sacred by the tears and blood, the life and death of great 
men. Stand thou there until homes and civilization gird 
thee close around. Inspire not only us and travelers that 
pass, but generations yet to be. A century hence tell 
America and the world that we honored our founders, — 
yea, stand there forever, thou sacred pillar, another Miz- 
pah, to watch between the busy, fleeting present and 
the historic past. 

*Mr. A. C. Harte had been deputed by Chairman Cary W. Butt to 
unveil the stone, and at this point he did so. The United States reve- 
nue cutter "Winona" commenced firing a salute, and instinctively 
every one rose to his feet. An occasion more solemn and inspiring 
has seldom been witnessed. 



With Introductory Notes, By Col. Reuben T. Durrett. 

The letter which follows presents a racy and interesting 
picture of men and affairs in the old Southwest at a period 
of which little is known, especially on the points men- 
tioned. Considering the personal feeling displayed it can 
hardly be assumed that the views of Mr. Adair are alto- 
gether unbiased. 

John Adair, usually called in Kentucky General Adair, 
was born in Chester county, S. C, in 1759, and was the 
son of Baron William Adair,* of Scotland, whose wife 
was a Moore. Baron Adair, after remaining some years 
in South Carolina, returned to Scotland. John Adair was 
a soldier in the Revolutionary war. He came to Ken- 
tucky in 1787 and soon after received the appointment of 
major, under General Wilkinson. He was engaged in 
most of the important conflicts with the Indians in early 
times in Kentucky. In 1792, he was attacked by a supe- 
rior force under Little Turtle, near Fort St. Clair, in Ohio, 
and suffered a defeat though not a disastrous one. He 
retreated in good order to safe quarters. In 1793, General 
Charles Scott, afterwards Gov. Scott, appointed him lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He several times represented Mercer coun- 
ty in the Legislature of Kentucky, and was at one time 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. In 1805, when 
John Breckinridge resigned his seat in the U. S. Senate to 
become the attornej-g( neral of President Jefferson, Col. 
Adair was elected by the Legislature to fill his unexpired 
term. After leaving the Senate he returned to Kentucky, 
again went into military life, and was with Governor 
Shelby as volunteer aid at the battle of the Thames in 
1813. For gallant conduct on this occasion, he was made 

*Dr. M. A. Moore, in his Life of Gen. Edward Lacey, p. 3, says that 
Mr. Lacey, when sixteen years of a^e "ran away from his father, and 
emigrated to Chester District, South Carolina, with William Adair 
(the father of Gov. John Adair, of Kentucky)." 

14 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

brigadier-general in 1814. He was in command of the 
Kentucky troop? at the Battle of New Orleans, and on 
account oT \vh;tt General Jackson said of a portion of 
these troops, a bitter controversy arose between Jackson 
and Adair. General Jackson had said that the Kentucky 
troops had ingioriously fled, but General Adair forced him 
so vigorously with facts that General Jackson modified his 
charge and said that they retreated and were justified in 
the retreat. In 1820 he was elected governor of Ken- 
tucky, and held this office when the great questions of 
reliet, and old court and new court began to disturb the 
peace and tranquillity of the commonwealth. In 1831 he 
was elected a member of Congress, and while in the Nation- 
al House of Representatives, served on the Committee of 
Military Affairs. He died on the 19th of May, 1840, and 
was buried in the State cemetery 'at Frankfort, Ky., where 
a handsome monument, erected at the cost of the State, 
with proper inscriptions thereon, stands over his grave. 

In reference to the relations of Adair and Aaron Burr, 
which occur in connection with statements made by the 
former in the letter herewith published, it is proper to 
speak somewhat in detail. It was then, and is now gen- 
erally believed in Kentucky that when Burr came to 
the State hi 1805 and 1806, he gave it out to those with 
whom he had dealings, that there was to be a war between 
the United States and Spain, and that he intended to raise 
an army and be ready on the ground in anticipation of 
this rupture between the two governments, so as to take 
part against Spain. General Adair stated on different oc- 
casions that such was the declaration of Burr to him. If 
such was the fact, any wrong which General Adair could 
have done by embracing the cause of Burr, is not apparent. 
If our country had been at war with Spain, there is no 
good reason why Burr and Adair and others might not 
have taken part against Spain for the conquest of Florida 
and Mexico at that time. Towards the close of the year 
1806, Joseph Hamilton Daviess, the U. S. Attorney of the 
District of Kentucky, had Aaron Burr indicted in the 
U. S. District Court. On the day set for trial, Governor 
Adair, who had been summoned as a witness, did not ap- 
pear, and Daviess was so disturbed and fretted at his absence 
that he indicted him with Burr. The indictment and evi- 
dence went before the grand jury, who returned a verdict, 
not guilty, and in addition stated that no evidence what- 

John Adair's Observations. 15 

ever tending to criminate either Adair or Burr had come 
before them or was known to them. Soon after this, both 
Burr and Adair went south. At Nashville they parted, 
Burr goiug down the Cumberland to the Mississippi and 
down the Mississippi towards New Orleans, while Adair 
went by land into the Mississippi country. Burr was 
arrested in the Mississippi country, and in the following 
year tried in Richmond for treason, and acquitted. 

It is believed by many in Kentucky that Burr had a 
broader plan in view thau the mere attack on the Spanish 
provinces in case of a war between the United States and 
Spain. Daviess, however, U. S. Attorney, in his original 
affidavit for an indictment against Burr, only says that it 
was Burr's intention to make a military raid upon the 
provinces of Spain while we were at peace with that coun- 
try. Afterwards he enlarged this charge against Burr, so 
as to hold him responsible for an intention to separate 
the western States from the eastern, and to establish an 
empire made up of these western States and Spanish ter- 
ritory, of wnich he was to be Emperor. If Burr really 
had such views, it is not likely that he ever disclosed them 
to Governor Adair, or that Governor Adair ever under- 
stood from him that his intention was anything more than 
to attack Spain when a declaration of war between the 
United States and Spain was made. Governor Adair was 
a cautious and prudent man, and it is not likely that he 
would have listened to such a wild scheme on the part of 
Aaron Burr, or given it the least commendation or sup- 

Governor John Adair married Catherine Palmer. Their 
children were: (1) Ellen, who married a Mr. White; she 
was celebrated and generally known by the name of 
"Florida White;" (2) Margaret Anderson, who married 
Dr. Bebee; (3) Dannie, who married Judge Charles Bridges; 
(4) Sallie, who married William Butler; (5) Mary, who 
married Mark Hardin; (6) Belle, who married a Mr. Pleas- 
ants, of Washington City; (7) Gen. John Adair, of Ore- 
gon; (8) William Adair, of Kentucky; and (9) Henrietta, 
who married Charles Buford, of Scott county, Ky. 
There are numerous descendants of Governor Adair now 
living in Kentucky and in other States. There is a tine 
oil portrait of him at Frankfort. 

16 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

John Adair to James Madison, Secretary of State. 

[From the Madison' Papers, vol. xxxiii, p. 516, in the Office of the Secre- 
tary of State.] 

Katehez Jany 9th, 1809. 

Although I have suffered, (by the hand of lawless 
power,) Iujurys in ray person, my reputation and my 
property; Iujurys to me irreparable though unmerited; 
yet as an American firmly and unalterably attached to my 
Country, and capable ot distinguishing in my judgment- 
and resentments betwixt the Government, and those who 
may for a time be intrusted to administer it: I shall always 
feel it my duty, and it will afford me pleasure to render a 
service to the publick — I have speut nearly the last two 
years in this and the adjoining Territorys of Orleans & 
Florida; and from a personal and intimate acquaintance 
with the people of all classes and almost every neighbor- 
hood; I am enabled to give you more correct information of 
their wishes and views than those in whom you may con- 
fide. It will not give you pleasure to learn that I possess 
this power principally from the circumstance ot my having 
suffered & been denounced as an enemy to my country — 
I detest a spy, and the man who will permit and betray an 
individual confidence, to the injury of the Individual is a 
villian — Without descending to name any, I may be 
allowed to describe the situation of this country generally; 
as it has come to my own knowledge — I can assure you 
sire, the Govt of the U. S. has many Enemys; and 
but few warm friends here — In the Territory of 
Orleans, the French (who are as, ten to one of the popu- 
lation) aie almost to a man, attached to french customs, 
french principles, french Laws; in a word, Bonaparte i3 
their God; they are french men at heart, ready to join any 
power, who will attempt to make them a dependency of 
France — The distinctton, frequently made between the 
Loyalty and political sentiments of the french Creoles and 
Emigrants is not well founded; It exists in a very few in- 
stances only — and although France and Spain are now at 
war, these people would rather become a Collony of Spain 
once more, and take their chance in the present struggle; 
than remain a Territory of the United States — There is 
likewise a British party, who though few in number, pos- 
sess considerable Talents, and only wait a favorable mo- 

John Adair's Observations. 17 

ment to act — The few Americans id this Terrty who 
from habit or principle are real friends of our Govt 
have but little Influence — whether in or out of oflice, 
either from a want of Talents to make them respectable, 
or from some other cause, they are viewed by both french 
and british partizans, with contempt, or suspicion — 

In the Mississippi Territory, the inhabitants may be 
placed in three classes, Federalist, Democrats and friends 
of the British Govt — The first class (notwithstanding 
newspapers say otherwise) is the most numerous, and un- 
der the present existing circumstances, will gain strength: 
should the people long be deprived of a market for their 
cotton, there is no telling to what lengths they will go to 
procure one — The Democrats are restless under the Terri- 
torial restrictions; they wish for a State Govt. Nothing 
less will satisfy them, deny them this and the Atlantick 
States at once become to them a Tyrant withholding their 
dearest rights; for the purposes ot oppression — The third 
class here, as in the other Territy, are not very numer- 
ous, but always on the watch, ready to widen every breach 
between the other two, or join either as may best suit 
their purposes — Few, very few of either class are warmly 
attached to the union of the East & Western States — 

I come now to speak of West Florida, in which I have 
spent the last two months unmolested, although the 
creatures of Wilkenson used every endeavor to have me 
arrested or ordered off, neither was done; The inhabitants 
of the part of West Florida, west of Pearl river are, nine 
out ot ten, Americans and except five or six men, who 
left the U. S. as friends of the British at the close of our 
revolutionary war; they would still prefer the American 
Govt to any other — There are a few advocates for the 
British who from their wealth and Talents have considera- 
ble influence: the french or Spanish interests are not worth 
naming — This Dist. contains five sixths ot the population 
and wealth of West Florida, the people are as, ripe fruit; 
waiting the hand that loves to pluck them; and with them 
all florida — at Pensacola, there are between 350 and 400 
soldiers, literally sans culotes, without clothing, rations or 
money or credit to buy with — 

British agents are now amongst these people, laboring to 
make them believe, that through a connection with the Bh. 
alone they can prosper — and should they have (as they 
are promised) a ready market for their cotton, from which 

18 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

their American neighbors are shut out by Embargoes or 
iSTon-intercourse Bills, it will at once give the British in- 
terest a decided ascendancy — nothing is easier or more 
likely to happen; ships of any burthen or description can 
come into the Bay and cast anchor in safety, in sight of 
the main land, off the mouth of Pascagoula river, under 
the shelter of an Island — Such an existing arrangement 
will produce intrigue, caballs, and heart burnings against 
the Laws in the adjoining Territorya, and cause incalcu- 
lable emigration into West Florida, from Georgia and 
Caroliua, which is now chiefly directed to the west side of 
the Mississippi — Should the British, during a ferment thus 
produced, land a comparatively small force in this District 
and offer Independence, alliance and commerce to the 
people of the adjoining Territorys, It is — difficult for me 
to say what would be the consequence, — The proper man- 
agement of these people is, at this moment all important 
to the Union — I refrain trom drawing conclusions, nor will 
I presume to give an opinion; my intention is merely to 
relate facts as I know them to be; and by doing so, to 
give such information from an extreme and vulnerable part 
of the Union, as may be useful at this critical moment, 
nor is this letter intended for the perusal of any but your- 
self, amongst your friends are my enemys. Let the public 
weal be my apology for troubling you, for myself I have 
no view, from the administration I expect no favor; my 
conscience is my kingdom. As a citizen I am entitled to 
common justice and protection. From those who have 
injured me, I hope yet to obtain redress or satisfaction so 
far as they have ability to render it— my sole object in re- 
maining so long in this country has been to raise and col 
lect a sum of money sufficient, to relieve me from embar- 
rassments brought on me chiefly by the illegal and cruel 
arrest and. robbery I suffered in New Orleans two years 
past — I shall now set out in a few days for Kentucky 
where I reside, and where a numerous, helpless family. 
dearer, infinitely dearer to me than life itself, depend 
almost entirely on my personal exertions for support — 

Accept of my best wishes for your success in discharg- 
ing to the satisfaction of your couutry, the arduous Duties 
you are about to encouuter as Chief Magistrate — 

I am with due respect 

Your most Obt. Sert. 

John Adaib. 

rr ~ ■ ' 


i B 






§^i4^^^ : i ; 


Barnard Shipp, Author, 


JULY 1902.- 



■:. , : .. By Barnard Shipp. 

My maternal grandfather, Joseph Barnard, an English- 
man from Portia, Marlborough Road, London, and wife 
Winifred O'Brien settled in the Natchez district, a territory 
extending southwardly about one hundred miles along the 
borders of the Mississippi river from the mouth of the 
Yazoo river, in the year 1784. He purchased from the 
Spanish Government, which at that time possessed the 
district, a tract of land five miles north of Natchez. He 
named his plantation "Elysian Fields." It was on this 
plantation that 1 began my career in life the 30th of 
April, 1813. 

My grandfather, Richard Shipp (whose wife was Sallie 
Turner), with his brothers, Laban and Colby, moved in 
1784 fromFauquier county, Virginia, to Keutucky. Laban 
made a settlement in the neighborhood of Elkhorn, about 
four miles from Georgetown; my grandfather lived with 
him. The father of these brothers was John Shipp, whose 
wife was Sally Johnson, whom he married in Fauquier 
county. When Laban and his brothers settled near 
Georgetown, sentinels had to be posted to look out for In- 
dians, while the settlers were planting and cultivating their 
corn. The incursions of the Indians were stopped or 
rendered less frequent when Gen. Wayne in 1796 or there- 
abouts crushed the Miamis by devastating their settlements. 
for fifty miles along the borders of the Maumee River. 

My Father, William Shipp, moved from Kentucky to 
Natchez in 1802, engaged in the mercantile business 
and became a very successful merchant. He moved 
his family to New Castle, Ky., soon after my advent, 
and they remained there until 1817, when we descended 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers to Natchez on the 
steamboat "Vesuvius," the second steamboat built at 
Pittsburg in 1811. But it is proper to state here, that 
this boat was not the original. The original "Vesuvius" 
descended to New Orleans and from there attempted 
to ascend the Mississippi, but ran aground about the 

20 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

mouth of the Arkansas river, and had to remain there for 
a rise in the river to get oft*. She then descended the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans, reloaded aud started up the river 
again, hut about Baton Rouge took fire and was burned to 
the water's edge. The hull was afterwards raised and 
the boat rebuilt. It was on this boat that I descended the 
Mississippi in 1817. The boat had left New Orleans on 
the 16th of May, and arrived at Shippingport (the landing 
below the rapids at Louisville) the 16th of June. 

In 182-1 I was sent irom Natchez to Norwich, Vermont, 
to the Military Academy established there by Captain 
Alden Partridge. 1 descended the Mississippi river from 
Natchez to New Orleans on a steamboat. At New Orleans 
passage was taken on the steamship "Robert Fulton" for 
New York. The Fulton stopped two days at Havana. At 
that time Commodore Porter, with his fleet, was in the 
harbor of Havana; several of his officers visited the "Rob- 
ert Fulton:" and I noticed in the midst of the fleet the 
smokestack of a steamer. There was, at that time, but 
oue (and it the first) steamship of the United States Navy, 
which 1 suppose was this, which was afterwards destroyed 
in the harbor of Boston by the explosion cf her boilers. 

I finally reached Norwich. It was vacation, and I was 
placed at a boarding house, at which was a cadet named 
Cushing. At this time Lafayette wa3 passing from Boston 
to Bennington, stopping at Windsor on his route. I went 
to Windsor and there saw General Lafayette as he was ad- 
dressing, from the balcony of the hotel, an assembly of 
citizens in front of it. 

I remained at Norwich about eighteen months, until the 
Academy was removed to Middletown, Connecticut, 
whither I went and continued a cadet of the institution. 
When I reached Middletown the buildings of the Acad- 
emy, two large three-story stone buildings and a chapel — 
built of the same material, — were not ready to receive 
pupils. While waiting at a boarding house in town until 
the building should be open to cadets, the remains of Com- 
modore Thomas Macdonough arrived at Middletown. 
The last command of Commodore Macdonough was 
the Mediterranean squadron. The procession accom- 
panying them passed in front of the house at which I was 
boarding. It was in 1826, while I was in Middletown, 
that Adams and Jefferson both died on the 4th of July. 
The two pieces of artillery of the Academy were fired on 

Reminiscences of a Long Life. 21 

the parade ground of the University in honor of them. 

In the winter of 1826 Captain Partridge conducted a 
small corps- of cadets on an expedition to Washington 
City. We went by steamboat from Middletown to !S T ew 
York, where we visited the objects of interest in that 
city, and then proceeded to Philadelphia. We went by 
steamboat to New Brunswick, New Jersey. We were well 
entertained by the citizens of Philadelphia, visited the 
penitentiary, (which had then just been finished,) saw at 
the Navy Yard the "Pennsylvania" on the stocks and 
housed. It was the largest vessel, to that time, that had 
been built for the Navy, and yet never was, as I recall, of 
much service. I had good cause to remember the month 
we were at Philadelphia, for it was December and the 
cadets were drawn up in front of the Independence build- 
ing to be reviewed, aud it was so cold that I could hardly 
draw the iron ramrod. 

From Philadelphia we went to Baltimore, where we 
visited Fort McHenry, and in returning from it we passed 
by the residence of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, the 
then last surviving signer of the declaration of indepen- 
dence. He reviewed the cadets. From Baltimore we 
passed to Washington, and there visited the places of in- 
terest and some ot the most distinguished men of the time. 
The President, John Quincy Adam3, on the steps of the 
white house, received the cadets. Mr. Calhoun reviewed 
us. While at Washington the corps made a visit to Mount 
Vernon, and the cadets were permitted to enter the vault 
in which was the coffin of Washington. 

The corps was dismissed at Washington. Some cadets 
returned to the academy from there, others, whose homes 
were not far, visited them. 

I returned to the academy, and in the summer of 1827 
went to Lexington, Ky. I went from Schenectady to 
Lockport on the Erie canal. From Lockport we took a 
carriage to Buffalo, stopping by the way, to see the Indian 
chief, Red Jacket, who had a good residence on the road. 
It may be of interest to state that the territory through 
which the canal passed was infested by black squirrels. 
There were scarcely any other kind to be seen. 

From Buffalo, along broad street with straggling houses 
on it, we went in a steamboat to the head of Sandusky 
Bay, and thence took stage to Cincinnati. There was at 
that time oue temporary building at the head ot the bay 

22 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

for the accommodation of those connected with the stage 
sent to Cincinnati. We passed through several towns of 
which Columbus and Dayton were two. 

Cincinnati at that time had reached as far as Fourth 
street, and a large church (Presbyterian or Episcopal) was 
just being finished. It was on Fourth not far below 
Broad street. From Cincinnati I went by stage to Lexing- 
ton, Ky., where I was put in charge of the Rev. Benjamin 
O. Peers, who had a school of a few boys on Limestone 
street. It was vacation at the Transylvania University. 
Mr. Holly, the president, had left New Orleans on a vessel 
for New York, and had died at sea. The Rev. B. 0. Peers 
officiated as president until the arrival of Mr. Alva 
Woods, who had been elected to succeed Mr. Holly. When 
he arrived I resided at his house. I was at Transylvania 
when the university was destroyed by lire. 

I spent the best and happiest days, and my most unfor- 
tunate at, or in the vicinity of Lexingtou. While there, 
Henry Clay, then Secretary of State, visited the place. As 
I resided with a relative of his, with whom also the prin- 
cipal editor of the Lexington Reporter, Thomas P. Smith, 
also resided, I had a good opportunity of noticing the rage 
of the two political parties, Whig and Democrat, of that 
time. It seemed they were blind to reason, justice and 
common sense. On one occasion, at an election at the 
court house, they divided, each took a side of the yard and 
assaulted each other with missiles of various kinds. The 
fight was ended by Charlton Hunt and Breckinridge, 
candidates for office, leaving the door of the court house 
arm in arm and walking the avenue to the street, when 
the men of the two parties closed in and each took his 
candidate on their shoulders and carried them back to the 
court house. Thus ended this rowdy riot. Notwithstanding 
missiles of various kinds were flying across the court 
house yard, I did not hear of any one being injured. The 
row continued but a brief time, probably fifteen or twenty 
miuutes, sufficient in such close quarters to have done 
much mischief. 

Iu the year 1830 I ascended the Mississippi to where 
Memphis now is, but at that time it was a mere stage sta- 
tion of a few houses on the bayou Gayoso. I there took 
the stage for Harrodsburg, the route was through Jack- 
son, Summerville, Glasgow and Ueyuoldsburg. Harrods- 
burg Springs was, at that time, much frequented in the 

Reminiscences of a Long Life. 23 

summer by persons from the South, and was the most pat- 
ronized summer resort in Kentucky, men of public repu- 
tation visiting it. It was established by Dr. Christopher 
Columbus Graham. lie afterwards sold it for a soldiers' 
home to the U. S. Government for §100.000.00, I believe, 
and was told when the bargain was closed that he would 
have as readily been paid §150,000.00 had he asked it. Dr. 
Graham was a remarkable man, fully six feet high and 
perfectly erect even at 93 years of age; he died at Louis- 
ville aged 100 years. 

For a number of years I spent my summers at Lexing- 
ton, and sometimes in Philadelphia. In returning from 
Philadelphia to Louisville I noticed that my spirits were 
more cheerful, the streets being wide and the houses small 
and low, so there was much light and air, while in Phila- 
delphia I could look through streets comparatively nar- 
row, and bounded on both sides by long rows of brick 

Believing from my experience that Louisville would be, 
to me, an agreeable place in which to reside, I went there 
about 1850, and made it my home. It was a remarkable 
winter that I ascended the river. Ice was met at Miller's 
Point. But though the river was covered with ice at Co- 
lumbus, Ky., Capt. Frank Montgomery of the steamboat 
"Rein Deer" crossed the river and delivered the mail, and 
then recrossed it to the side where there was the least ice. 
At Smithland, the mouth of the Cumberland, the Ohio 
grew narrower there, and the river was covered with ice. 
The bow of the boat was sheeted with planks, and thus the 
"Rein Deer" continued on her way, while all other boats 
had ceased running. We arrived at JSTew Albany Saturday 
evening, and Monday morning the river was covered with 
ice from shore to shore. It was completely blocked with 
ice, but the boat had reached its destination. This was 
one of the most adventurous trips I ever made. The 
water ic the barrels and buckets on the hurricane deck 
was frozen, the hose was frozen and the river was frozen. 
Had a fire happened all the persons on board the vessel 
would have perished. 

In 1844 I ascended the Mississippi to St. Louis on the 
"Henry Clay." This year was remarkable for one of the 
greatest floods ever experienced at St. Louis; we met the 
flood at Hickman where I saw huts floating down the 
river. Above the mouth of the Ohio we saw domestic 

24 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

animals on roofs of houses and the water up to the eaves 
of the houses. At St. Louis the water was up to the upper 
sills of the doors in the houses facing the river. Steam- 
boats made excursions over the American bottom to the 
hills bounding it on the opposite side (Illinois.) A steam- 
boat took persons from the second story of houses at 

About the same year I ascended the Mississippi on a 
boat carrying supplies to Fort Sneiling the head of navi- 
gation on the river. At Lake St. Croix I ascended the 
lake to Stillwater — a small village of about four hun- 
dred inhabitants. The boat after delivering or landing 
some freight for the St. Croix river, returned to the Mis- 
sissippi and continued its voyage. While it was unload- 
ing at Ft. Sneiling a wagon was rigged up by some of the 
passengers for a visit to the Falls of St. Anthony, nine 
miles from the fort. There was not a house between the 
fort and the falls except one about a quarter of a mile from 
the fort. At the fails there were no buildings of any kind. 
The falls were about fifteen feet high. St. Paul was at 
that time, about the same size as Stillwater. From the 
rapids at Keokuk to Savannah the Mississippi was at that 
time the most beautiful river I had ever seen. It was in 
its virgin beauty, nature in all its loveliness, uncontami- 
nated by civilization, just as the God of nature had made it. 

At the time of my residence and visits to Lexington, a 
period from 1828 to 1848, I occasionally wrote verses, 
some of which were published in newspapers. These J 
preserved and in 1848 published in a small volume, writing 
a poem entitled "Fame," to be the principal number, and 
called the volume "Fame and Other Poems. " In a public 
notice of these poems published in a Philadelphia weekly 
the author of the notice remarks that my poetry reminded 
him of that of Pope and Dryden. I accepted this as a 
flattering compliment. I knew why it resembled the po- 
etry of Pope, for Pope's translation of Homer's Iliad was 
the first poem I ever read, and it being a very long one 
the measure was fixed in my mind. I remember that even 
at night when I went to bed the cadence of the verse con- 
tinued to work in my mind. So it must have had a pow- 
erful influence on me. The style of Pope became my 
favorite and similar poetry attracted my attention as Dry- 
den, Goldsmith, Campbell and Johnson. In 1852 I pub- 
lished another volume, entitled "The Progress of Free- 

Reminiscences of a Long Life. 25 

dom, and other Poems.". The title of the leading poem 
had reference to the freedom of the mind from the tram- 
mels of superstition. Being in ISTew York City in 1852 to 
publish the last volume of Poems, I finished the publica- 
tion on a Saturday when Miss Jennj 7 Lind was to give 
her farewell concert on the following Monday evening. 
Having with me at the time a copy of "Fame and Other 
Poems" I had it and a copy of "The Progress of Free- 
dom" well bound and se.utthem as a present to Miss Lind 
as one of the volumes contained a poem addressed to her. 
I thought nothing more of the matter but on Monday 
afternoon I received a letter from Miss Lind acknowledg- 
ing receipt of the volumes, and saying she would "read 
them in kind and grateful remembrance of the giver." 
This was a most acceptable return to me and I considered 
myself fully rewarded for the present, but the letter con- 
tained two tickets to her farewell concert, and these 
were at the time selling for five dollars apiece. I was 
rather late in reaching Castle Garden, where the concert 
was given. I found it full from floor to ceiling but there 
were two good seats reserved for me. The only song that 
was repeated on this occasion was "Coming Through 
the Rye." 

I should probably speak more at length of my historical 
work and studies. I have endeavored, through the two 
volumes I have published, to make a solid contribution to 
the literature of our early Spanish, as well as to our Abo- 
riginal and Indian history. The first volume — "Hernando 
De Soto and Florida" — was published at Philadelphia in 
1881. As I stated in my preface, I felt that there was 
probably no Spanish hero of America whose fame was 
more widespread throughout the United States than that 
of DeSoto, and yet at the same time of whom so little of 
a substantial character was known. While the peninsula 
of Florida was first discovered in 1512 by Ponce de Leon, 
and there were intervening explorations, yet the expedition 
of DeSoto forms in fact the beginning of the history of 
"this country, whose vast domain is now the unrivalled 
region lying between the oceans, the Mexican gulf and the 
great lakes." It was to make more clearly known the first 
great expedition that revealed the interior of our couu- 
try, to trace his route of travel, to tell the names and 
indicate the locations of the Indian towns and tribes of 
Florida, that led me to compile and publish this vol- 

26 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ume. It covers the period from 1512 to 1568, and is 
the record of the events of fifty-six years. Everything 
contained in its pages was taken from the accounts of 
those who participated in the events they described. My 
translation of Garcilassa Inca de la Yega's "Conquest of 
Florida," one of the DeSoto narratives, is the only Eng- 
lish version of that work. 

My second volume — "The Indian and Antiquities of 
America" — came from the press iu 1897. I early became 
impressed with the belief that many persons had an erro- 
neous idea regarding the tumuli of America, and I under- 
took to show by giving accounts of similar works scat- 
tered over Europe and Asia, that such monuments were 
not peculiar to America. The 'collection of these facts 
led me to other considerations, and I conceived the idea 
of a comparison of the tumuli and ancient monuments of 
the old world and those of the new world. As I ad- 
vanced the prospect enlarged, and, considering the mate- 
rial I had collected would serve to illustrate history, I 
gathered additional facts of a different character to use 
in connection with those first obtained, to demonstrate 
that an intercourse existed between the two hemispheres 
in very remote ages, and to show the probable origin of 
the peoples who inhabited North America when it was 
last discovered by Europeans. The authorities for this 
book, as for the preceding, were obtained from original, 
or first hand sources. 

For the use of bibliographers I add full titles of my 
four published volumes: 

Fame: | and | other poems. | By | Barnard Shipp. | 
Philadelphia: | published by E. II. Butler & Co. | 1848. | 
12 mo. pp. [9]+10-212. 

The | Progress of Freedom; | and | other poems. | By | 
Barnard Shipp. | New York: | Adriance, Sherman & Co. | 
No. 2Astor House. | 1852. | 12 mo. pp. [9]+15-219. 

The History | of | Hernando deSoto and Florida; | or, | 
record of the events of fifty-six years, | from | 1512 to 
1568. | By | Barnard Shipp. | Philadelphia: | Robert M. 
Lindsay, 828 Walnut street. | 1881. | 8 vo. pp. xii, 689; 
1 plate; 2 maps. 

The | Indian and Antiquities | of | America. | By | 
Barnard Shipp. | Philadelphia: j Sherman & Co., printers. 
| 1897. | 8 vo. pp. xii, 451; illustrations. 


By John Witheespoon DuBose. 

An Address by Charles Francis Adams, at the Ninety- 
Seventh Anniversary Meeting of the New York Historical 
Society, 141 pages, and a Paper by the same orator read 
before the American Antiquarian Society, at its annual 
meeting in Worcester, Mass., 25 pages, both of 1901, dis- 
cuss the historical points of contact between the "American 
Civil War " and the " Confederacy and the Transvaal," in 
the military operations respectively of the Confederate 
States and the South African Republic. 

The hob-goblin writings of John Sergeant Wise are 
drawn on in the latter production, mainly, and to prove 
that the event at Appomattox was premeditated — whether 
by premeditations of an hour, or a day, or twelve months 
is immaterial — on the part of General Lee < i to decide in 
favor of a new national life, even if slowly and painfully 
to be built up by his own people under conditions arbitra- 
rily and by force imposed on them." Again "it is fairly 
appalling to consider what in 1865 must have occurred had 
Robert E. Lee then been of the same turn of mind as w T as 
Jefferson Davis, or as implacable and unyielding in disposi- 
tion as Kruger and Botha have more recently proved." 

Both inferences applied are in contradiction of fact. 
General Lee did not contemplate " a new national life, " in 
reaching his determination to capitulate to General Grant, 
whether sound principles of American liberty should re- 
quire that "turn of mind" or not. A self-constituted 
council of war assembled some twenty-four hours before 
Lee had determined on surrender. Pendleton and others, 
his personal friends among the ranking officers of his 
army, were concerned in it. Pendleton bore to Lee the 
conclusion reached, namely — surrender. Lee remarked, 
" Oh no, I trust it has not come to that General, we have 
too many bold men to think of laying down our arms. . . 
We had, I was satisfied ' ' — mark the empha- 
sis — " we had, I was satisfied, sacred principles to main- 
tain and rights to defend, for which we were in duty bound 

28 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

to do our best, " etc.'" The biographies all repeat this, 
corning from Col. C. S. Venable, of Lee's staff : " When 
1 bore this message [Grant's] back to Gen. Lee he said, 
{ then there is nothing: left me but to go and see General 
Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths!' " f 

. The military operations of the Confederate States, from 
first to last, are sufficient in themselves to establish a * ' na- 
tional life " of legitimate and honorable origin. The armies 
of the United States and the Confederate States appear in 
the histoiy of the war to have had each its own nation at 
its back, upon principles of war so distinct and separated 
were they commanded. For example, General Lee while 
leading an army of invasion, issued at Chambersburg, Pa., 
General Order 73, June 27, 1863, directing summary pun- 
ishment of all soldiers who might depredate on private 
property. The order read: "The General commanding 
considers that no greater disgrace can befall the army, or 
through it, the whole people, ' ' etc. So much for an inva- 
der and the principles of war evolving from its " national 
life." The other invader has also a record. General Sher- 
man's official report referring to his march from Atlanta to 
Savannah, says : "I estimate the damage done to the State 
of Georgia at one hundred millions of dollars, at least 
twenty millions of which enured to our benefit and the 
remainder was simply waste and destruction."! Pursuing 
war through the central counties of South Carolina, Sher- 
man carried with him Halleck's Order, dated Washington, 
Jan. 1, 1S65, to " lay waste the country." In Vol. ii, 
p. .255, of his autobiography, Sherman says of this march 
and its thorough fulfillment of Halleck's Order, "I would 
not restrain the army lest its vigor and energy should be 
impaired. ' ' 

Mr. Adams assures the world in his Worcester paper 
that posterity must acknowledge tc an infinite debt of grat- 
itude to the Confederate leader who on. the 9th of April, 
1865, decided as he did decide, that the United States, 
whether Confederate or Union, was a Christian Communi- 
ty, "etc. The tests of Christianity must vary according 
to the field where the seed is sown. " Pilate saith unto 
Jesus, what is truth? " No answer came. Mr. Adams 

*Memoirs of Robert E. Lee, by Gen. A. L. Long-, formerly his Mili- 
tary Secretary, p. 417. 
\Idem, p. 421. 
% Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. xxix, p. 107. 

The Tragedy of the Commissariat. 29 

cannot deny that very powerful and very incongruous ele- 
ments were forced into this " new national life" that fol- 
lowed Lee's surrender, and that Lee who lived five years 
was a most unsympathetic inhabitant of the incongruity 
which we are now asked to believe is the work largely of 
his sagacity and firmness.* 

The arms bearing population of the Confederacy, in the 
first six months of the last year of the war, 1864, was in 
the army. Thousands of farmers and planters had become 
commanders of armies, corps, divisions, brigades, regi- 
ments, companies, and some commanders of separate and 
perilous expeditions. Forrest, Richard Taylor, Hampton, 
Rodes, Gordon, Sterling Price, Ben McCullough, John H. 
Morgan, Roddey, Mosby, were not of West Point. The 
" rebel yell," soaring above the woodland battlefields, 
more than an average of two battles a day for every day of 
four years, bore the fame of commanders to the heights, 
beyond which there are none, of military fame. The "rebel 
yell ' ' was laden with no foreign accent. It was the weird 
note from the native tongue of two centuries domestication on 
the farms amidst the silence. It was the battle hymn that 
told of no "new national life " to come here from abroad. 
It rose upon the native air amidst the smoke and thunder 
of the guns, a wall between the invader and the voices of 
the wives, and mothers and sisters on the farms in the rear 
who, in resolution and endurance, sang often and sang ever: 

" Guide me, O thou great Jehovah, 
Pilgrim throug-h this barren land, 
I am weak but thou art mighty, 
Hold me by thy powerful hand"." 

Lee's defeat of Grant at the Wilderness and on his line 
of march from that point to Petersburg, in the spring and 
early summer of 1864 ; Johnston's defeat of Sherman 
from Dalton to Atlanta, 93 miles in 75 days; Beauregard's 
defence of the Atlantic sea coast for a year or more without 
a single ship of war; Forrest's defeat of Sherman in Mis- 
sissippi; Richard Taylor's defeat of Banks in Louisiana; 
Mosby 's operations against Sheridan ; Semmes on the high 
seas, all events of 1864, were military operations in which 
the world finds the qualifications of national life. In the 

* The opinions of Gen. Lee on negro suffrag-e, the main issue in 
his life time, after Appomattox, and other policies of the "new 
national life," developed in this time, may be learned from his tes- 
timony before the Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the 
War. — See the Congressional Documents of the period. 

30 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

annals of wars, ancient or modern, no nation ever won 
greater victories than the Confederacy won in the last year 
of its brief but immortal life. It may be questioned if the 
history of wars, in all time, presents military genius and 
valor parallel to this closing period of the Confederacy's 

Did Lee surrender to create "a new national life "? 
Would he have continued to lead Grant to defeat on remote 
fields, even as he led him from the Wilderness to Peters- 
burg, had his own policy of war been permitted by the 
government at Richmond ? General Lord Wolseley has 
written a biography of Lee, contending that the chieftain 
never intended to lead Grant from one terminus of the lat- 
ter 's base, on the Potomac, to the other terminus on the 
James and there allow the Union commander to restore his 
own strength and wear out his adversary in seige ! 

In February, 1865, General Lee sent a Commissary of 
singular ability, courage and devotion, Major Lewis Ginter, 
into North Carolina and south western Virginia to see what 
supplies, if any, w r ere there stored. Ginter went quickly 
and examined well. The tobacco ware-houses at various 
points of enquiry were found bursting with army supplies. 
"Why are my requisitions not filled \ ■' demanded the com- 
mander. " Because, General, the trains are occupied 
hauling wines, whisky, blockade sutler's goods and freights 
of that kind to Richmond and can't be spared for army 
use," replied the Commissary. Lee pondered deeply. 
Ginter interrupted: " General, will you order the sup- 
plies?" "No, I cannot violate the law. If the Depart- 
ments at Richmond choose to let this army be destroyed for 
want of food and clothing, it will have to perish."* So 
perished the Army of Northern Virginia ! 

Long's Memoirs, (p. 442,) says that Lee "relinquished 
the work (a history of his campaigns) with less reluctance 
because he felt that its truths and indispensable facts must 
expose certain persons to severe censure." "Censure" 
would not be due from the commander of the army against 
his subordinates, never tried or reproved. The civil au- 
thorities, then no more but who were his superiors, were 
alone proper subjects of censure from General Lee's pro- 
posed history. Longstreet's Autobiography (page 336) 

♦Interview with Ginter in Richmond [Va.] Times editorial, Jan. 
19, 1898. 

The Tragedy of the Commissariat. 31 

says that Lee soon recognized in his military work the 
necessity- of diplomacy in his relations to the Confederate 
civil authorities, who 4 < were slow in approving his plans. "* 
President Davis, a dozen years after the war published a 
denial of Lord Wolseley's suggestions that the civil author- 
ities took from Lee the strategy of his campaign of 1864, 
forbid his policy of retreat before Grant and forced him to 
hold fortifications only ten miles by rail and turnpike from 
Grant's base at City Point. The president was not in 
position to speak for Gen. Lee in the premises. There is 
the best reason for the belief that Gen. Lee was indignant, 
if not resentful, at the disastrous interference with his work 
about Petersburg from Kichmond, long before escape with 
his army ceased to be a practical operation. That he spoke 
of relief in resignation of his commission was a report in 
army circles of highly respectable character. 

The " new national life " was urged upon the embrace of 
Geu. Lee, but met no countenance from his judgment or 
patriotism. When Longstreet appealed to him, within a 
year after Appomattox, to join him in acceptance of the 
" new national life," that is, the Kepublican party, he pos- 
itively refused. 

The following letter from Gen. Hampton to President 
Davis undoubtedly expressed the feeling of Lee and his 
entire army: 

"Hillsborough, N. C." 

"April 19, 1865." 
"His Excellency President Davis," 

"My Dear Sir: .... There are large 

numbers of the Army of Northern Virginia who have es- 
caped, and of those many will return to our standard if 
they are allowed to enter the cavalry service. 

If I had 20,000 mounted men here I could force Sherman 
to retreat in twenty days. 

Give me a good force of cavalry and I will take them safely 
across the Mississippi, and if you desire to go in that direction 

*In the Official Records, War of the Rebellion, various volumes, 
there are 27 letters of complaint to the government at Richmond 
from General Lee touching mismanagement of his army and mili- 
tary operations by his government. For condensed statement, see 
Southern Historical Society Papers, Vol. xxviii, p. 148. 

32 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

it will give me great pleasure to escort you. ... I 
write to you, my dear sir, that you may know the feelings 
which actuate many of the officers of my command. They 

are not subdued, nor do they despair M 

< ' Wade Hampton." 

Not hearing in reply, at sunset Hampton mounted a 
strong horse and set out to overtake the President. Com- 
ing to the Catawba river in flood, he swam his horse over, 
drawing rein at Yorkville at 2 a. m. The President was 
out of reach.* 

* Official Records, War of the Rebellion, Series I, Vol, xlvii, p, 813. 




Austin City. 

Austin City Gazette, w. 

Jan. 19, Aug. 7, 1842. 

State Gazette, w. 

Aug. 6, 1853 Oct. 28, 1854. 2 vols. 
Jan. 1, 1855-Dec. 20, 1S56. 2 vols. 
June 24, 1857-Dec. 29, 1860. 4 vols. 

The Southern Intelligencer, w. 

Apr. 8, 1857 Mar. 14, 1850. 3 vols. 
Daily Austin Republican. 

Feb. 6-Dec. 31, 1868. 1 vol. 
Texas Siftings. w. 

May 13, 1882-May 3, 1884 2 vols. 
The Weekly Texian. 

Dec. 22, 1841. 


The Northern Standard, w. 

Mar. 4, 1848-Sept. 29, 1849. 2 vols. 


Telegraph and Texas Register, w. 

Sept. 13, 1836-Apr. 11, 1837. 1 vol. 
Removed to Houston, Tex. 


Norton's Union Intelligencer, w. 

Oct. 12, 1878-Dec. 4, 1880. 1 vol. 
May 22, 18S5-Aug. 24. 1895. 3 vols. 
Established at Austin in 1857, and removed 
to Dallas during the war. 

*The value of this list will be readily apparent to students and 
investigators, who are in search of detailed information as to the 
locatiou of important materials. It is reprinted by permission from 
the Check List of American Neicspapers in the Library of Congress (1901. ) 

The abbreviations are: w., s. w , and d., weekly, semi-weekly, and 
daily; v., volume, meaning one bound book; ind., dem., est., Inde- 
pendent, Democratic, and Established. 

34 The Gulf States Historical, Magazine. 

Norton's Union Intelligencer, d. 

Nov. 13, 1880-May 12, 18S5. 5 vols. 
El Paso. 

El Paso Herald, d. 

Jan. 1 -Dec. 31, 1900. 
El Paso Times, d. 

Jan. 1, 1898-May 31, 1900. 


The Daily Advertiser. 

Feb. 26, 1842. 

Flake's Daily Galveston Bulletin. 

Dec. 27, lS65-Dec. 31, 1865. 

Jan. 2, 1866-Jnne 3, 1808. 4 vols. 

Flake's Weekly Galveston Bulletin. 

Wm. m 78P«-Jrrly 15, 1866. 1 vol. 
Flake's Semi-Weekly Galveston Bulletin. 

June 3, 1868-Dec. 24, 1870. 2 vols. 
The Civilian and Galveston City Gazette, s. w. 

May 17, 1839-Nov. 4, 1840. 1 vol. 

Julv 24, 1842-Dec. 31, 1842. 1 vol. 

Jan. 11, 1843- July 19, 1845. Sundry Nos. 1 vol. 

Semi-Weekly Journal. 

Feb. 9, 1852. 
Weekly Journal. 

Mar. 19-lSiov. 5, 1852. 1 vol. 
The Daily News. 

Apr. 30, 1842. 
The Galveston Tri- Weekly News. 

May 31, 1869-Dec 

. 31, 1873. 

4 vols. 

The Galveston Daily News. ind. 

est. 1842 

Jan. 3, 1874 Apr. 
Jan. 1, 1899-Dec. 

30, 1897. 

31, 1900. 

48 vols. 
6 vols. 

The Texas Times, w. 

Apr. 22, 1843. 

Galveston Tribune, d. 

Sept. 19, 1899-Dec. 31, 1900. 


The Southern Beacon, w. 

Jan. 15-June 31, 1859. 

\ 699752 

Texas Newspaper Files. 35 


Mercantile Advertiser, w. 

Apr. 14-Dec. 29, 1849. 1 vol. 
The Texian Democrat, w. 

Jan. 20-June 26, 1844. 1 vol. 
National Intelligencer, w. 

Mar. 1-July 1, 1839. 1 vol. 
Houston Daily Post. dem. est. 1878. 

Jan. 1, 1898-Dec. 31. 1900. 9 vols. 
The Morning Star. d. 

Apr. 15-Apr. 19, 1839. 
Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register, w. 

May 2, 1837-Dec. 31, 1845. 1 vol. 

Dec. 19, 1838 Dec. 21, 1842. 1 vol. 

Mar. 15. 1847- Dec. 16. 1847. 1 vol. 
Jan. 13, 1848-Dec. 14, 1848. 1 vol. 

Jan. 25, 1849-Dec. 27, 1849. 1 vol. 

Jan. 17, 1850-Dec. 27, 1850. 1 vol. 

First published at Columbia, Tex. 

Continued as: 

The Weekly Telegraph. 

Jan. 2, lS58-Dec. 27, 1860. 3 vol. 
Tri- Weekly Telegraph. 

Aug. 28-Dec. 27, 1860. 


The Texas Banner, w. 

Apr. 14-Dec. 1, 1849. 1 vol. 
The Huntsville Item. w. 

Jan. 5- June 5, 1856. 1 vol. 


The State Patriot. 

Mar. 20-Oct. 23, 1852. 
Styled The Star State Patriot until 
March 20, 1852. 


Nacogdoches Chronicle, dem. est. 1851. w. 

Jan. 4, 1852-Oct. 17, 1854. 2 vols. 
Now styled News-Chronicle. 

36 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 


Trinity Advocate, dem. est. 1851. w. 

Apr. 22, 1857-Dec. 9, 1857 . 1 vol. 
Feb. 3, 1858-Dec. 15, 1858. 1 vol. 
Jan. 12, 1859-Dec. 12, 1860. 2 vols. 

The Pioneer, w. 

Oct. 31 and Nov. 7, 1849. 


The Western Star. w. 

June 29-Dec. 19, 1851. 1 vol. 


Rockdale Messenger, w. 

Aug. 26, 1897-Dec. 27, 1900. 


Rusk Pioneer, w. 

Apr. 4- Aug. 22, 1849. 1 vol- 

Cherokee Sentinel, w. 

Mav 24, 1856 -Dec. 20, 1856, 1 vol. 
Jan, 3, 17, 24, and Mar. 28, 1857. 

San Antonio. 

The Daily Express, ind. dem. est. 1865. 

Jan. 3, ]S67-Dec. 15, 1869. 2 vols. 

Jan. 1, 1870-Dec. 31, 1874. 6 vol?. 

July 1, 1875-Dec. 24, 1875. 1 vol. 

Jan. 1, 1898-Dec. 31, 1900. 6 vols. 

San Antonio Ledger, w. 

Aug. 12, 1852-Sept 21, 1 854* 3 vols. 
Jan 21, 1857-Nov. 26, 1857. 1vol. 
Jan. 2, 1858-Dec. 25, 185S. 1 vol. 
July 6, 1859- Aug. 24, 1859. 

Weekly Ledger and Texan. 

Sept. 10, lS59-Dec. 29, 1860. 2 vols. 

San Augustine. 

The Red-Lander, w. 

Jan. 14, 1847- Aug. 7. 1847, 
The Texas Union, w. 

Oct. 16. 1847-Dec. 4. 1847. 

Jan. 8, 1 SIS- Apr. 1, 1848. 

Texas Newspaper Files. .37 


The Texian Advocate, deui. est. 1846. w. 

Jan. 20, 1848-Dec. 5, 1850. 2 vols. 
Jan. 9, 1851-Nov. 8, 1851. 1 vol. 
Became Victoria Advocate. 


Texian and Brazos Farmer, w. 
Apr. 15, 1843. 



[The following lists are compiled from the original records in the 
Post Office Department at Washington, D. C. The names of the 
incumbents are given in chronological order, preceded by the date of 
first appointment, that is, by the Postmaster General, at which time 
they entered npon their duties, irrespective of the subsequent date of 

Montgomery, Montgomery Co., Ala. 

July 22, 1820.— John Falconer. 
Mav 27, 1834.— Neil Blue. 
July 9, 1836.— Neil Blue. 
July 2, 1840— Neil Blue. 
July 2, 1844.— Neil Blue. 
July 2, 1848.— Neil Blue. 
May 21, 1849.— Martin Pond. 
April 8, 1853.— Thomas Welch. 
Sept. 30, 1853.— Matthew P. Blue. 
Aug. 13, 1857.— Thomas Welch. 
July 21, 1865.— Wm. J. Bibh. 
April 5, 1869.— Jos. W. Dimmick. 
March 17, 1873.— Alexander P. Wilson. 
March 10, 1875.— John J. Martin. 
March 3, 1879.— Paul Strobach * 
March 17, 1879.— Israel W. Roberts. 
June 16, 1881.— C. W. Buckley. 
Jan. 12, 1886.— George C. Clisby. 
Jan. 16, 1890.— C. W. Buckley. 
May 23, 1893.— W. W. Screws. 
Nov. — , 1897.— C. W. Buckley. 
May 19, 1902.— C. W. Buckley. 

Pensacola, Escambia Co., Fla. 

Aug. 28, 1823.— Robert Mitchell. 
March 16, 1826 —William Hunt. 
Dec. 23, 1828.— Peter Tardiff. 
June 15, 1829. — John Fitzgerald. 
April 1, 1830.— John De LaRua 

*He was commissioned, but never served. 

Postmasters of Principal Towns in Gulf States. 39 

Nov. 24,1831.— Horace Higley. 

Dec. 19, 1831— Hanson Kelly. 

May 12, 1853.— Dillon Jordan. 

Jan. 21, 1861. — [Office discontinued.] 

May 30, 1861.*— Rufus Ingalls. 

Aug. 6, 1861.* — Isael (sic) Vogdes. 

June 9, 1832. — Sigrnund Loeb. 

May 27, 1865.— Theodore Bissell. 

April 16, 1869— Fred. K. C. Humphreys. 

June 15, 1871.— George E. Wentworth." 

March 22, 1873— John S. Adams. 

May 13, 1873.— George E. Wentworth. 

Jan. 30, 1874.— Zebulon Elijah. 

Feb. 14, 1878— William F. Lee. 

June 18, 1880.— George E. Y\ r entworth. 

Aug. 7. 1882— Fred. K. C. Humphreys. 

April 8, 1884. — John Eagan. 

July 28, 1885— Chandler C. Yonge, Jr. 

Aug. 29, 1889— Fred. K. C. Humphreys. 

Dec. 21, 1893.— William F. Lee. 

June 2, 1897.— Andrew J. Pollock. 

Jan. 10, 1899. — Rix M. Robinson. 

New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. 

Oct. 1, 1804.— Bloise Cenas. 
April 1, 1810.— Thos. B. Johnson. 
Nov. 5, 1824. — George Croghan. 
March 27, 1826.— Antoine Dupuy. 
April 23, 1829.— David C. Kerr. 
June 6, 1829.— William H. Kerr. 
July 27, 1839.— William McQueen. 
Sept. 9, 1840.— Gabriel Montamat. 
July 10, 1841 —William Debuys. 
April 18, 1843.— John B. Dawson. 
Dec. 19, 1843.— Alexander G. Penn. 
April 18, 1849.— Michael Musson. 
April 7, 1853.— William G. Kendall. 
April 14, 1855.— Robert W Adams. 
May 3, 1855.— Arthur S. Nevitt. 
March 23, 1857.— Robert E. McHatton. 
Feb. 10, 1858— -Samuel F. Marks. 
Aug. 16, 1860— John L. Riddell. 

'Called Fort Pickens on these dates. 

40 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Feb. 19, 1863.— John M. G. Parker. 
March 20, 1865.— Robert W. Taliaferro. 
July 30, 1868.— Walter M. Smallwood. 
April 5, 1869.— Chas. W. Lowell. 
March 1, 1873.— Chas. W- Ringgold. 
April 6, 1875.— John M. G. Parker. 
July 19, 1878. — Algernon Badger. 
Feb. 19, 1879.— William L. McMillen. 
March 2, 1883.— Washington B. Merchant. 
July 23, 1885.— Samuel H. Buck. 
May 19. 1887— George W. Nott. 
Aug. 13, 1890.— Stephen M. Eaton. 
May 9, 1894.— Frank A. Daniels. 
Sept. 17, 1898.— John R. G. Pitkin. 
Jan. 31, 1901.— Ferdinand B. Earhart. 
July 18, 1901.— David G. Baldwin. 

[to be continued.] 


By Thomas McAdory Owen. 

The name Lacey is not an uncommon one in the 
United States. So far as has been ascertained families 
of this name, however, have no common origin, but spring 
from different emigrant stocks. Some descend from a 
Huguenot ancestor early seated in Virginia; while others 
have a distinctively Celtic origin. Nothing is known of 
any European ancestors. 

I. Edward 1 Lacey emigrated from England, a farmer, 
and settled first on the Chesapeake bay. Later he took 
up his abode in Shippen township, Cumberland con nty, 
Pennsylvania. After his son's removal to South Carolina, 
he followed him and resided in Chester district, where 
presumably he lived until his death. Notwithstanding the 
active and unswerving loyalty of his son, Edward, he was 
an uncompromising Tory. The number of his children 
has not been learned, but the two following are definitely 
known: Children — 

II. 1. Edward 2 Lacey, m. Jane Harper. 

2. Reuben, 2 who was a Tory, but of whose descendants, if any, 
nothing is known. 

II. Col. Edward 2 Lacey (Edward 1 ), a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary War was born September, 1742, in Shippen 
township, Cumberland county, Fa. Stirred by a spirit 
of adventure and a childish infatuation for a military life, 
he ran away from home at thirteen years of age, and joined 
Gen. Braddock on his unfortunate campaign. In this he 
served as a pack-horse rider and driver, being too young 
to bear arms. His father found him, after two years, and 
brought him home. There he remained about a year and 
again ran away, accompanying William Adair (father of 
Governor Adair, of Kentucky) to Chester district, S. C. 
From him he received an excellent education. In 1766 he 
married Jane Harper, of Chester district, and settled on 
the headwaters of Sandy river, six miles west of Chester 

42 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

court house. The names of her parents have not been 

In 1776, when the Revolutionary War came on, he took 
sides with the Whigs, and during the whole coutest he 
did valiant and continuous service. The events of these 
years can only be briefly summarized. 

He served in Williamson's Cherokee campaign; and 
when the news of the Declaration of Independence reached 
them, he publicly read this patriotic document to the army. 
In 1780 he received his colonel's commission. He com- 
manded the force that defeated Huck, the British Captain. 
He was with Gen. Thomas Sumter at Rocky Mount, Hang- 
ing Rock, Carey's Fort and Fishing Creek. He was in 
the decisive battle of King's Mountain, and lost his horse 
in the action. He was with Sumter again at Fish Dam 
Ford and Blackstoeks; and still later at Orangeburg, Big- 
gin Church, Quimby Bridge, and Eutaw Springs. In 1782 
he was sent to Edisto Island, where he remained on duty 
until December of that year. Soon after the close of the 
war he was chosen brigadier-general, and was one of the 
first county court judges in Chester district. He was sent 
by this district to the Geueral Assembly of South Caro- 
lina, where he served until 1793, after which he declined 
all further honors. 

In October 1797, he resolved to remove to the West, and 
with all his children located in Montgomery county, Tenn., 
where he remained two years. He then permanently lo- 
cated in Livingston county, Ky., near the Ohio river. 
Here he soon became county judge, a post he filled with 
satisfaction. His death occurred in a singular manner. 
In crossing Deer creek, then flooded with backwater from 
the Ohio river, he was seized with catalepsy, and was 
drowned March 20, 1813. His wife survived him two 

In person Col. Lacey was of commanding form and as- 
pect. He was feet and eleven inches in height and 
weighed 170 pounds. His hair was black, his eyes dark, 
be had an unusually handsome face and was of strong 
native intellect. His Revolutionary War service has given 
him a niche in the temple of his country's fame, and left 
his descendants a goodly heritage a more precious than fine 
gold." ISTo likeness of him is known to be in existence.* 

♦For further particulars concerning him see Dr. M. A. Moore's Life 
of Gen. Edward Lacey (1850, Svo. pp. 32); or Dr. Lyman C. Draper's 
Kings Mountain and its Heroes, pp. 463-4. 

Colonel Edward Lacey and his Descendants, 43 

His children were born in South Carolina, four of them 
prior to the Revolutionary War. They all removed with 
their father to Kentucky, and all in 1816 came to Ala- 
bama. The order below is only approximate: 

1. William 3 Lacey, m. Mary Sandefur (sister of "William and 

Lowery Sandefur below). They came to Jefferson county, 
Ala., in 1S16. and here spent the remainder of a long life. 
They had a number of children, and among them James 4 P. 
Lacey, who married Ann Mclnnis (his third wife) and whose 
son, Dr. Edward 5 Pulaski Lacey, is a prominent physician 
and surgeon at Bessemer, Ala. There are other descendants in 
Jefferson and Shelby counties. 

2. Jane, 3 m. (1) Miles, had an only daughter 4 who m. the 

late Stephen P. Doss, of Pickens county. She m. (2) Andrew 
McCrary, by whom she had Zenas 4 McCrary. 

3. Joshua 5 , m. Rebecca EvanF, and removed to Jefferson county, 

Ala., where they lived and died. They had seven children, 
among them Harriet 4 , who m. Wm. McConaughay, of Mon- 
tevallo. There are other descendants in Jefferson and Shelby 

III. 4. Edward 3 , b. June 8, 1775, m. Margaret Conrad. 

5. James 3 , d. unm. while removing to Texas. 

6. Samuel 3 , m. . Died in Jefferson county prior to 1823. In 

the administration proceedings his children appear to be: 
i, Ferdinand 4 , ii. Nancy Louisa 4 , iii. Almarine 4 , and iv. 

IV. 7. Robert 3 , m. Nancy Love. 

8. Adelia 3 , b. 1792; d. June, 1862; m. William Sandefur, and 

lived in Jefferson county, where she has descendants. On 
her tombstone, in the old Martin cemetery, below Elyton, 
is this inscription: "Mrs. Adelia Sandefur, daughter of Col. 
Lacey, one of the heroes of King's Mountain." 

9. Annie 3 , m. Lowery Sandefur; removed to Jefferson county, 

thence to Pickens county, Ala.? and later to Holmes county, 
Miss., where they have descendants. 

10. Name unknown 3 . 

11. Died young 3 . 

III. Edward 3 Lacey (Col Edward\ JEdivard 1 ) was b. 
June 8. 1775, in Chester district, S. C; removed to Ken- 
tucky with his parents, thence in 1816 to Jefferson county, 
Ala. On the trip from Kentucky to Alabama, about six- 
teen families came out together, being six weeks on the 
journey. In January, 1834, he removed to Pickeus county, 
settling first between Carrollton and Pickensville; but 
later removing to the western part of the county, where 
Samuel Lacey now lives. As a farmer he was successful, 
as a citizen public spirited, as a master humane, and as a 
member of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church a faith- 
ful Christian. His wife was Margaret Conrad, of Ken- 
tucky. He died at the residence of his son, Samuel W. 
Lacey, on July 15, 1858. He and wife are buried at Pine 
Grove church, Pickens county. Children: 

44 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

1. Catherine* Lacey, b. Dec. 20, 1804, in Livingston connty, Ky. ; 

m . (I) Jacob Warren Brooks, — issue: only one child — Eliza 5 
Brooks, b. January 4, 1822, m. (1) Gershom Kelly; (2) Col. 
L. M. Stone, of Carrolltou. After the death of Mr. Brooks, 
his widow m.(2) Col. Thomas Williams, — issue: Gershom 5 
Kelly Williams, who m. Buena Vista Mustin, of Carrollcon. 

2. Jane Harper*, m. September. 13, 1825, in Jefferson county, 

Washington G. L. Morris; removed to Texas, and both died; 
descendants in Dallas and Hills boro. Texas. 

3. Melissa*, b. 1810; d. July 7, 1879, in May-field, Ky. ; m. (1) John 

F. Nabers, a prominent citizen of Pickens county, and had i. 
Fannie, 5 m.Z Wm. Travis; ii. Jack 5 , d. unm. in the war 
between the States; iii. Edward 5 , killel at the University of 
Alabama; iv. Melissa 5 , m. Robert T. Johnston, Jr., and went 
to Mayfield, Ky. After Mr. Nabers' death she married (2) 
William Dunham, a Carrollton merchant— no issue. 

4. Zanetta*, m. Lewis Greene; lived near Columbus, Miss. 

5. Mary*, m , Thomas Lewis; lived in Monroe county, Miss ; 


6. Samuel W*, m. (1) Rebecca Taggart; (2) Sarah ; (3) Ada- 

lineEddins He lived at bis father's old place, and his son, 
Samuel 5 Lacey, by the first wife, now lives there. 

7. EdwardS d. unm. at Vicksburg, Miss. , a prisoner of war. 

IV. Robert 3 Lacey (Col. Edward 2 , Edward 1 ) went to 
Kentucky with his parents, thence in the fall of 1816 to 
Jefferson county, where, in the early years of the county, he 
was one of the Justices of the Quorum. Later he removed 
to Pickens county, his home being on the Carrollton and 
Columbus road, near the State line. He was a substantial 
farmer and a slave owner. His wife was Nancy Love. 
Both are buried at Zion churchyard on the above named 
road. Children: 

1. Franklin* Lacey, m. Nancy Nash; several children; went to 


2. Eliza*, Thomas Lewis: no issue. He m. (2) her cousin, Mary, 

daughter of Major Edward Lacey. 

3. James 4 , m. Sophia Davis, in Pickens county; several children; 

removed to Sunflower county, Miss. 

4. Mary 4 , m. O'Neal-, no issue; lived in Pickensville, Ala. 

He m. a 2d time. 


1. William R. King on Sectional Issues. 

But few papers or letters of William R. King, probably the most 
honored of Alabama public men, are known to survive. This letter, 
therefore, has a value apart from its interesting observations on the 
condition of the public mind on sectional questions, North and South, 
in 1850. His correspondent, Dr. Neal Smith, of Clarke county, Ala , 
was a man of local prominence. The original of this letter is in the 
private collection of the editor . 

Washington City 
June 13, 1850 
Dear Sir: 

The enclosed communication from the Comm of 
the Genl Land office furnishes the information you desired 
to obtain, by your letter of the 29, May. From our long 
acquaintance you ought to be aware that no appology (sic) 
was necessary when you desired me to attend to any busi- 
ness in which you feel an interest. Congress is doing 
nothing so far as the ordinary business of legislation is 
concerned; nor is there any probability that much if any 
legislation takes place untiil (sic) some disposition is made 
of the Slavery question — which from present appearances 
will scarcely be effected at this Session. The fanaticism 
of the North was never more rabid and I am constrained 
to eay there is too much ultraism at the South — so that 
the moderate conservative men both Korth and South, 
will I iear be in a lean minority, on any reasonable plan 
of adjustment. Where it will end God only knows; but I 
must confess I tremble for the permanency of the Union. 
For unless some settlement can be effected at this Session, 
I doubt whether it ever will be, as the excitement will be- 
come greater and greater; and the feelings of sectional 
hostility will go on increasing untiil (sic) nothing short of 
divine interposition can prevent a dissolution of the Union. 
God grant that we may escape with safety from such 
threatening dangers. 

Respectfully I am 
your obt Sert 
Boer Neal Smith. William R. King. 

Endorsement: Letter sent to | Wm. R. King his answer | and papers 
left with | James Magoffin. | 

46 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

II. Military Governor of Florida. 

Gen. Jackson's letter here given throcvs interesting light on his se- 
lection as Military Governor of Florida. His acceptance and the 
conduct of the office by him are well known. Mr. Miller was the son- 
in-law of Gov. William Blount. He is the grandfather of the Hon. 
W. D. Stevens, of Los Angeles, Cal.,' through whose courtesy the let- 
ter is presented. See Partoa's Life of Andrew Jackson (1861), vol. ii, 
pp. 582-639. 

Nashville March 31st 1821 
Dr Sir 

I have the pleasure to acknowledge your letter of the 
16th Instant — it reached me by due course of mail, but 
being crowded with communications of an official kind, 
has delayed an answer untill now — it is probable reports 
may be true but of them I am not as yet officially notified 
tbat I am to be the Governor of Florida, it had been 
offered me & I had declined, about the time the ratified 
Treaty reached the city, I reed, a letter from Mr Monroe 
requesting that I should reconsider my determination, and 
was by the same mail addressed by many of my friends in 
and out of Congress on this subject to whom I said I would 
accept it untill the government was organized and in full 
operation with an understanding that I should resign, 
whenever thereafter my inclination might induce me- It 
is therefore probable that the rumor maybe reallised (sic). 
Should this be the case it will afford me pleasure to see 
you in Pensacola, but it would be still a greater gratification 
to me to have the pleasure of your company to that coun- 
try- I shall if at all set out for that country about the 
12th or 15th of next month — and will be happy to hear 
from you on the receipt of this- Should business lead 
you to that country, you can calculate with certainty on 
any services I can render you, or should I be able to ren- 
der you any services here, if you would suggest it, it will 
afford me pleasure- 

I wrote Mr McConny (sic) some time since on some 
business, should you see him I would thank you to say to 
him I would be happy to hear from hirn before I set out— 

Mrs. J. Joins me in good wishes for you & the happi- 
ness of your family & believe me to be with due regard 

Yrs &o &c 

Andrew Jackson 
P. M. Miller Esqr 

Address: P. M. Miller Esqr | Knoxville j Tennessee j [Left corner] 
Mail ! 

Documents. 47 

III. McGillivray Documents. 

The following documents, not heretofore published, will doubtless 
be read with interest. Alexander McGillivray is called by A. J. 
Pickett, the Alabama historian, the "Talleyrand of Alabama," and he 
further says that he "wielded a pen which commanded the admiration 
and respect of Washington and his Cabinet, and which influenced the 
policy of all Spanish Florida." He was born in 1746 at Little Talla- 
se, four miles above the site of the present Wetumpka, Ala. His 
father was a Scotch trader, Lachlan McGillivray, and his mother, 
Sehoy Marchand, of the Wind family of the Creeks. It was while on 
a visit to New York city in 1790 that McGillivray concluded a treaty 
betweeD the Creek nation of Indians and the United States, the latter 
represented by Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War. The oath fol- 
lowed the treaty. The "minutes" as to the history of the Creeks were 
taken at the same time . The appointment as brigadier- general was 
made by a contemporaneous treaty, the execution of which was secret. 
Pickett further says: "When a British Colonel, he dressed in the 
British uniform, and when in the Spanish service, he wore the mili- 
tary dress of that country. When Washington appointed him Briga- 
dier-General, he sometimes wore the uniform of the American army, 
but never when in the presence of the Spaniards. His usual dress 
was a mixture of the Indian and American garb . " He died on Feb- 
ruary 17, r<93, in Pensacola, and was interred with "Masonic honors 
in the splendid garden of William Panton,"the great Scotch merchant 
of that city. His remains have since been removed to Scotland, 
probably by his father, who was living in Dunmaglass at the time of 
the eon's death . See Owen's edition of Pickett's History of Alabama 
(1900), pp. 403-407; and Col. Marinus Willett's Narrative (1831.) 


[From the Knox MSS., Vol. xxvi:fol. i4-5, in the Library of the New- 
England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, Mass.] 

I Alexander McGillivray, Agent to the Creek nation of 
Indians, and Brigadier General in the Service of the 
United States do solemnly swear to bear true allegiance to 
the said United States of America, And to serve them 
honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or op- 
posers whomsoever, and to observe and obey the orders of 
the President of the United States of America, and the 
orders of the officers appointed over me. according to the 
articles of war, and the true intent and meaning of the 
secret articles^of the treaty of peace^made and concluded 

48 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

between the United States of America and the Greek 
nation of Indians, on the Seventh day of the Present 
month of August. 

Sworn before me in the City of New York, 
this Fourteenth day of August in the year 
of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred 
and Ninety. 

In the presence of an associate judge of the 

H. KNOX, Secy of War supreme court of the 

JN° STAGG Junr, chief elk United States. 
War office 


[From tlie Knox 3£SS., Vol. xxvi: fol: 165.] 

Tradition says the Muscoghies came from the North 
West. The first traders have called them creeks from the 
multitude of little rivulets abounding in the Country. 

Near the Muscoghies, lived the Alabamas with them 
there was a difference. The latter being the weakest, were 
compelled to remove with all their families. This was not 
perceived by the Muscoghies untill some time afterward, 
who collected their warriors in considerable number, and 
pursued the Alabamas, until they found they had gone over 
the waters forming the Alabama branch of the Mobile 

The Muscoghies, after having descended the river a con- 
siderable distance found the Country climate and the 
Country better than their own, and being too few to attack 
the whole nation of Alabamas, they returned. The report 
they gave of the goodness of the country lying the Cousa 
was such, that the whole body of the Muscoghies deter- 
mined to remove thither — which was accordingly done. 

Upon their approach to the Alabamas they were met by 
a deputation from that nation deprecating their resent- 
ments. This the Muscoghies offered to grant on the con- 
dition that such of their worst enemies should be deliv- 
ered up. On this report being made to the Alabamas, the 
persons endangered by the condition of the Muscoghies, 

Documents. 49 

fled part of them, to the Choctaws, who had recently come 
into the country to the westward, and part of them Taen- 
sahs, a numerous nation seated about 180 miles lower 
down on the Alabama river. 

The Muscoghies demanded of the Taensahs such of the 
Alabamas as had taken refuge in their nation. On being re- 
fused a war ensued, in which the Taensahs were worsted 
and greatly reduced in number. About this time also the 
french arrived (the year )> and infected the Taensahs 

with the small pox which with the wars wasted them 
almost to nothing. The few who remained were carried 
away by the french. 

Soon after the Taensahs were reduced, the Cusetahs and 
Cowetas, seperated from the rest of the nation and estab- 
lished themselves on the Oakmulgee, where they remained 
until the wars with the Carolinians who by use of their 
fire arms compelled them to retire to Chatahouce river, 
on which they have ever since remained. This must have 
been in the year 1715. 

The Ohehaws joined the others upon the Chatahouce, 
as did another tribe from the north, not originally of the 
Muscoghies, called the Nichatas. 

jSTot loner after the destruction of the Taensahs and the 
settlement of the Mobile, the french made successful over- 
tures to the Muscoghies and made treates of friendship 
with them, and under the idea of trade obtained permis- 
sion to build the fort in the forks of the Cousa and Tala- 
pousa. This and other politic measures gave the french 
the entire ascendency of the Muscoghies which was main- 
tained untill after the arrival ot the English in Georgia 
when Gen. Oglethorpe by judicious measures contrived 
to attach the Cusetahs and Cowetas and all the lower 
creeks to the English. These treaties are still in the pos- 
session of the Gen. McGillivray. 

In the war which ensued between the Spaniards and 
English in Georgia, the lower Creeks sided with and ren- 
dered essential services to the latter. The upper Creeks 
being under the influence of the french remained quiet. 

Previously to the arrival of the English in Georgia, the 
lower Creeks had had frequent wars with the Appalachican 
or florida Indians, who inhabit the country from the flint 
river to the St John's River in Florida, and had greatly 
reduced them. 

50 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

During this period, the Upper Creeks were frequently 
engaged in war with the Choctaws and Cheehas and were 
frequently attacked as well as the lower Creeks by 
the Crokees (sic), and other northern Indians, the 
Shawanese, the Kickapooes, & the tribe of one Town 
only— the Tallisees. 

The Oakfuskies were fully represented but the white 
Lieutenant who was first there went off before the papers 
were signed — but there were common Indians from three 
other Towns without any authority. 

[The manuscript here ends abruptly.] 




Modest as this book appears it is of great value for those 
interested in the early settlement of the Middle States, 
and its references to various subjects connected with the In- 
dian wars, and to early source material give it a more than 
local importance. 

After the general history of the first settlement it gives 
a full description of the physical conditions, with woodcut 
of the principal features and excellent flora, and an ac- 
count of the manners and customs. In the appendix a 
short list of fauna, and strangely enough, in the chapter 
on Indian wars, there is an extended notice of the docu- 
ments in Paris bearing on the French settlement of Louisi- 
ana, which while it agrees to some extent with the list made 
by Mr. Forstall, and published in French and De Bow's Re- 
view, must have been compiled by independent research, 
since it differs very much in the order in which they are 
mentioned. The list is, however, full of mistakes in spell- 
ing. Kerlerec is spelled Keleric; Iberville is spelled with 
two bs, but that is not unusual. He speaks of the valua 
ble documents in the Marine Department of England, and 
in the public libraries of Portugal, Spain, Vienna and 
Rome. The suggestion of Portugal and Vienna as possi- 
ble hunting places for Americana deserves attention for 
the date of this book. This summary of the literature re- 
lating to the discovery and settlement of the new world 
deserves the highest praise. 

On page 191 there is a very interesting paragraph on 
Indian roads. Full details are given of the bravery of 
some of the inhabitants of the county, especially of that 
of Robert and Daniel Evans, who after distinguishing 

♦Bickley, G. W. L. History of the Settlement and Indian Wars of 
Tazewell County, Virginia. Cincinnati, 1352. 8 vo. pp. 2(57. Frontis- 
piece, wood cut of Jeffersonville; and at page 42, map of Tazewell 

52 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

themselves in many an Indian fight, with their brother 
John joined the army of General Jackson, and figured 
conspicuously at the battle of Xew Orleans. In 1817 
Robert died leaving four children. These Gen. Jackson 
oftered to educate, but Daniel, who had become rich, would 
not allow himself to be Outdone by a stranger, and accord- 
ingly he took charge of them himself. There is a full 
account of the struggles of the Moore family with the 
Indians, and of their massacre and captivity. 

William Beer. 
Howard Memorial Library, 
New Orleans, La. 


There is a ten-volume publication entitled, "The Colon- 
ial Records of North Carolina," edited by the late Hon. 
William L. Saunders, LLJD., and containing in the ninth 
and tenth volumes much material bearing on the beginning 
of the Revolutionary War in North Carolina This series 
ends with the year 1776. After the death of Mr. Saunders, 
the State uudertook a continuation of his work, under the 
editorial supervision of Hod. Waiter Clark, LL. D., which 
is entitled, "The State Records of North Carolina", and 
beginning with Vol. XI (Vol. XI to follow Vol. X, Saun- 
ders publication.) In Vol. XVI of the State Records 
there is an alphabetically arranged Roster of Continental 
soldiers of North Carolina (regulars, not militia.) These 
volumes are filled with information bearing on the Revo- 
lution, and an index will soon be issued, prepared by the 
careful bibliographer and scholar, Dr. Stephen B. Weeks. 

Another publication of great value to North Carolina 
(and, in fact, to all the States) is the Pension Roll pub- 
lished by the United States Government in 1833-35 
("Senate Documents, 1st session 23rd Congress," Vols. 12, 
13, 14.) The North Carolina roll is in the beginning of 
the 14th volume, and arranged by counties. In consulting 
this, it should be borne in mind that there are three alpha- 
betical arrangements, L e., first a list of counties with their 
pensioners is given; then two more lists are given imme- 
diately thereafter. A few of the pensioners are on the 
list for services rendered in the army after the revolution — 
War of 1812, etc. When a soldier's name is given on any 

Minor Toptcs. 53 

of these lists, the Commissioner of Pensions, in Washing- 
ton, will, upon application, furnish an abstract of his ser- 
vices free of cost, though it usually takes more than a 
month to get a reply. 

Shortly after the Revolution, a Board of Commissioners 
was appointed by North Carolina to settle the claims of 
Continental (Regular) soldiers. They printed a list of the 
ones whose claims were allowed, but this publication is ex- 
tremely scarce, only one or two copies being known to be 
in existence. It will, however, be republished in the State 
Records. In the State Auditor's. Office there are a few 
manuscript rolls, which will probably be published also. 

Two officers of the United States Army, Major Charles 
L.Davis and Captain Henry Hobart Bellas, have published a 
History of the North Carolina Continental Line and So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati. This work (which appeared 
in 1896) contains a list of officers of the regular Conti- 
nental Line, but the names of no privates are given. 

Of course there are a good many works of an historical 
nature treating of the Revolution in North Carolina, but 
the above are the most suitable for general research. 

Marshall DeLancey Haywood. 

North Carolina State Library, Raleigh. 


"Bvlbancha," the Choctaw name for the town of New 
Orleans, is a word that is worn down from "Bvlbaha ash a," 
"Bvlbahasha," "Bvlbancha," and means Babbling is there, 
i. e., a place of foreign or unintelligible talk. ". Bvlbaha," 
"to babble," u to speak a foreign language," "asha," "is 
there." "Hoshi bvlbaha," mocking bird, literally babbling 
bird. While Bvlbancha is perfectly appropriate as the 
name of modern New Orleans, on account of its various 
languages, still as a local name, it is doubtless very ancient, 
ante-dating by an unknown number of years — it may be 
centuries — the founding of New Orleans. The name first 
occurs, I think, in the rsport of Iberville, and is written 

*The letter ' V in the word Bvlbancha, is used for the twenty-sec- 
ond letter of the Choctaw alphabet. It has the sound of a in vial, but 
to some ears the sound of u in tub. The italicized a is used to represent 
the Choctaw nasal vowel a. 

54 i The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

"Malbanchia," the b and m being used interchangeably. 
There can be no doubt as to the antiquity of the name 
"Bvlbancha," and it was unquestionably given by Choc- 
taw speaking people to the lower Mississippi, or New 
Orleans region, on account of the different languages 
spoken there. Through all the changes of governments, 
races and languages, the name still lives in every day use 
by the Choctaw people as the aboriginal name of New 

Henry S. Halbert. 
Meridian, Miss. 


The library of President Andrew Johnson remains 
largely as its original owner left it when he died twenty- 
seven years ago, and it is now the property of Hon. A. J. 
Patterson, a grandson, who occupies the old Johnson 
home at Greenville, Tenn. The walls of the room set 
apart for his library are lined from floor to ceiling with 
books covering every subject treated in literature, many 
of them presenting on their fly leaves the autographs of 
the authors, with "best wishes for his excellency. " 

In this room is an old table, rudely constructed, but 
priceless now, which was the tailor's bench on which 
through a quarter of a century a future president did the 
work of his trade. Referring to his life in the tailor shop, 
Andrew Johnson often boasted that "his coats always fit 
and his seams never ripped." Ranging across this table 
now in formidable array are many huge bound volumes of 
the leading political journals covering the period of Mr. 
Johnson's presidency, and able to answer the ever-ready 
question: "What did men think of his administration?" 
As a fitting supplement to these, there is a series of ten 
great scrap books filled with clippings, topically arranged, 
from the American and English press covering those four 
history-making years. Whatever men said through the 
printed page of Andrew Johnson and his political policies 
is here faithfully recorded, like the records of the deeds of 
men in the Word of God— the good and the bad alike. 
Here on one page is a press dispatch to the effect that on 
the 15th of May, 1868, the general conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church sitting in Chicago set apart 

Minor Topics. 55 

and observed an hour of prayer to invoke the blessing of 
Almighty God upon the senate of the United States as 
they were about to vote upon the question of the presi- 
dent's impeachment. 

But the chief interest of the student centers in the great 
wooden chests in which are packed the correspondence of 
the white house from 1865 to 1869. Day after day the 
president's private secretary took from his desk letters 
and documents marked '-attended to" and filed them for 
future reference. 

Here they are now ranging in importance from the plea 
of a soldier's widow to the report of a provisional governor 
of one of the states of the south. 

Petitions of citizens with thousands of signatures asking 
for the restoration of the Southern States and others 
equally long purporting to have been signed by Southern 
negroes praying for a voice in the government ot these 
states when they should be restored, are among the many 
interesting documents hereto be found. Here is the orig- 
inal Grant-Johnson correspondence which involved the 
veracity of a lieutenant-general or a president, the 
agitation caused by which hastened the impeachment 
trial. A package of letters marked "AJta Vela" tells the 
story of why Judge Black withdrew from the impeachment 
case as one of the counsel for the president and set all 
Washington agog with the belief that the president was 
doomed to deleat. The historic value of this mass of pri- 
vate letters and papers is apparent to all; for in days to 
come many questions of interest to the historian can be 
answered only by them. Presideut Johnson spent much 
time after his retirement from the presidency among these 
books and papers, liviug over again the life of the other 
days and classifying this data that future generations, 
more appreciative always than the present, might have the 
truth of history. 

Recently a civil suit has been instituted in the courts of 
Greenville styled: "Martha Landstreet, by next friend, v. 
A. J. Patterson et al.," in which the plaintiff, who is a 
great-granddaughter of President Johnson, seeks to re- 
cover his library, the old homestead and the tailor 
shop.— .77ie Sunny South, Atlanta, Ga., May 17, 1902. 



[This Department is intended for practical purposes. General invitation is ex- 
tended all renders to use it. CommuDications in reply to queries, or on other subjects, 
should be addressed to the Editor. No answers to queries will be given by private 

Ensign Isaac W. Davis.— Was ensign Davis, mentioned by Clai- 
borne, Mississippi, p. 323, as commanding at Hanson's Mill (South Ala- 
bama), related to Jefferson Davis? He was one of the Mississippi vol- 
unteers in the Creek war of 1812. See also, Claiborne, p. 320, note. 

Tempey Ellis. — In Pickett's Alabama, vol. ii, pp. 128-9, there is 
an account of the capture and ransom of a little girl of this name. 
Mr. Pickett says he talked with her long afterwards as Mrs. Thomas 
Frizell. Facts relative to her capture and later life are desired. 

First Newspaper Published in Alabama.— Messrs. Samuel 

Miller and Hood, from Georgia, on May 23, 1811, issued the Mobile 

Centinel, the first number of the first newspaper ever printed in what 

is now Alabama. Can any one give sketches of these printers, and 

of their descendants? What copies, if any, of this paper are extant, 

other than those named in Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, pp. 349-350? 


Fenner. — Lieut. Richard Fenner, Ma j. Robert Fenner, andMaj. 
Wm. Fenner were all officers of the North Carolina Continental line 
in the Revolutionary War, and the two former were original members 
of the North Carolina Society of the Cincinnati . It is understood 
that the St. Richard, and the son of Maj. Robert, also named Robert, 
moved to Tennessee, whence the family moved to Courtland, Ala., 
about 1825. In the interest of the Society of the Cincinnati, informa- 
tion is earnestly desired a3 to descendants m Alabama. 

Judge Elihu Hall Bay.— One of the officials of Pensacola, 
West Florida, during the Revolutionary War, was Elihu Hall Bay. 
He was a friend of Gov. Peter Chester, and was presented by the lat- 
ter "with two silver waiters for services rendered to him." What 
particular office did he hold, and what services are referred to? Can 
any one tell the whereabouts of any of his papers which would throw 
light on his West Florida residence? In O'Neall's Bench and Bar of 
South Carolina, vol. i, p. 53, is to be found a general sketch of him, 
but more detail is desired. 

Picture of William Weatherford.— In Shinn's History of the 
American People (1899), p. 263, there is a likeness of William Weather- 

Notes and Queries. 57 

ford, the Creek Indian warrior, after an old steel engraving published 
in 1859, by Virtue, Emmins & Co., of New York. The engraving is 
entitled an "Interview between General Jackson and Weatherford," 
and is from a painting by J. R. Chapin. Can any one give a history 
of the painting and tell who has it? Jt is evidently an idealization. 
If this is a real likeness of Weatherford, it is so far the onl/ one dis- 
covered or known . 

Oil Painting of Alexander McGillivray.-- -Dr. Wm. S. 
Wyman, of Tuscaloosa, states that he has seen mention of the exist- 
ence of an oil painting of the great Indian Chief, Alexander McGil- 
livray, somewhere in the city of New York. The reference has es- 
caped him. The existence of such a picture is of much interest to 
Gulf States' students, and if any fact can be developed in relation to 
the subject, they will be eagerly welcomed. Letters, documents and 
papers bearing on his career are also desired. See copy of his Oath 
and Notes on the Southern Indians, supra. 

History of an Old Hunting Rifle Desired.— Mr. Reuben 
A. Mitchell, of Alabama City, has a fine old hunting rifle, such as was 
in use about one hundred years ago. The stock is of curled maple, 
reaching the full length of the barrel, and is beautifully mounted, 
with inlaid silver ornamentation. The following is an exact copy of 
the legend on the lid of the tallow-box: 

"Presented by J. Madison, President of the U. S., to WHALE, 
the reward of Signal Valor and Heroism at the Battle of the 
Horse -:- Shoe. 
"March, 1814." 
A history of the donation, as well as some particulars concerning 
the recipient, are greatly desired. 

W. H. Blake. 

Flag of the 28th Alabama Regiment.— The flag of the 28th 
Alabama Regiment of Infantry, C. S. A., is in the National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. It is catalogued as No. 123,509. It was captured 
at Orchard Knob by Hazen's command, and was deposited in its pres- 
ent location by John McL. Hazen. 

Lewis. — Information is desired as to the remote ancestry of Dr. 
Paul Hamilton Lewis, a native of S. C, who was one of the distin- 
guished physicians of South Alabama prior to the late War. His wife 
was a daughter of Hon. Eli Shortridge, of Talladega. 



Monument to the Confederate Dead op Florida and 
Tennessee. — On Confederate Memorial Day was unveiled monu- 
ments to the Confederate dead from Florida and Tennessee, buried in 
Stonewall Cemetery, Winchester, Va. The attendance was estimated 
at 12,000. There was a parade of the Veterans, Daughters of the Con- 
federacy, and the firemen. At the cemetery Maj. Albert Akers, of 
Washington, D. 0., formerly of Tennessee, was orator. A speech was 
also made by Maj. S. J. C. Moore, of Berryville. Va. The two monu- 
ments, located near each other, were unveiled simultaneously, the 
cord to the Tennessee memorial being drawn by little Miss Gertrude 
Barton, daughter of Mayor Barton, while Miss Isabel Daniels per- 
formed the similar office for the Florida monument. 

Cherokee Advocate Suspended.— The Cherokee Advocate pub- 
lished by the Cherokee Nation of Indians, at Tahlequah, Indian Ter- 
ritory, has suspended publication. The Advocate was established in 
1856 as a national organ for the Indians. It was printed in Cherokee 
and English and was the only paper in America printed in an Indian 
language. Before Oklahoma was opened to the white settlers in 1898 
it had a large circulation in the Indian Territory, but the rapid growth 
of civilization on the Indian lands and the lapsing into desuetude of 
the Indian tongues undermined and finally destroyed the Indian news- 
paper's caase for existence. William T. Leoser, of Tahlequah, was 
the editor. 

Monument to Dorothea Lynde Dix.— The Library Committee of 
the Senate has reported favorably on a joint resolution for the erection 
of a monument to Dorothea Lynde Dix at Hampden, Me. (1902; 8 vo. 
pp. 6) It is to be hoped that the subject will not rest here, but will 
be pushed to a successful issue. The labors of this noble woman are 
known to the ends of the earth. The value of her work in the move- 
ment for State support and care for the insane and feeble minded can 
never be estimated. 

Proposed Tennessee Valley Historical Society.— A call 
has been signed, and very generally circulated, extending "an 
invitation to all persons interested in historical work and enterprise" 
to attend a meeting, Wednesday, Aug. 27, 1902, in the city of Hunts- 
ville, Madison county, Alabama, for the purpose of organizing a soci- 
ety for the particular study and preservation of the history and anti- 
quities of the Tennessee Valley. The call is signed by William Rich- 

Historical News. 59 

ardson, John L. Burnett, R. Barnwell Rhett, Richard W. Walker, 
Thomas R. Roulhac, Wm. L. Clay, W. I. Bullock, Wm. T. Sanders, 
Edward C. Crow, D. Isbell, Warwick H. Payne, William B. Bank- 
head, Oliver D. Street, and Thomas M. Owen. 

Davis Memorial Arch. — The board of directors of the Davis 
Monument Association has decided to erect a Memorial Arch in he nor 
of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, 
to be located in Monroe Park, Richmond, Va., probably on the site of 
the corner stone laid some years ago for the Davis monument. It will 
probably be two years bsfore work is actually begun. 

The -design selected for the arch is of a Corinthian style of Archr 
tecture, and is to be constructed of the finest Southern granite, and 
will have a stairway in the interior leading to the top. In the span- 
drels, two on each side of the arch, will be placed four bas-reliefs rep- 
resenting Glory, Truth, Justice and Valor. The thirteen seals in the 
attic represent the Confederate States. Tributes to Jefferson Davis 
selected by the committee, will be placed upon the five low relief 
panels and upon the two panels in ths archway. The completed arch 
will be sixty-five feet high and seventy feet wide, with a breadth of 
twenty-four feet, the archway being twenty-five feet wide and forty 
feet high in the clear. The intended ornamentation has not been fully 
expressed in the design submitted, the smaller details being too diffi- 
cult to express in such a small space. This design was the work of 
Mr. Lewis Albert Gudebrod. 

Vicksburg National Military Park. —Progress in the devel- 
opment of this park has been slow. For more than a year work has 
been retarded by the Secretary of War, but his objections have been 
removed and it is now advancing. The necessary lands, twelve hun- 
dred and thirty-two acres, have been acquired, a survey made, and a 
map completed. The avenues and roadways will soon be opened up. 
The President. Gen Stephen D. Lee, is very active, and has done much 
to stimulate an interest in the histori :al features of the campaign s 
which made Vicksburg famous. The secretary and historian of the 
commission, Mr. John S. Kountz, more than a year ago prepared a 
Record of the Organizations engaged in the Campaign, Siege, and Defense 
of Vicksburg (8 vo. pp. 72, Map. ) 

Statues of Count Pulaski, Baron Steuben, and Baron 
DeKalb Proposed.— The Committee on Library of the National 
House of Representatives have made a favorable report on a bill to 
erect statues to cost $50,000 each, of Gen. Count Casimir Pulaski, the 
Poliah patriot of the Revolutionary War, and known as the father of 
the American cavalry, and of Baron Steuben . The same committee 
has before it a bill looking to the erection of a statue of Baron DeKalb. 
These statues are to be placed in LaFayette Square, in Washington 
City. Statues of LaFayette and Rochambeau are already in this park, 

60 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

and if provision is made for the others, the result will be to make this 
beautiful reservation a centre for the statues of distinguished foreign- 
ers who have drawn swords in the cause of America 

Death of Lester G. Bugbee.— The death of Professor Lester G. 
Bugbee, March 17, 190?, is a great and deplorable loss to Texas. He 
was one of the younger generation, whose life and labors in the cause 
of history have done so much to give impetus to its development. His 
life work is thus summarized (pp. 357-S) in the Quarterly of the Texas 
Historical Association for April, 1902: Fellow in history, University 
of Texas, 1892-1S93; tutor in history, 1895-1896; instruct 3r in history, 
1896-1900; adjunct professor of history, 1900-1902, and corresponding 
secretary and treasurer of the Texas Historical Association, 1S97-1W01. 
"The Association especially owes Professor Bugbee a great debt for his 
effective efforts in enlarging its membership, building up its revenues, 
and keeping its finances in order. Professor Bugbee had proved himself 
a skillful investigator, and an able writer. Pie had done much valuable 
work in Texas history, and his career was full of promise till disease 
began to paralyze his energies. His race was short, but he bore well 
the uplifted torch, and he has not run in vain." 

Louisiana at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 
1904. — The mes^ge of Gov. W. W, Heard, of Louisiana, to the Leg- 
islature of that State, May 12, 1902, contains the following interesting 
recommendation : 

This Exposition is to be held upon a scale of magnificence commen- 
surate with the striking event which it is designated to fittingly com- 
memorate — an event by which a veritable empire in extent of territory 
aad boundless wealth, resources and possibilities, was ceded by France 
to the United States. 

The act of cession was consummated at the city of New Orleans, on 
December 20, 1803, and the relationship of our State with the event, 
its fruits and the influence it has exercised over this country and the 
world, makes it incumbent upon us that our State be represented at 
this great exposition in a manner becoming her dignity, her proud his- 
tory and fame, her origin and traditions, and the high rank which she 
is justly entitled to occupy in the galaxy of American commonwealths. 
It has seemed to me most appropriate that Louisiana should contribute 
to the success and brilliancy of this exposition by a facsimile of the 
historic structure wherein the act of cession was consummated. This 
memento of colonial glory and architecture is known as "The Ca- 
bildo." It overlooks the square in the center of which stands the 
equestrian statue of General Andrew Jackson, the hero of the great 
victory of New Orleans. For a long series of years this noble edifice 
has served for the sessions of the State Supreme Court, and few visit- 
ors to our metropolis fail to inspect it. Estimates of the cost to repro- 
duce this edifice at St. Lous have been furnished to me, and I think it 
is within the ability of the State to make provision for its erection, 

Historical News. 61 

and, in addition, provide amply for the exhibits which it should 
make at the exposition. One hundred thousand dollars will suffice for 
all purposes, and I recommend that this amount be appropriated. 

While the act of the cession of Louisiana to the United States is to 
be grandly commemorated by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at 
St. Louis, yet it is urged by many patriotic citizens that the centen- 
nial of this great event should be fittingly celebrated at the very place 
where it wa3 effected. Requests from various representative sources 
have been made to me to bring this subject to your attention, and in 
doing so I deem it not inappropriate to observe that I share in the sen- 
timent which has prompted them. I take pleasure, therefore, in sub- 
mitting this commendable suggestion to your consideration. 

Statue of Rochambeau.— On Saturday, May 24, 1902,. in Lafay- 
ette Square, in the City of Washington, was unveiled a superb bronze 
statue of General Count de Rochambeau. A number of representa- 
tives of the French Government were present. Members of his family 
were also 'n attendance. Addresses were made by General Brugere, 
President Theodore Roosevelt, and General Horace Porter, U. S. Am- 
bassador to France. The orator of the day was Senator Henry Cabot 
Lodge, who said, in concluding his address: 

"We unveil this statue in honor of a brave soldier who fought by 
the side of Washington. We place it here to keep his memory fresh 
in remembrance and as a monument of our gratitude to France. But 
let us not forget that we also commemorate here the men who first 
led in arms the democratic movement which during a century of con 
fiict 'has advanced the cause of freedom and popular government 
throughout the world of Western civilization." 

Proposed Monument to Soldiers Who Fell at Emtjckfau 
in the Creek War, 1814. — A bill has been introduced in the United 
States House of Representatives by Charles W. Thompson, Repre- 
sentative from the Fifth Congressional District of Alabama, to appro- 
priate twenty five hundred dollars "for the erection of an appropriate 
monument on the battle ground 'Emuckfau,' in the county of Talla- 
poosa and State of Alabama, to mark the resting place and to com- 
memorate the valor of the volunteer soldiers in the Creek Indian War 
who fought under General Jackson, and fell and are buried on said 
battlefield, on the 21st day of January, 1814." The monument is to be 
erected as speedily as possible, "according to plans and specifications 
furnished by and under the supervision of the Secretary of War." 
The battle grouud is near Emuckfau creek, from which it takes its 
name, in the northern part of Tallapoosa county. In the engagement 
Gen. John Coffee was especially conspicuous for gallantry, and was 
one of the wounded. The loss of the whites was about thirty killed 
and seventy wounded. It is proper to add here that the date of the 
battle as recited in the bill is an error. The engagement took place 
at six o'clock on the morning of January 22d. It is to be hoped that 
favorable action will be taken by Congress. 

62 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Monument to Gen. Leonidas Polk.— A monument to the mem- 
ory of Gen. Leonidas Polk and to mark the spot where he fell has been 
erectel upon the summit of Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Ga. It 
was formally unveiled on April 10, 1902. The shaft is of pure white 
Georgia marble, twenty feet in height, and the entire expense of its 
erection was borne by J. Gid Morris and wife. Mr. Morris is a farmer 
of Cobb county, and his home is in sight of the monument. 

On the South side is the word 'SOUTH," cut in large letters, sur- 
mounting a design of the Confederate battle flag. Underneath the 
flag is the legend: 

"1861-1864. In memory of Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk, who 
fell on this spot, June 14, 1864. Erected by J. Gid and Mary J. Morris, 
April 10, 1902." 

Then follows this inscription: 

"Folding his arms across his breast he stood gazing on the scene 
below, turning himself around as if to take a farewell view. There 
standing, a cannon shot from the enemy's guns crashed through his 
breast and opened a wide door through which his spirit took its flight 
to join his comrades on the other shore. Surely the earth never 
opened her arms to allow the head of a braver man to rest upon her 
bosom. Surely the light never pushed the darknens back to make 
brighter the road that leads to the Lamb, and surely the gates of 
heaven never opened wider to allow a more manly spirit to enter 

On the reverse side of the shaft are the words: "NORTH, veni, vidi> 
rici — with Five to One." 

Statues to General McLaws and General Bartow at 
Savannah.— On June 3, 1902, the anniversary of the birth of Jeffer- 
son Davis (a legal holiday in Georgia), bust statues of General Lafay- 
ette McLaws and General Francis S. Bartow, gallant Confederate 
officers, were unveiled in Chippewa square in the city of Savannah. 
There was an elaborate parade, in which the various local civic, mili- 
tary and other organizations participated, as well as the Confederate 
Veterans and Sons of Confederate Veterans. Capt. D. G. Purse pre- 
sided. The statues were unveiled by Miss Gertrude McLaws, a grand- 
daughter of Gen. McLaws, and Miss Francis Bartow Hight, of Mari- 
etta, a grand-daughter of Mrs. Ford, the oldest sister of General 
Bartow. The busts were executed by Zollnay, who was present during 
the exercises The oration was delivered by Gen. Clement A. Evans, 
of Atlanta. In the course of his address, among other things ho 

"Reminiscence and forecast must mingle with equally inspiring 
force in the thoughts of the Savannah citizen as he moves over this 
historic ground where civil authority bulwarked by law and military 
auxiliaries disciplined into effective use have so often maintained the 
human right of life, liberty and property. Combining, however, all 
memorials which adorn this city, they teach together the truth chosen 

Historical News. 63 

for this hour's theme, that both civil and military heroism are required 
to train a nation into true greatness— civil heroism that encourages 
and uses, but never abuses, the country's military power, and mil- 
itary heroism that holds all things subject to a just country's civil 

Mississippi Historical Society.— The Fifth annual meeting of 
the Mississippi Historical Society was held in the city of Jackson, 
Thursday and Friday, Jan. 9 and 10, 1902. The session was one, of 
importance, and the pampers presented were of high class and of great 
variety. The afternoon session of Friday was devoted exclusively to 
Mississippi archaeology, and the evening session of the same day was 
given o^erto a study of the history of the State Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1890. 

Other meetings of the Society have been as follows: 

First annual meeting, Jan. 7 and 8, 1898, at Jackson; 

Second, April 20 and 21, 1899, at Natchez; 

Third, Feb. 1 and 2, 1900, at Jackson; and 

Fourth, April 18 and 19, 1901, at Sleridian. 

This society was incorporated by its State Legislature, Feb. 17, 1890, 
and the first meeting of its organizers was held May 1, 1890. Not- 
withstanding a number of prominent incorporators was interested, 
nothing w T as done until 1897, in which year Dr. Franklin L. Riley was 
appointed Secretary. Fresh from the Johns Hopkins University, Dr. 
Riley went enthusiastically to work, and effected a substantial and 
permanent revival. The growth of the organization is principally due 
to his faithful energies, although he has been ably seconded by Gen. 
Stephen D. Lee and many others. Since he entered upon the manage- 
ment, meetings have been held as stated, and five valuable volumes 
of Publications (8vo) have been issued. 

Sixth Annual Convention, Alabama Division, U. D. C — 
The Sixth annual convention of the Alabama Division, United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, was held in Demopolis, May 13 and 14, 1902. 
The usual reports from committees and officials showed the various 
chapters composing the organization to be in good condition. There 
are in the State thirty-three chapters, with a total membership of 
1631. The division is doing much patriotic work. It is collecting 
funds for the erection of a monument on the Shiloh battlefield, and is 
contributing toward the maintenance of the Alabama room in the 
Confederate Museum at Richmond. One hundred dollars each was 
voted to aid in the erection of a monument to Jefferson Davis, and to 
the Falkner Confederate Soldiers' Home at Mountain Creek. The 
closing session on the evening of May 14 was devoted to the formal 
presentation of a life size oil portrait of Enrna Sansom to the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History of the State. The execution of this 
portrait was undertaken by the Divieon at the suggestion of Mrs. W. 
A. Gayle, of the "Dixie" chapter, -Montgomery, the funds being iaise^ 

64 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

by contributions from the several Chapters. It was painted by the 
well known artist, Samuel Hoffman, of Montgomery. Emma Sansom 
was the girl heroine who, in May, 1803, poiuted out to Gen. N. B. Forrest 
an unused ford across Black Creek in Etowah county, and enabled the 
latter to overtake and capture Col. A. D. Streight, who was leading a 
raiding party through North Alabama for the purpose destroying the 
railroads and the Confederate stores at Rome, Ga. Mrs. A. L. Dowdell, 
President of the Division, formally presented the picture, and it was 
received on behalf of the State by Thomas M. Owen, Esq., Director of 
the Department. The Division will hold its next session at Tusca- 

Previous sessions have been held as follows: 

First annual meeting, April 8-9, 1897, at Montgomery; 

Second, Feb. 17-18, 1898, at Birmingham; 

Third, Feb. 28-March 1, 1899, at Selma; 

Fourth, May 1-2, 1900, at Opelika; and 

Fifth, May 14-15, 1901, at Eufaula. 

Alabama Department of Archives and History.— The estab- 
lishment by the Legislature of Alabama of a Department of Archives 
and History, by act approved Feb. 27, 1901 (General Laws of Ala., 
1900-1901, pp. 126-130), gives that State the pioneer position in the 
matter of legislation looking to the preservation of its archives and 
history in a complete and business-like way. This new field of activ- 
ity is a co-ordinate Department of State, and its office is in the State 
Capitol. Its objects and purposes "are the care and custody of official 
archives, the collection of materials bearing upon the history of the 
State, and of the territory included therein, from the earliest times, 
the completion and publication of the State's official records, and other 
historical materials, the diffusion of knowledge in reference to the 
history and resources of the State, the encouragement of historical 
work and research," etc. Through this Department the State is meet- 
ing every obligation it owes its history. It is under the control of a 
board of nine trustees, but the administrative officer is a Director, 
who is a State official, chosen by the trustees for a term of six years. 
At the organization of the Department, Thomas M. Owen, then a 
practicing lawyer of Birmingham, Ala., but for ten years a close his- 
torical student, was unanimously elected director. He has labored 
assiduously and continuously in organizing, developing and arousing 
interest in the Department. The first annual meeting of the trustees 
required by law to be held, was on Oct. 1, 1901. Although only estab- 
lished seven months, excellent and satisfactory development in every 
branch of the work of the Department was shown: in the collection 
of books, pamphlets, maps, prints, charts, manuscripts, paintings and 
photographs, in the diffusion of knowledge in reference to the State, 
and in the encouragement of historical research. The people of the 
State are thoroughly aroused, and every one is lending aid and en- 

Historical News. 65 

Mississippi Department of Archives and History. — Follow- 
ing the example of Alabama, just one year afterwards, by act of Feb. 
26, 1902, the Legislature of Mississippi created a Department of 
Archives and History, similar to that of its sister State, except in a 
few minor details. The Department was organized by a two days' 
session of the trustees, March 14 and 15, 1902, in the State library at 
Jackson. Gen. Stephen D. Lee was chosen president of the board. 
Dunbar Rowland, Esq., of Coffeeville, was elected Director. A reso- 
lution was adopted thanking Dr. Franklin L. Riley, the Secretary of 
the Mississippi Historical Society, for his active efforts in securing the 
establishment of the Department. Other resolutions were adopted 
requesting the authorities to permit Mississippi to secure copies of the 
rosters of all Confederate army organizations in the custody of the 
United States government; also requesting newspapers of the State to 
forward their publications for file in the collections of the Depart- 
ment; also requesting owners of manuscripts, portraits of distinguished 
Mississippians, or historical articles, to donate or lend them to the 
Department. Rules for the government of the board and of the De- 
partment were adopted. 

Mr. Rowland, the Director, is well equipped for his labors. He was 
born Aug. 25, 1864, at Oakland, Miss., and is the son of W, B. and 
Mary (Bryan) Rowland. He graduated in 1886, with the B. S. degree, 
at the A. & M. College of Mississippi; and in 1888, with the LL. B. 
degree, at the University of Mississippi. He has practiced law since 
graduation, but has at all times given much attention to historical 
work. , 

Tennessee Historical Society.— April Meeting. The April 
meeting of the Society was held in its rooms in the Watkins Institute, 
James D. Porter presiding. The paper of the evening was presented 
by Gen. G. P. Thruston on the coinage, coins, and medals of ancient 
and modern times, drawing from his remarkable collection to illus- 
trate the historical value and the significance to be found in a nation's 
money. Two thousand years, he said, had made no change in Chinese 
coinage, and the coins of B. C. were not distinguishable in workman- 
ship of die from those of to-day. He exhibited some of the curious 
shapes struck off by the Chinese mints— coins in human shape, curved 
in scimitar form and of every conceivable pattern. The coins of Siam, 
up to fifty years ago, were lumps of silver, stamped with the royal 
6eal, and in the old Japanese currency rectangles and squared shape 
predominate. Our modern idea of circular and flat coins, he said, 
was evidently of rather late growth. No coin issued lately possesses 
the same spirit and beauty as the coins two hundred years ago. These 
old coins represent the State, and are mirrors whereby any change in 
the condition of the State can easily be caught by the expert. The 
power and the spirit of a nation can be told by its coinage The flour- 
ishing condition of conquest and dominion or the slow progress of de- 
generation and decay can be traced through the successive coinages. 

66 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

The State in highest civilization and culture produces the most beai- 
tiful coins. There have been no dies made that could equal the won- 
derfulnees and perfectness of the Grecian stamps. Of modern nations 
France excels in beauty of design and execution, although of late 
years Germany has rapidly improved. The coins of the early Spanish 
colonies in America bear the words '"plus ultra," signifying the exist- 
ence of something beyond the Gibralta, the pillars of Hereules, for 
coins up to the discovery of America bore the inscription "ne plus 
ultra." He passed around several hundred coins and metals from his 
collection, which illustrated his remarks. 

May Meeting. The regular annual meeting was held in May, Mr. 
Porter presiding, and a large number of members present. Treasurer, 
Mr. Joseph S. Carels made his annual report, showing a fund of 
$1,300 on hand. Gen. G. P. Thruston volunteered to place the fund on 
hand out at interest until called for. He also ann r.unced that a fac- 
simile had been made of the original commission issued to Gen. Put- 
nam by the Continental Congress. A number of donations were re- 
ceived, among them being Chinese prayer rolls, presented by Father 
J. P. Farrelly. Photographs of all paintings in the possession of the 
society have been made and Mr. Carels was instructed to place them 
in a safety deposit vault. Theo. Cooley announced that the work 
of cataloguing the possessions of the society had been completed and 
$100 was voted to R. T. Quarles for doing the work. Every member 
of the Society and the families of all deceased members will be asked 
to furnish the Society with a cabinet photograph of themselves. 
It was decided to lend the State one of the paintings of Gov. Sevier, 
owned by the Society. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Judge 
John M. Lea, President; ex-Gov. Jas. D. Porter, First Vice President; 
Gen. G. P. Thruston, Second Vice President; Col. W. A. Henderson, 
Third Vice President; Jos. S. Carels, Treasurer; R. T. Quarles, Cor- 
responding Secretary; and A. V. Goodpasture, liecording Secretary. 

Annual Mketing of the Alabama Historical Society.— The 
regular annual meeting of the Alabama Historical Society was held 
June 14, 1902, at Montgomery. It convened in the Senate chamber, 
in the State Capitol, at 11 o'clock a. m., and Dr. Reuben H, Duggar, 
one of the vice presidents, presided. Thomas M. Owen, the secretary 
and treasurer, was present. There was an attendance during the day 
of about seventy-five members and visitors. Divine blessing was in- 
voked by Rev. Dr. Stewart McQueen, of Montgomery. 

The report of the Secretary and Treasurer of the society was then 
presented by Mr. Owen. It showed substantial progress in the vari- 
ous lines of activity now engaging the members. From it the society 
appears to have lost by death during the year four members: Gov. 
Win. J. Samford, Dr. Win. LeRoy Broun, Porter King and Rev. 
Greenough White. 

The annual oration was delivered by Col. John W. A. Sanford, of 

Historical News. 67 

Montgomery. His subject was the "Yazoo Fraud." Before entering 
upon a discussion of his subject he made a touching and eloquent in- 
troduction in which he spoke of his emotions, surrounded by the por- 
traits of the distinguished Alabamians, which now adorn the walls of 
the Senate. His remarks concerning Yancey, Hilliard, Bullock, 
Walker and Emma Sansom were applauded, and were highly appre- 
ciated. Coming to his subject he graphically presented a history 
of the land speculations in the early years of the republic. He devel- 
oped the whole theme in a scholarly way. It was greatly enjoyed 
because of the eloquent presentation, and because of the connection of 
the subject with the early history of the State, His remarks were 
frequently applauded and at the conclusion a resolution of thanks, 
prepared by Mr. Owen, was extended him in a rising vote. 

Mr. E. H. Bashinsky, of Troy, then presented a valuable "Historical 
Sketch of Pike County," the introduction only being read by him. It 
showed mnch careful research, and indicated the wide interest now 
being taken in local history. 

Miss Emma Beall Culver, of Auburn, was then introduced, and 
read "Thomas H. Watts, a Statesman of the Old Regime." In present- 
ing her, Dr. George Petrie explained the scope and purpose of 
the paper. It should be skated that Miss Culver was awarded a gold 
medal in a competitive contest in which this paper was entered. ■ The 
medal was offered by the Eufaula Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, for the best historical essay by a graduate or post gradu- 
ate student of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 

Mr. Owen, after explaining the absence of several whose names ap- 
peared on the program, announced the following by title only, the fin- 
ished papers themselves to be handed in later and to appear in the 
published Transactions of the Society, viz: 

"State Pride and How It is Made to Grow," by Col. James T. Mur- 
fee, Marion; "Old Towns and Settlements on the Lower Alabama," by 
Samuel C. Jenkins, Esq., Bay Minette; "Old Indian Mounds at Car- 
thage, Alabama," by W. L. Fagan, Havana; "The Early Settlement 
of the Tennessee Valley," by President Charles C. Thach, A. P. I., 
Auburn; "Sketch of the Organization and Growth of the Alabama 
Educational Association," by Dr. J. K. Powers, Florence; "Descend- 
ants of John Purifoy who were Confederate Soldiers," by Francis M. 
Purifoy, Tuscaloosa; "John Murray Forbes' Horseback Trip to Ala- 
bama in 1831," by Mr. Thomas S. Forbes, Birmingham; "The Military 
Operations of General John T. Croxton in West Alabama, by Thomas 
P. Clinton, Tuscaloosa; "Some Contemporary Comments upon Re- 
construction," by Miss Kate M. Lane, Auburn; "The Southern Com- 
mercial Convention held in Montgomery, 1858," by A. F. Jackson, 
West Point, Ga.; "The Life and Public Services of William R. King," 
by Joel Campbell DuBose, Birmingham; "William F. Samford, States . 
man and Man of Letters," by Dr. George Petrie, Auburn; and 
"Political Events in Alabama in 1S40 and 184 1," by Mr. C. E. Cren- 
shaw, Coosada. 

68 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Motions and resolutions being in order, Rev. Stewart McQueen of- 
fered the following, which was on motion adopted: 

"Resolved, That the Secretary shall cause the proceedings and papers 
of this meeting with such other papers, documents, historical mate- 
rial and illustrations and maps pertaining thereto, as to him may seem 
advisable, t^> be carefully edited and published." 

Mr. McQueen also offered the following resolution, in support of 
which he urged the importance of present recognition of valuable 
work, and on motion it was unanimously adopted: 

"Resolved, That this Society, in annual session, hereby places upon 
record its grateful appreciation of the faithfulness, energy and ability 
which have characterized th^ Secretary of this organization in the dis- 
charge of his duties, and that his efforts in promoting the welfare of 
the Society, are most heartily commended to our fellow-citizens 
throughout the commonwealth." 

Mr. Owen responded in a feeling and appreciative manner to this 
evidence-of confidence. 

The following resolution was adopted on motion of Mr. Owen: 

"Resolved, That the incoming Executive Committee be and is hereby 
empowered and directed to prepare a new constitution and by-laws for 
the Society, which shall be in full forca and effect ten days after pub- 

Mr. Clifford A. Lanier called attention to the fact that there had 
lived in Montgomery some of the greatest men of the State, and he 
thought that some steps ought to be taken by the Society toward mark- 
ing the places where they had lived, in which sentiment there was 
unanimous concurrence. He offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted: 

"Resolved, That the Executive Committee of this Societv be re- 
quested to take appropriate steps to secure the marking by tablet or 
otherwise of the places of residence, in the city of Montgomery, of 
William L. Yancey, Henry W. Hilliard, Thomas H. Watts, James H. 
Clanton and of other distinguished citizens and celebrities who have 
resided in the city." 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year, 1902-1903; 
President, William Dorsey Jelks; Vice-Presidents, Dr. R. H. Duggar, 
Gallioi?.; Colonel Jefferson M. Falkner, Montgomery; Colonel Samuel 
Will John, Birmingham;. Colonel Thomas C. McCorvey, University; 
President Charles C. Thach, Auburn, and Mrs. Kate H. Morrisette, 
Montgomery; Secretary and Treasurer, Thomas M. Owen, Montgomery, 
and the following Executive Committee (in addition to the officials): 
Peter J. Hamilton, Oliver D. Street, Colonel M. L. Woods, Joel C. 
DuBose, R. Tyler Goodwyn and Dr. George Petrie. 

This was followed by an informal discussion of several matters of 
interest to the members, which was greatly enjoyed. The opinion 
prevailed that such meetings, if more frequently held would prove of 
great value and much pleasure to the participants. On motion the 
matter of more frequent meetings was referred to the Secretery and 
the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Owen thanked the audience for their courtesy in attending, and 
expressed the hope that every effort would be extended toward build- 
ing up the Department of Archives and History, and enriching it with 
historic treasures; after which the meeting adjourned. 




The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has issued, as No. 413, a Chart 
of the Pensacola, Florida, Bay entrance (1902.) It is 36.4 x 27.4 inches. 

The French Settlement of the 31ississippi Valley, by Peter J. Hamil- 
ton, Mobile, has been reprinted from the American Historical Maga- 
zine, April, 1902 (8vo. pp. 14.) 

Judge William H. Thomas has published in pamphlet form (8vo. 
pp. 18) his Memorial Address, delivered by invitation of the Ladies' 
Memorial Association, at Montgomery, Ala., April 26, 1902. 

The Robert Clarke Company, Cincinnati, O., have published Rem- 
iniscences of a Mississippian in Peace arid Waf (8vo. pp. xvii, 324; 
illustrated, cloth, $5.00), by Frank A. Montgomery, Lieutenant-Colonel 
First Mississippi Cavalry, Armstrong's Mississippi Brigade; Member 
of Legislature, I860, 1882, 1884, 1896, and one term Judge of Fourth 
Circuit Court District of Mississippi. 

The same Company has also published 1861-1S65, by an Old " John. 
me" (12mo. pp. 280; cloth, $1,50), by Capt. James Dinkins, who served 
during the entire war in the Confederate service. The portraits and 
illustrations are by Col. S. T. Dickinson, of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

A small volume, entitled Vicksburg Vistas (1902; oblong, pp. 25), 
containing 40 panoramic views of the principal scenes at Vicksburg, 
has been published by Mr. R. M. Hynes, 1309 Manhattan building, 
Chicago, 111 . The illustrations are preceded by an account of the 
"Vicksburg Campaign in Brief." 

An Alabama Official Directory (1902; 8vo. pp. 42 [4]) compiled by A. 
C. Sexton, chief clerk, has been issued by the Secretary of State. It 
contains full lists of all State officials — executive, judicial and legis- 
lative, — State boards, institutions and county officers, and also lists of 
members of the Constitutional Convention of Alabama, 1901, and pop- 
ulation statistics. . 

The Remarks cf Hon. Henry D. Clayton and Hon. Ariosto A. Wiley 
in the House cf Representatives, Feb. 8, 1902, on the occasion of pro- 
nouncing eulogies on the death of Robert E. Burke, late a member of 
Congress from Texas, have been reprinted in pamphlet form (respect- 
ively, Svo. pp. 4 and 8vo. pp. 5.) 

70 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Clark's Alabama Form Book, prepared by Francis B. Clark, jr., the 
first editiou of which appeared in 1881, and the secondin 1SS9, has been 
reprinted in a third edition by the sons of the compiler, Willis G., 
Francis B., and Fairfax Clark (1902; 8vo. pp. 367.) 

A Memorial of the University of Alabama for opening navigable 
rivers that drain coal and iron fields of Alabama, made to the United 
States Senate, has been published as Seriate Doc, No. 161 (Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1902, 8vo. pp 13, mops.) It contains sketches of 
the mineral and agricultural resources of the Coosa, Tallapoosa, Ala- 
bama, Black Warrior and Tombigbee river valleys. 

The Reports of the examiraticn and survey of Kissime river and 
connecting lakes and canals, the survey of Istokpoga creek, and an 
examination of Caloosahatchee river, prepared under the direction of 
the U. S. Engineer Department, has been recently issued as House 
Doc. 176 (1902; 8vo. pp. 27, and 15 maps.) 

The paper read before the Alabama State Bar Association, June 29, 

1901, by Thomas M. Owen, on "Ephrairo Kirby, first Superior Court 
Judge in what is now Alabama," has been reprinted from the Proceed- j 
ings (8vo. pp. 15.) A revision of the paper appears as the leading arti- 
cle in the New York Genealogical and Biographical Record for July, 

1902, with a likeness of Mr. Kirby. 

The Proceedings of the first annual reunion of the Alabama Divis- 
ion, United Sons of Confederate Veterans, held in Montgomery, No- ' 
vember 13-14, 1901, has been issued in pamphlet form (1902; 8vo. pp. 
32.) It contains the addresses of Messrs. Tennent Lomax and War- 
wick Payne, and the report of the Historical Committee of the 
organization. The pamphlet was compiled by Thomas M. Owen. 

Mr. Junius M. Riggs, the librarian, has compiled a volume of much 
value to lawyers and students, entitled Catalogues of the Supreme Court 
Library and of the State Library (Montgomery, Ala., 1902: cloth, 8vo. 
3 leaves, pp. 301.) While no statistics are given as to the strength of 
the library, an examination of the Catalogues shows a very full, and 
approximately complete collection of law books, as reports, digests, 
statutes, periodicals, session laws, etc. The collection of miscellane. 
ous works is large and is constantly receiving additions. 

The Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Park Commission has 
republished the Atlas of the battlefields of Chickamauga, Chattanooga, 
and vicinity (1902), as House Doc, 514, 5Gth Cong., 2nd Sess. It is a 
folio, and contains [6] pp. and 14 maps. The maps have been com- 
piled with great care, and are very valuable. 

It has also issued a pamphlet containing an account of the Campaign 
for Chattanooga, theatre of movements and battle fields as seen from 
point of Lookout Mountain (1902; 8vo. pp. 9, map.) 

Book Notes and Reviews. 71 

The Bulletin of the New York Public Library, for May, 1903, p. 170, 
contains a letter from Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, dated at Macon, Ga., 
Aug. 13, 1864, on the Georgia campaign of 1864. It strongly defends 
his conduct in this campaign. He declares that "after the battle of 
the Wilderness, General Lee adopted precisely the course which I fol- 
lowed— & gained great glory by it." The original of the letter is in 
the Emmet Collection, presented the Library by John S. Kennedy. 
. - I 

The following are the three latest volumes of Texas appellate court 
Reports, viz: The Texas Civil Appeals Reports, vol. 24, cases in the courts 
of civil appeals, during the latter part of 1900, reported by B. R. 
Webb, (1902; Svo. pp. xxviii, 735); The Texas Reports, vol. 94, cases ad- 
judged in the Supreme Court, prior to November, 1901, reported by A. 
E. Wilkinson, (1902; Svo. pp. xvii, 767); and TJie Texas Criminal Re- 
ports, vol. 41, cases in the court of criminal appeals, during parts of 
1899 and 1900, reported by John P. White (1902; Svo. pp. xviii, 762.) 

The U. S. Census Office has recently published the following Bulle- 
tins (1902) concerning the Gulf and adjacent States: No. 117, Manu- 
factures of Alabama (pp. 15); No. 118, Manufactures of Georgia (pp. 
19); No. 119, Manufactures of Mississippi (pp. 13); No. 128, Manufact- 
ures of Louisiana (pp. 15); No. 146, Manufactures of Texas (pp. 27); 
No. 148, Manufactures of Tennessee (pp. 19); No. 155, Agriculture in 
Alabama (pp. 13); and No. 165, Agriculture in Florida (pp. 14.) 

These Bulletins can be obtained free on application to the Director 
of the Census, Washington, D. C. 

In 1896 Judge C. W. Raines, of Austin, published his valuable Bib- 
liography of Texas (8vo. pp. xvi, 267), being a descriptive list of books, 
pamphlets, and documents relating to Texas in print and manuscript 
since 1536, and including a complete collection of laws, with an intro- 
ductory essay on the materials of early Texan history. The edition 
has long since been exhausted, and there is now a demand for a new 
edition. It is Mr. Raines' purpose to meet this demand. He will be 
glad to have his attention drawn to any and all materials for Texas 

A complete History of the burning of Columbia, S. C, by the army 
of Gen. W. T. Sherman has been prepared and published by Col. J. 
G. Gibbes of that city. He presents his own personal recollections, 
and also a synopsis of the report of the committee of investigation, ap- 
pointed by the city council of Columbia, and the testimony of Gen. 
Sherman, Gen. Howard, Gen. Hazen, and an Account prepared by 
Nichols, a member of Gen. Sherman's staff. The letters and state- 
ments of Ger> . Wade Hampton are given. The profits of the publica- 
tion, it is understood, will be applied to the erection of a tab'et in the 
State House to the memory of Gen. Hampton. 

72 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

The Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Association for April, 
1902, (vol. v, No. 4) contains two valuable contributions: "The quarrel 
between Governor Smith and the Provisional Government of the Re- 
public," by W. Roy Smith, and the "Genealogical and Historical 
Register of the first general officers of the Daughters of the Republic 
of Texas, elected in 1891," by Mrs. Adele B. Looscaa. The former is a 
thesis, prepared by Mr. Smith for his degree of M. A., at the Univer- 
sity of Texas. The usual departments of "Book reviews and notices," 
"Notes and Fragments," and "Affairs of the Association" follow. 

The Association was organized March 2, 1897. It has done valuable 
work for Texas history, as shown by the activity among its members, 
and the valuable contents of the five volumes of the Quarterly . which 
have been published. Valuable separate historical publications have 
also been stimulated and aided by it. 

One of the most thorough and valuable works for the legal profes- 
sion, not only of Alabama but elsewhere, is a Digest of the Decisions of 
the Supreme Court of Alabama, from Minor (1S20) to 125th Alabama 
(1900), inclusive, prepared by James J. May field, Esq., Judge of the 
Tuscaloosa Law and Equity Court. Three volumes have already ap- 
peared, the first (1901) covering the following subjects: "Criminal, 
Exparte, and Extraordinary Proceedings," from Abandonment of 
Family to X-Rays, ard the second and third (1901) the general sub- 
jects — Abandonment to Jury Trial. The whole work is prepared after 
"the most modern and approved systems of digesting," and is admir- 
ably designed to enable a busy practitioner to promptly ascertain 
whether there is or is not a decision on any particular proposition. 
Other volumes will appear as rapidly as completed. 

Dr. Patrick Hues Mell, the well-known Professor of Botany and 
Geology in the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, and Director of the 
Experiment Station, has issued, through the press of B. F. Johnson 
and Co , a revision of the l&te Wm. N. White's Gardening for the 
South. This justly famed book has been thoroughly worked over 'by 
Dr. Mell, who is one of the eminent authorities of the South on gar- 
dening. It is now probably the most comprehensive work on horti- 
culture in existence, and more than meets all of the needs of the 
Southern gardener. It has more than 600 pages, and contains over 
300 illustrations. 

Dr. Mell's writings, it should be stated, are not confined to technical 
subjects of the above character, but he has done valuable historical 
and genealogical work. In 1893 his Life of his father, P. H. Mell, ap- 
peared (12mo. pp. 258); and in 1897, his Genealogy of the Mell Family in 
the Soutliem States (8vo. pp. 61, xxviii.) 

The Industrial South is the title of a monthly periodical, the first 
number of which appeared Mav 15, 1902, at Birmingham, Ala. It is 
published by the Industrial South Publishing Co., $1.00 per year; and 

Book Notes and Reviews. 73 

the editor is Mr. Frank Deec'rneyer. It is to be devoted to the indus- 
trial, financial and railroad interests of "the whole South " The first 
issue is a sixteen page double column quarto. It is highl)- creditable. 
The editorial discussion embraces the following topics: 'Tower, Heat 
and Light," "Domestic Trade," "Higher Commercial Education," "The 
South's Wonderful Progress," and "Success of Steel Manufacture in 
the South." A variety of topics and a valuable bcdy of references and 
statistics are presented under the following department heads: U.S. 
Consular Reports, Railroads and Transportation, Textiles, Cotton Seed 
Oil, Birmingham District, The Oil Field, Lumber and Timber, Steel, 
Iron and Coal, Agriculture, New Industries and Construction, Finance 
and Banking, and Law Points. 

The Twentieth Series (1902) of the Johns Hopkins University Sticclle s 
in historical and political science contains monographs on colonial, 
revolutionary and early constitutional history. The titles announced 
are as follows: "Western Maryland in the Revolution," by B. C. 
Steiner; "State Banks Since the Passage of the National Bank Act," by 
G. E. Barnett; "Early History of Internal Improvement in Alabama," 
by W. E. Martin; "Trust Companies in the United States," by George 
Cator; "The Maryland Constitution of 1851," by J. W. Harry; "Po- 
litical Activities of Philip Freneau," by S. E. Forman. 

The three first have already appeared. Two extra volumes for 1902 
have also been issued: J. C. Ballagh's History of Slavery in Virginia, 
(pp. 160); and also Herbert B. Adams, Tributes of Friends (pp. 160.) 
Apart from the melancholy interest all historical students must have 
in the splendid and inspiring career of Mr. Adams, this volume has an 
added value in that it contains a Bibliography of the Department of 
History, Politics and Science of the Johns 'Hopkins. University, 1876- 

Autograph Collections and Historic Manuscripts (8vo. pp. 16) the title 
of a valuable paper read some time ago by Gen. G. P. Thruston before 
the Tennessee Historical Society, has been reprinted from the Sewanee 
Review of January, 1902. He very properly observes that the student 
of history naturally drifts into an interest in manuscripts, letters, and 
documents relating to events and men of note, but he says that the 
mere temptation to collect and own them often follows, "a mere col- 
lecting and accumulating habit" to be deplored. He very properly 
notes that there is no true love of history or historical research, and 
but little benefit to the collector, in making a collection, "unless the 
historic, biographic or literary value of the material is uppermost in 
his mind." The fad of collecting signatures, or autographs, of 
noted people is condemned as "desecration." He quotes the following 
amusing reply to a collector, made by John Forsyth, the distinguished 
editor of Mobile: 

74 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

"Mobile, Ala, 

"Mr. : O yes! You are one of those d— d fools who are 

always bothering people about their autographs. Here's mine. 

John Forsyth." 
The rest of the paper is devoted to an exploitation of many rare, 
valuable and curious items in his collection. 

Th ^ Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 
xxviii. No. 4, April, 1902, pp. 337-390, contains an illustrated paper by 
R. C. McCalla, of Tuscaloosa, Ala., on the "Improvement of the Black 
"Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama." Mr. McCalla in conclud- 
ing his valuable and scholarly treatment has these observations on the 
value of river improvement: "One of the strongest arguments in favor 
of the improvement of rivers and canals by the general government 
is that they serve to regulate and control railroid rates more effect- 
ively than legislation ever can. Able railroad attorneys can generally 
find some means of evading inimical regulations framed by legislative 
bodies. Well-managed railroads will probably always find some way 
of pooling interests when it is greatly to their advantage to do so. 
But it is a difficult matter to pool with a public waterway, operated 
and maintained by the general government without tolls, because any 
town or individual with a few thousand dollars can build an independ- 
ent boat and 'break the combination.' " 

The leading article in Pearson's Magazine for June, 1902, comprising 
No. XI of the "Story of the States" series, is a sketch of Alabama, by 
Joel Campbell DuBose* It is accompanied by thirty illustrations of 
the most interesting character. It has been known for some time that 
Mr. DuBose had prepared this sketch, and its appearance had been 
awaited with much interest. Unfortunately the editor of the maga- 
zine has greatly abridged the article as originally prepared. The fact 
that such liberty was taken with the manuscript after it was written 
will explain certain expressions, such as the denomination of Semmes 
as commander of the "Confederate privateer, 'Alabama,'" a phrase 
which Mr. DuBose did not use. There are certain glaring omissions 
and abrupt sentences which are to be explained in the same way. The 
article in its entirety is, however, a very creditable presentation of the 
story of the State, and should be read by every one who cares to know 
more, and to have a heightened appreciation of the glorious history of 

The Publications of the Southern History Association, Washing- 
ton, D. C., the first number of which appeared in January, 1897, is 
now in its sixth volume, the May, 1902, issue having just come from 
the press. This periodical, from the beginning, has maintained a high 
standard, and it has done much to stimulate to higher historical ideals. 
Among its contributors are the leading historical students of the 
South. Through its whole period it has been under the editorial di- 

Book Notes and Reviews. 75 

rection of Dr. Colyer Meriwether, although his name did not appear 
as editor until January, 1902. It should be stated that he has at all 
times had the earnest support and co-operation, as well as the scholarly 
and critical assistance, of Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, of Washington, 
D. C, but now temporarily at Santa Fe, N. M. 

The Southern History Association, o? which the Publications is the or 
gan.was organized at Washington, D.C., April 24, IS9G, its objects being 
"the study of the history of the Southern States, the encouragement of 
original research, discussion and conference among n. embers, the widen- 
ing of personal acquaintance, the publication of work, and the collec- 
tion of historical materials." The work of the Society has been con- 
ducted to the accomplishment of these exalted purposes, and to it 
must be accorded much credit for arousing interest in historical work 
and enterprise over the entire South. Its first president was the late 
Dr. Wm. L. Wilson, and its second and present executive is Dr. J. L. M. 
Curry. Dr. Meriwether has been the capable, efficient and industrious 
secretary from its organization. 

Gen. Stephen D. Lee, now president of the Vicksburg National 
Park Commission, presented to the meeting of the Mississippi State 
Historical Society, Jan. 9, 1902, "An account of the Battle of Harris- 
burg, [Mississippi.]" The Publications of the Society have not yet 
appeared, but this paper has been issued in pamphlet form (8 vo. pp. 15.) 
The review of this engagement seems to be very full and thorough, 
"differing in many respects from the version generally accepted." In 
concluding the paper Gen. Lee says: "I have rested under a cloud for 
over 37 years on account of this engagement. * * * I never made 
an official report of the battle because it would have involved a reflec- 
tion upon Gen. Forrest. I have been urged by my friends to give an 
account of it. I have refrained until now. My connection with tli8 
Vicksburg National Park has made it my duty to write of the Vicks- 
burg campaign. I have followed this by writing of ether battles in 
Mississippi in which I was engaged, and I could not see my way clear 
to leave out Hirrisburg." In the course of the narrative, and in his 
conclusions, Gen. Lee pointed out certain errors which he eharged to 
Gen. Forrest. Among other things, he says "I think Forrest erred on 
the field of Harrisburg in not carrying out the plan of battle agreed 
on, after the signal gun was fired. I think also he should have informed 
me when he ordered Gen. Chalmers to move to the support of Gen 
Roddey, who was doing no fighting." From these and other statements, 
as well as from the tone of the paper, a storm of criticism developed, 
principally from the friends of Forrest. This has taken the form of 
newspaper articles long and short, in mauy of which much temper is 
exhibited. The JSashville Daily News, March 24, 1902, contains Gen. 
Lee's reply to his critics, as well as copies of several letters exchanged 
between him and Col. D. C. Kelly, one of Forrest's Regimental Com- 
manders. Neither the merits of the controversy, nor the views of the 
respective contestants, can be stated here, the object of this note 

76 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

being merely to call attention to the recent literature of the subject. 
It may not improperly be noted here that an account of this battle, 
prepared by Gan. Lee, and dated Aug. 14, 1S64, is included in J. H. 
Mathes' Life of Gen. Fcrrest, in Applefcon's series of "Great Com- 
manders. " 



Thomas McAdory Owen, Chairman. Vol. I. Montgomery, Ala. 
1901. (8 vo. pp. 447.) 

The Legislature of Alabama, by act approved Dec. 10, 1898, created 
the Alabama History Commission to consist of five members to be 
appointed by the governor. The commission was charged wit a the duty 
of making, without compensation therefor, ' 'a full, detailed and ex- 
haustive examination of all the sources and materials, manuscript, 
documentary and record, of the history of Alabama from the earliest 
times, whether in domestic or foreign archives or repositories, or in 
private hands, including the record of Alabama troops in all wars in 
which they have participated, and also of the location and present 
condition of battlefields, historic houses and buildings, and other 
places and things of historic interest and importance in the State," 
etc. The report, when compiled, was to be printed in an edition of 
one thousand copies, and to be submitted by the Governor to the en- 
suing session of the Legislature "with a plan for permanently foster- 
ing historic interest and the preservation of the records, archives and 
history cf the State." 

The Governor named the following commission: Thomas M. Owen, 
chairman, Peter J. Hamilton, William S. Wyman, Samuel Will John, 
and Charles C. Thach. 

The report is presented in the foregoing volume. The attempt was 
made to carry out the provisions of the act as far as possible, but the 
members in many instances were hampered in their investigations by 
the neglect of officials and the indifference of custodians of historical 
materials Notwithstanding these and other embarrassments, a great 
mass of data has been compiled, showing the wonderful extent and 
richness of the source material for the history of Alabama, where it 
is to be found, with notes on its probable value and accessibility. The 
report is issued as Volume I, of a series of ''Miscellaneous Collections," 
to be published by the Alabama Historical Society. While the publi- 
cation of this report will doubtless prove a lasting contribution to the 
historical literature of the State, and of much value to all students, 
its great importance lies in the fact that based on its recommenda- 
tions, advanced legislative action was taken resulting in the establish- 
ment of the Alabama Department of Archives and History, charged 

Book Notes and Reviews. 77 

with the care of all the historical activities which should engage the 
State. (See supra, under Historical News, for account of.) 

Other States wouid do well to imitate the example of Alabama. 
Mississippi has already done so. 

Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society. Volume V. 
Edited by Franklin L. Riley, Secretary. Oxford, Miss., 1902. 
(8vo. pp. 394.) 

The Legislature of Mississippi, by act of March 2, 1900, created a 
"History Commission," similar to that provided in Alabama, for the 
performance of like duties, etc. The Commission originally consisted 
of Dr. Franklin L. Rile}', Chairman, J. L. Power, Bishop. Charles B. 
Galloway, Gerard C. Brandon, and P. K. Mayer. On the resignation 
of Messrs. Brandon and Mayer, Prof. J. M. White and Rev. T. L. 
Mellen were substituted. The report, with few exceptions, follows 
the line of investigation laid out in the Alabama Report. Full and 
exhaustive accounts of Mississippi source material are presented. 
The Legislature of Mississippi, with the same commendable enter- 
prise as that which obtained in Alabama, adopted the recommenda- 
tions of the Commission and established a State Department of Archives 
and History. 

Edited by Franklin L. Riley, Secretary . Vol . IV. Oxford, Miss. 
Printed for the Society [Press of the Harrisburg (Pa.) Publishing 
Co.] 1901 [1902.] (8vo. pp. 506.) 

This volume is a highly creditable collection of papers and mono- 
graphs, bearing on Mississippi history. It contains the proceedings 
and papers of the fourth annual meeting of the Society, held at Me- 
ridian, April IS and 19, 1901, including the work of the year immedi- 
ately preceding. 

The contributions are numerous and varied. Their prepara- 
tion includes a degree of activity and interest, which appears to be in 
part due to the enlightened policy of the State Legislature in making 
liberal appropriations for the preservation of all worthy contributions 
to its history. The subjects as will appear below are not only varied 
but important. They involve the military, political, religious and 
literary history of the State. Many of the papers are prepared with 
scholarly skill and care. A few errors of f^ct must, however, be 
noted, as the reference, (p. 423, to ' 'Senaio Brooks," of S. C, who was 
only a representative, and the statement (p 493, note) that Judge J. A. 
P. Campbell "was chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Conven- 
tion at Montgomery, Ala.," an improper designation of the Provis- 
ional Congress of the seceding Stages. 

The intelligent and indefatigable labors of Dr. Franklin L. Riley, the 
Secretary, not only in securing the papers, but in editing and annotat- 
ing them, deserve the warmest commendation. 

The following is a list of the articles in the volume: "Report of the 
AnnuLl Meeting, April 18-19, 1901," by Dr. Franklin L. Riley; "Cam- 
paigns of Generals Grant and Sherman against Vicksburg in Decem- 
ber, 1SG2, and January 1st, and 2nd, 1863, Known as the 'Chickasaw 
Bayou Campaign'," by Gen. Stephen D. Lee; * 'Sherman's Meridian 
Expedition from Vicksburg to Meridian, February Srd to March 6th, 

78 The Gulf States Historical, Magazine. 

1883." by Gen. Stephen D. Lee; "Capture of Holly Springs, December 
20, 1862,'' by Prof. J. G.-Deupree; "battle of Corinth and Subsequent 
Retreat," by Col. James Gordon; "Work of the United Daughters of 
the Confederacy," by Mrs. Albert G We a ma; "Local Incidents of the 
War between the States," by Mrs. Josie Frazee Cappleman: "The 
First Struggle over Secession in Mississippi," by Mr. Jas. W. Garner; 
"Reconstruction in East and Southeast Mississippi," by Capt. W. H. 
Hardy; "Legal Status of Slaves in Mississippi before the War," by W. 
W. Magruder, Esq.; "Mississippi's Constitution and Statutes in Ref- 
erence to Freedmen and Their Alleged Relation to the Reconstruction 
Acts and War Amendments," by A. H. Stone, Esq.; "History of Mill- 
saps College," by Pres. W. B. Murrah; "Lorenzo Dow in Mississippi," 
by Bishop Cbas. B. Galloway; "Early Beginnings of Baptists in Miss- 
issippi," by Rev. Z. T. Leavell; "Importance of Archaeology," by 
Peter J. Hamilton, Esq.; "The Choctav/ Creation Legend," by H. S. 
Halbert, Esq.: "Lost Indian Council on the Noxubee," by H, S. Hal- 
bert, Esq.; "The Real Philip Nolan," by Rev. Edward Everett Hale; 
"Letter from George Poindexter to Felix Huston, Esq. ;" "The History 
of a County," by Mrs. Helen D. Bell; "Recollections of Pioneer Liie 
in Mississippi." by Miss Mary J. Welch; "Political and Parliamentary 
Orators and Oratory in Mississippi," by Dunbar Rowland, Esq.; "The 
Chevalier Bayard of Mississippi, — Edward Cary Walthall," by Miss 
Marv Duval; "Life of Gen. John A. Quitman," by Mrs. Rosalie Q. Dun- 
can; "T. A. S. Adams. Poet, Educator and Pulpit Orator," by Prof. 
Dabney Lioscomb; "Influence oi the Mississippi River upon the Early 
Settlement of Its Yallev," by Richard B. Haughton, Esq.; "The 
Mississippi Panic of 1813," by Col. John A. Watkins; "Union and 
Planter's Bank Bonds," by Judge J. A. P. Campbell. 

ending June 30, 190L Washington: Government printing office, 
1901. (Svo. pp. 380; illustrations,) 

Everything pertaining to the Library of Congress is of interest to 
students everywhere. The appe-irance, therefore, of official literature 
which serves to explain its workings, and to open up a view of its 
treasures, is to be welcomed. The library was removed to its mag- 
nificent new building in the fall of 1897. At this time the physical 
equipment was incomplete, and the organization but partial. The 
collection itself, though large in mass, was inorganic. The four years 
from that date has witnessed a marvelous growth. The collections 
have been grouped, the groups have been conveniently located, an 
elastic system of classification has been determined and initiated in 
each group, catalogues have been compiled, gaps in important collec- 
tions have beeu tilled, and special publications have been issued. 
These years have not only been years of service, but have been the 
preparation for larger and wider usefulness. 

The Library owes a duty to Congress, to the Executive Departments 
and scientific bureaus of the Federal Government, to other libraries, 
and to scholarship at large. What it may do for these is largely an- 
swered by this report. Part I is administrative in character, in which 
is included, however, lit-ts of selected titles illustrating the character 
of the printed material added during the two preceding years. Part 
II is devoted to the more significant present facts in the history, con- 
stitution, equipment, organization, processes, facilities and resources 
of the Library. The location and work of the several divisions are in- 
dicated, with illustrations of typical portions of the work and certain 
of the mechanical apparatus auxiliary to it. 

Book Notes and Reviews. 79 

The whole volume is in the highest degree interesting, and should 
be consulted by all who wish an intimate acquaintance with the work, 
collections and utilities of the great book palace of the nation. 

PLANT LIFE OF ALABAMA. An Account of the Distribution, 
Modes of Association, and Adaptation of the Flora of Alabama, 
together with a systematic Catalogue of the Plants growing in the 
State. By Charles Mohr, Ph. D. Reprint of Vol. VI, Contribu- 
tions from the IT. S. National Herbarium. Prepared in co-opera-, 
tion with the Geological Survey of Alabama. ALABAMA EDI- 
TION, with Portrait and Biography of the Author. 1901. (8 vo 
pp. xii, 921.) 

This work, which, as the title page shows, has been gotten out under 
the joint auspices of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the 
Geological Survey of Alabama, is the most complete and scientific 
treatment of a local flora that has yet appeared in the United States. 
The circumstances under which it was planned and brought to com- 
pletion are set forth in the letters of transmittal and in the Introduc- 
tion to the book. 

The greater part of this work, 680 of its 920 pages, is a systematic 
Catalogue of the plants growing witaout cultivation in the State. 
While it is called a catalogue, it is more thau a mere list of the plants 
observed, since each of the species mentioned is accompanied by full 
notes of its synonymy, of its geographical distribution in general and 
its distribution in Alabama in particular, of its type locality, and of 
it» economic uses. In addition to these notes on all the species, full 
descriptions are given of all new, rare, and little known forms. 

Beginning with a short historical sketch of the origin of the present 
botanical exploration of the state, of which this book is the record, 
and of the work of the pioneer botanists in this field, the author in 
his introduction proceeds to outline the general topographical, geo- 
logical, and climatic features of the state, which, in so great measure, 
control the distribution of the plants. 

He then gives a most interesting and instructive account of the 
principles governing the distribution of plant life in general, in which 
he shows that the chief fac cors controlling this distribution are cllmat ic, 
being mainly heat and moisture, while the secondary factors are terres- 
trial in their origin, depending upon the chemical and physical char- 
acters of the soil and subsoil. These same factors give rise also to the 
grouping together into plant formations and plant associations, of 
species 'differing widely in their natural affinities, but equally well 
adapted to accommodate themselves to the same conditions. 

The general characters of the Alabama Flora are next considered, 
in their systematic and ecological relations, by the latter term mean- 
ing their relations to each other and to the outer world. 

In the absence of all obstacles to plant migration in our part of the 
continent, it is not surprising to find in our flora only two or three 
species peculiar to Alabama. Naturally our flora is most closely re- 
lated to the floras of the adjoining states, but relationships are easily 
traced even to far off Japan, since 26 per cent of the genera occurring 
m Alabama have representatives in that country; 35 per cent are also 
represented in western Europe and the Mediterranean region; and 
46 per cent are common to Alabama and the West Indies and South 
America. Interesting also are the foreign plants which have estab- 
lished themselves more or less firmly upon Alabama soil. Dr. Mohr 

80 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

says that fully one- sixth of the species enumerated in the Catalogue, 
are immigrants through human agencies, from other countries; 
mainly from the temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical countries of the 
Old World. Some of these have established themselves firmly among 
the native plants, and have become fully naturalized; others have foot- 
hold only upon cultivated ground and about human dwellings, lacking 
the power to hoid their own in the struggle with our native plants, these 
are known as adventive; while still others, called fugitive, are mostly 
introductions comiag with the ballast of ship3, showing little disposi- 
tion to spread, and liable to succumb to vicissitudes of climate and to 
other unfavorable conditions. . 

The remainder of the Introduction, about 100 pages, is devoted to 
the detailed consideration of the Distribution of Plants in Alabama, 
in which the piano associations of the Mountain regions; of the Table 
Lands; of the Tennessee Valley; of the Lower Hill country; of the 
Central Prairie belt; and of the Maritime Pine region, with all their 
numerous variations and subdivisions, are fully described. 

Following the systematic catalogue, which as above mentioned, 
constitutes the greater part of the book, there is an instructive chap- 
ter on the flora of Alabama in its relations to Agriculture, in which 
the characters of the native vegetation as an indicator of the soii con- 
ditions is discussed. 

The boon closes with a list of the plants cultivated in the state, a 
tabular statement of the Alabama flora, and a full index. 

Eugene A. Smith. 

University of Alabama. 

New York, 1901. (8vo. pp.- 78; illustrated.) 

Written some three years since this poem has passed through four 
editions. It has met the generous commendation of the public, and 
the unstinted praise of the critics. Through it Mrs. Rufnn has won 
the laurel wreath of the true poet. She has produced perhaps the 
best poem of length woven about an incident of the frenzied struggle 
of the Sections. 

Gloomy enough is this story of a simple, honest-minded soldier of 
Virginia who, wavering between, duty to his young wife and child, 
and loyalty to the cause for which he fought, left the camp and re- 
turned home to be subsequently branded as a deserter and shot 
by his comrades. There is not much in the story itself but in its 
development Mrs. Raffin show.-, something remarkable in a woman, a 
fine sense of what is really and truly dramatic. She writes with a 
trained hand and the critical reader, expecting at every moment to 
find her lapsing into turgidifcy or immaturity, is agreeably disappointed. 
The story is at no point morose. 

John Gildart is written in iambic pentameter verse, with here and 
there lyrics that illumine the heavier passages. These songs are ex- 
quisitely turned and some of them indicate the depth and broadness of 
the student mind. Mrs. Ruftiu exhibits a sympathy m this, her most 
pretentious work, which is admirable. She makes it manifest through- 
out the poem that the heart of the writer is bleeding with the sturdy 
young hero of the Virginia hilte. The reader catches the spirit, and 
interest is consequently held. 

Mrs. Ruffin is a prolific writer, this po c m being but one of her nu- 
merous product ; ons. S^.e possesses perseverance, and the high quality 
of this work is an earnest of future accomplishment. 

A. B. Kennedy. 
Montgomery, Ala. 



Gulf States Historical 

Vol. i, No. 2. Montgomery, Ala., September, 1902. Whole No. 2. 


By W. A. Alexander, of Mobile. 

Having often read what purported to be a history of 
the Confederate submarine torpedo boat Hunley and its 
operations, B the accounts in every instance containing 
much of error, I have decided to write out the facts in re- 
gard to this boat and her career. 

Shortly before the capture of New Orleans by the 
United States troops, Captain H. L. Hunley (not Hundley), 
Captain James McClintock and Baxter Watson were en- 
gaged in building a submarine torpedo boat in the New 
basin of that city. The city falling into the hands of the 
federals before it was completed, the boat was sunk, and 

# Firet printed in the New Orleans Picayune, June, 1902. Mr. Alex- 
ander has kindly consented to its republication. In connection with the 
sketch the Picayune has this interesting reference to Captain Hunley's 
first boat: 

"Visitors to Spanish Fort [near New Orleans] may still see, half 
submerged in the weeds and flowers growing on the bank of bayou St. 
John, a rusty vessel of curious shape. It is built of iron, about 20 feet 
long,' and besides a propeller at the stern, is adorned on either side by 
strangely-shaped broad metal fins. This boat is or ought to be one of 
the most interesting relics of the civil war. It was, as stated in the 
accompanying narrative, built during the war by Captain Hunley as 
a submarine torpedo boat, and though never used in battle, is the pro- 
totype of the vessel which subsequently destroyed the federal cruiser 
Housatonic. Although within recent years a great deal has been 
written and done about submarine warships, the fact remains that 
these Confederate boats are the only ones which have ever successfully 
endured the test of actual combat. The narrative printed herewith is 
tn^hrst complete account of the building of these remarkable craft 
and of the experiments which were made with them."— Editor. 

82 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

these gentlemen came to Mobile. They reported, with 
their plane, to the Confederate authorities here, who or- 
dered the boat to be built in the machine shops of Park 
& Lyons, Mobile, Ala. 

The writer was a member of Company B, State Artil- 
lery, Twenty-first Alabama Regiment, and was detailed,, to 
do government work in these shops, 

Messrs. Hunley, McClintock and Watson were intro- 
duced to me by Park & Lyons, who gave me orders to 
carry out their plans as far as possible. 

We built an iron boat. The cross-section was oblong, 
.about 25 feet long, tapering at each end, 5 feet wide and 
6 feet deep. It was towed off Fort Morgan, intending to 
man it there and attack the blockading fleet outside, bat 
the weather was rough, and with a heavy sea the boat be- 
came unmanageable and finally sank, but no lives were lost. 

We decided to build another boat, and for this purpose 
took a cylinder boiler which we had on hand, 48 inches 
in diameter and twenty-five feet long (all dimensions are 
from memory). We cut this boiler in two, longitudinally, 
and inserted two 12-inch boiler-iron strips in her sides; 
lengthed her by one tapering course fore and aft, to which 
were attached bow and stern castings, making the boat 
about 30 feet long, 4 feet wide and 5 feet deep. A longi- 
tudinal strip 12 inches wide was rivited the tull length on 
top. At each end a bulkhead was riveted across to form 
water-ballast tanks (unfortunately these were left open on 
top); they were used in raising and sinking the boat. In 
addition to these water tanks the boat was ballasted by 
flat castings, made to fit the outside bottom of the shell 
and fastened thereto by "Tee" headed bolts passing 
through stuffing boxes inside the boat, the inside end of 
bolt squared to fit a wrench, that the bolts might be turn- 
ed and the ballast dropped, should the necessity arise. 

In connection with each of the water tanks there was 
a sea-cock open to the sea to supply the tank for sinking; 
also a force pump to eject the water from the tauks iLto 
the. sea for raising the boat to the surface. There was 
also a bilge connection to the pump. A mercury guage, 
open to the sea, was attached to the shell near the for- 
ward tank, to indicate the depth of the boat below the sur- 
face. A one and a quarter shaft passed through stuffing- 
boxes on each side of the boat, just forward of the end of 
the propeller shaft. On each end of this shatt, outside of 

Confederate Submarine Torpedo Boat Hunley. 83 

the boat, castings, or lateral fins, five feet long and eight 
inches wide, were secured. This shaft was operated by a 
U?ver amidships, and by raising or lowering the ends of 
these fins, operated as the fins of a fish, changing the depth 
of the boat below the surface at will, without disturbing 
the water level in the ballast tanks. 

The rudder was operated by a wheel, and levers con- 
nected to rods passing through stuffing-boxes in the stern 
castings, and operated by the captain or pilot forward. 
An adjusted compass was placed in front of the forward 
tank. The boat was operated by manual pow r er, with an 
ordinary propeller. On the propelling shaft there were 
formed eight cranks at different angles; the shaft was sup- 
ported by brackets on the starboard side, the men sitting 
on the port side turning on the cranks. The propeller shaft 
and cranks took up so much room that it was very diffi- 
cult to pass fore and aft, and when the men were in their 
places this was next to impossible. - In operation, one-half 
the crew had to pass through the fore hatch; the other 
through the after hatchway. The propeller revolved in a 
wrought iron ring or band, to guard against a line being 
thrown in to foul it. There were two hatchways — one 
fore and one aft — 16 inches by 12, with a combing 8 in- 
ches high. These hatches had hinged covers with rubber 
gasket, and were bolted from the inside. In the sides and 
ends of these combings glasses were inserted to sight 
from. There was an opening made in the top of the boat 
for an air box, a casting with a close top 12 by 18 by 4 
inches, made to carry a hollow shaft. This shaft passed 
through stuffing boxes. On each end was an elbow with 
a 4 foot length of 1 1-2 inch pipe, and keyed to the hollow 
fchaft; on the inside was a lever with a stop- cock to admit 

The torpedo was a copper cylinder holding a charge of 
ninety pounds of explosive, with percussion and friction 
primer mechanism, Bet off by flaring triggers. It was 
originally intended to float the torpedo on the surface of 
the water, the boat to dive under the vessel to be attacked, 
towing the torpedo with a line 200 feet long after her, 
one of the triggers to touch the vessel and explode the 
torpedo, and in the experiments made in the smooth wa- 
ter of Mobile river on some old flatboats these plans oper- 
ated successfully, but in rough water the the torpedo was 
continually coming too near the wrong boat. We then 

84 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

rigged a yellow pine boom, 22 feet long and tapering; this I 
was attached to the bow, banded and guyed on each side. § 
A socket on the torpedo secured it to the boom. 

Two men experienced in handling the boat and seven | 
others composed the crew. The first officer steered and I 
handled the boat forward, and the second attended to the | 
after-tank and pumps and the air supply, all hands turn- 1 
ing on the cranks except the first officer. There was just j 
sufficient room for these two to stand in their places with 1 
their heads in the hatchways and take observations j 
through the lights in the combings. 

All hands aboard and ready, they would fasten the 
hatch covers down tight, light a candle, then let the wa- 
ter in from the sea into the ballast tanks until the top of the 
shell was about three inches under water. This could be 
seen by the water lever showing through the glasses in the 
hatch combings. The sea-cocks were then closed and the 
boat put under way. The captain would then lower the 
lever and depress the. forward end of the fins very slightly, 
noting on the mercury gauge the depth oi the boat be- 
neath the surface; then bring the fins to a level; the boat 
would remain and travel at that depth. To rise to a 
higher level in the water he would raise the lever and ele- 
vate the forward end of the fins, and the boat would rise 
to its original position in the water. 

If the boat was not underway, in order to rise to the 
surface, it was necessary to start the pumps and lighten 
the boat by ejecting the water from the tanks into the sea. 
In making a landing, the second officer would open his 
hatch cover, climb out and pass a line to shore. After 
the experience with the boats in Mobile bay the authori- 
ties decided that Charleston harbor, with the monitors 
and blockaders there, would be a better field for this boat 
to operate in, and General Maury had her sent by rail to 
General Beauregard, at Charleston, S. C. Lieutenant John 
Payne, C. S. N., then on duty at Charleston, S. C, volun- 
teered with eight others of the navy to take the boat out. 
The crew were about ready to make their first attack; 
eight men had gotten aboard, when a swell swamped the 
boat, drowning the eight men in her. The boat was 
raised, Lieutenant Payne and eight others again volunteer- 
ing. She was about ready to go out, when she was 
swamped the second time. Lieutenant Payne and two of 
the crew escaped, but six men were drowned in her. 

Confederate Submarine Torpedo Boat Hunley. 85 

General Beauregard then turned the boat over to a vol- 
unteer crew from Mobile, known as the "Hunley and 
Parks crew." Captain Hunley and Thomas Parks (one of 
the best of men), of the firm of Parks & Lyons, in whose 
ehop the boat had been built, were in charge, with Messrs. 
Brockbank, Patterson, McHugh, Marshall, White, Beard 
and another, as the crew, and until the day this crew left 
Mobile it was understood that the writer of this was to be 
one of them, but on the eve of that day Mr. Parks pre- 
vailed on the writer to let him take his place. Nearly all 
the men had had some experience in the boat before leav- 
ing Mobile, and were well qualified to operate her. 

After the boat had been made ready again Captain 
Hunley practiced the crew diving and rising again on 
many occasions, until one evening, in the presence of a 
number of people on the wharf, she sank and remained 
sunk for some days, thus drowning her crew of nine men, 
or a total up to this time of three different crews, or twen- 
ty-three men. 

Lieutenant George E. Dixon*, like myself, was a me- 
chanical engineer and belonged to the same regiment, the 
Twenty-first Alabama. He had taken great interest in 
the boats while building, and during their operations in 
Mobile river, and would have been one of the "Hunley 
and Parks" crew, had there been a vacancy. As soon as 
the news that the boat had been lost again was verified, 
we discussed the matter together and decided to offer our 
services to General Beauregard, to raise and operate the 
boat for the defense of Charleston harbor. 

Our offer was accepted, and we were ordered to report 
to General Jordan, chief of staff. The boat was raised, 
and the bodies were buried in the cemetery at Charleston. 
A monument with suitable inscription marks the spot. 
There had been much speculation as to the cause of the 
loss of the boat, for there could have been no swamping as 
iu the other two cases, but the position in which the boat 
was found on the bottom of the river, the condition of the 
apparatus discovered after it was raised and pumped out, 
aud the position of the bodies in the boat, furnished a full 
explanation for her loss. The boat, when found, was ly- 
ing on the bottom at an angle of about 35 degrees, the bow 

*Mra. Julia I. Hartwell has a sketch of Lieutenant Dixon in the 
Montgomery Advertiser, March 11, 1900. See also Brewer's Alabama. 
P- &&.— Editor. 

86 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

deep in the mud. The holding-down bolts of each cover 
had been removed. When the hatch covers were lifted 
considerable air and gas escaped. Captain Huuley's body 
was forward, with his head in the forward hatchway, his 
right hand on top of his head (he had been trying, it 
would seem, to raise the hatch cover). In his left hand 
was a candle that had never been lighted, the sea-cock on 
the forward end, or Huuley's ballast tank, was wide open, 
the cock-wrench not on the plug, but lying on the bottom 
of the boat. Mr. Parks' body was found with his head in 
the after hatchway, his right hand above his head. He 
also had been tr} T ing to raise his hatch cover, but the pres- 
sure was too great. The sea-cock to his tank was prop- 
erly closed, and the tank was nearly empty. The other 
bodies were floating in the water. Hunley and Parks 
were undoubtedly asphyxiated, the others drowned. The 
bolts that held the iron keel ballast had been partly turn- 
ed, but not sufficient to release it. 

In the light of these conditions, we can easily depict 
before our minds, aud almost as readily explain, what 
took place in the boat during the moments immediately 
following its submergence. Captain Hunley's practice 
with the boat had made him quite familiar and expert in 
handling her, and this familiarity produced at this time 
forgetfulness. It was found in practice to be easier on the 
crew to come to the surface by giving the pumps a few 
strokes and ejecting some of the water ballast, than by the 
momentum of the boat operating on the elevated tins. At 
this time the boat Was under way, lighted through the 
dead-lights in the hatchways. He partly turned the fins 
to go down, but thought, no doubt, that he needed more 
ballast and opened his sea cock. Immediately the boat 
was in total darkness. He then undertook to light the 
candle. While trying to do this the tank quietly flooded, 
and under great pressure the boat sank very fast and soon 
overflowed, and the first intimation they would have of 
anything being wrong was the w r ater rising fast, but noise- 
lessly, about their feet in the bottom of the boat. They 
tried to release the iron keel ballast, but did not turn the 
keys quite far enough, therefore failed. The water soon 
forced the air to the top of the boat and into the hatch- 
ways, where Captains Huuley and Parks were found. 
Parks .had pumped his ballast tank dry, and no doubt 

Confederate Submarine Torpedo Boat Hunley. 87 

Captain Hunley had exhausted himself on his pump, but 
he had forgotten that he had not closed his sea cock. 

We soon had the boat refitted and in good shape, re- 
ported to General Jordan, chief of staff, that the boat was 
ready again for service, and asked for a crew. After many 
refusals and much dissuasion General Beauregard finally 
assented to our going aboard the C. 8. 1ST. receiving ship 
"Indian Chief," then lying in the river, and secure volun- 
teers for a crew, strictly enjoining upon us, however, that 
a full history of the boat in the past, of its having been 
lost three times and drowning twenty-three men in Charles- 
ton, and full explanation of the hazardous nature of the 
service required of them, was to be given each man, This 
was done, a crew shipped, and after a little practice in the 
river we were ordered to moor the boat oft' Battery T Mar- 
shall, on Sullivan's island. Quarters were given us at 
Mount Pleasant, seven miles from Battery Marshall. On 
account of chain booms having been put around the iron 
sides and the monitors in Charleston harbor to keep us oft' 
these vessels, we had to turn our attention to the fleet out- 
side. The nearest vessel, which we understood to be the 
United States frigate "Wabash," was about twelve miles 
off, and she was our objective point from this time on. 

In comparatively smooth water and light current the 
Hunley could make four miles an hour, but iu rough water 
the speed was much slower. It was winter, therefore 
necessary that we go out with the ebb and come in with 
the flood tide, a fair wind and dark moon. This latter was 
essential to success, as our experience had fully demonstra- 
ted the" necessity of occasionally coming to the surface, 
slightly lifting the after hatch-cover and letting in a little 
air. On several occasions we came to the surface for air, 
opened the cover and heard the men in the federal picket 
boats talking and singing. Our daily routine, whenever 
possible, was about as follows: 

Leave Mount Pleasant about 1 p. m., walk seven miles 
to Battery Marshall on the beach (this exposed us to fire, 
but it was the best walking), take the boat out and prac- 
tice the crew for two hours in the Back Bay. Dixon and 
myself would then stretch out on the beach with the com- 
pass between us and get the bearings of the nearest vessel 
as she took her position for the night; ship up the torpedo 
on the Loom, and, when dark, go out, steering for that 
vessel, proceed until the condition of the men, sea, tide, 

83 The Gulf*States Historical, Magazine. 

wind, moon and daylight compelled our return to the 
dock; unship the torpedo, put it under guard at Battery 
Marshall, walk back to quarters at Mount Pleasant and 
cook breakfast. 

During the months of November and December, 1863, 
through January and the early part of February, 1864, the 
wind held contrary, making it difficult, with our limited 
power, to make much headway. During this time we went 
out on an average of four nights a week, but on account 
of the weather, find considering the physical condition of 
the men to propel the boat back again, often, after going 
out Bix or seven miles, we would have to return. This we 
always found a task, and many times it taxed our utmost 
exertions to keep from drifting out to sea, daylight often 
breaking while we were yet in range. This experience, 
also our desire to know, in case we struck a vessel (cir- 
cumstances required our keeping below the surface), sug- 
gested that while in safe water we make the experiment to 
find out how long it was possible to stay under water 
without coming to the surface for air and not injure the 

It was agreed to by all hands to sink and let the boat 
rest on the bottom, in the Back bay, off Battery Marshall, 
each man to make equal physical exertion in turning the 
propeller. It was also agreed that if anyone m the boat 
felt that if he must come to the surface lor air, and he 
gave the word "up," we would at once bring the boat to 
the surface. 

It was usual, when practicing in. the bay, that the banks 
would be lined with soldiers. One evening, after alter- 
nately diving and rising many times, Dixon and myself 
and several of the crew compared watches, noted the time 
and sank for the test. In twenty-five minutes after I had 
closed the after manhead and excluded the outer air the 
candle would not burn. Dixon forward and myself aft, 
turned on the propeller cranks as hard as we could. In 
comparing our individual experience afterwards, the expe- 
rience of one was found to have been the experience of all. 
Each man had determined that he would not be the first 
to say "up!" ISTot a word was said, except the occasional, 
"How is it," between Dixon and myself, until it was as the 
voice of one man, the word "up" came from all nine. We 
started the pumps. Dixon's worked all right, but I soon 
realized that my pump was not throwing. From experi- 

Confederate Submarines Torpedo Boat Hunley. 89 

ence I guessed the cause of the failure, took off the cap of 
the pump, lifted the valve, drew out some seaweed that 
bad choked it. 

During the time it took to do this the boat was consid- 
erably by the stern. Thick darkness prevailed. All hands 
had already endured what they thought was the utmost 
limit. Some of the crew almost lost control of themselves. 
It was a terrible few minutes, "better imagined thau de- 
scribed." We soon had the boat to the surface and the 
manhead opened. Fresh air! What an experience ! Well, 
the sun was shining when we went down, the beach lined 
with soldiers. It was now quite dark, with one solitary 
soldier gazing on the spot where he had seen the boat be- 
fore going down the last time. He did not see the boat 
until he saw me standing on the hatch combing, calling to 
him to stand by to take the line. A light was struck and 
the time taken. We had been on the bottom two hours 
and thirty-iive minutes. The candles ceased to burn in 
twenty-live minutes after we went down, showing that we 
had remained under water two hours and ten minutes after 
the candle went out. 

The soldier informed us that we had been given up for 
lost, that a message had been sent to General Beauregard 
at Charleston that the torpedo boat had been lost that 
evening oft Battery Marshall with all hands. 

We got back to the quarters at Mount Pleasant that 
night, went over early next morning to the city (Charles- 
ton), and reported to General Beauregard the facts of the 
affair. They were all glad to see us. 

After making a full report of our experience, General 
Rains, of General Beauregard's staff, who was present, ex- 
pressed some doubt of our having stayed under water two 
hours and ten minutes after the candle went out. Not 
that any of us wanted to go through the same expe- 
rience again, but we did our best to get him to come 
over to Sullivan's island and witness a demonstration of 
the fact, but without avail. We continued to go out as 
otten as the weather permitted; hoping against hope, each 
time taking greater risks of getting back. On the last 
day of January we interviewed the Charleston pilots 
again, and they gave it as their opinion that the wind 
would hold in the same quarter for several weeks. 

On Feb. 5, 1864, 1 received orders to report in Charles- 
ton to General Jordan, chief of staff", who gave me trans- 

90 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

portation and orders to report at Mobile, to build a breech- 
loading, repeating gun. This was a terrible blow, both to 
Dixon and myself, after we had gone through so much 
together. General Jordan told Dixon he would get two 
men to take my place from the German artillery, but that 
I was wanted in Mobile. It was thought best not to tell 
the crew that I was to leave them. I left Charleston that 
night and reached Mobile in due course. I received from 
Dixon two notes shortly after reaching Mobile, one stating 
that the wind still held in the same quarter, and the other 
telling the regrets of the crew at my leaving and their 
feelings toward me; also that he expected to get men 
from the artillery to take my place. These notes, together 
with my passes, are before me as I w r rite. What mingled 
reminiscences they bring! 

Soon after this I received a note from Captain Dixon, 
saying that he succeeded in getting two volunteers from 
the German artillery, that for two days the wind had 
changed to fair, and he intended to try and get out that 
night. Next came the news that on Feb. 17 the subma 
rine torpedo boat Hunley had sunk the United States 
sloop-of-war Housatonic outside the bar off Charleston, 
S. C. As I read, I cried out with disappointment that I 
was not there. Soon I noted that there wa3 no mention 
of the whereabouts of the torpedo boat. I wired General 
Jordan daily for several days, but each time came the 
answer, "No news of the torpedo boat." After much 
thought, I concluded that Dixon had been unable to work 
his way back against wind and tide, and had been carried 
out to sea. I held this opinion until I read the account 
of the sinking of the Housatonic by an officer of that ves- 
sel, published in the Army and Navy Journal and after- 
wards the finding of the torpedo boat on the bottom with 
the wreck of the Housatonic. The plan was to take the 
bearings of the ships as they took position for the night, 
steer lor one of them, keeping about six feet under water, 
coming occasionally to the surface for air and observation, 
and when nearing the vesssel, come to the surface for 
final observation before striking her, which was to be done 
under her counter, if possible. 

The account of the sinking of the Housatonic by the 
submarine torpedo boat, as given in the Army and Navy 
Journal by one of the officers of that vessel, says: 4i It oc- 
curred Feb. 17, 1864, at 8:45 p. m., about two and a half 

Confederate Submarine Torpedo Boat Hunley. 91 

miles off Charleston bar. It was moonlight, with little 
wind or sea. The lookout observed something moving in 
the water, the chain was slipped, and the engines backed 
when the crash came, the ship sinking in three minutes 
after being struck." 

After the close of the war the government divers work- 
ing on the wreck of the Houeatonic discovered the tor- 
pedo boat with the wreck. With this data the explana- 
tion of her loss is easy. The Housatonic was a new vessel 
on the station, and anchored closer in than the Wabash 
and others. On this night the wind had lulled, with but 
little sea on, and although it was moonlight, Dixon, who 
had been waiting so long for a change of wind, took the 
risk of the moonlight and went out. The lookout on the 
ship saw him when he came to the surface for his final ob- 
servation before striking her. He, of couree, not knowing 
that the ship had slipped her chain and was backing down 
upon him, then sank the boat a few feet, steered for the 
stern of the ship and struck. The momentum of the two 
vessels brought them together unexpectedly. The stern of 
the ship was blown off entirely. The momentum carried the 
torpedo boat into the wreck, Dixon and his men, unable 
to extricate themselves, sinking with it. 



The publication of the Correspondence of John C. 
Calhoun, under the able editorship of Dr. J. Franklin 
Jameson, in the Amnual Report of the American Histori- 
cal Association for 1899, is by far the most pretentious 
special work put forth by the Association. This valuable 
collection will serve to euiphasize anew the conspicuous 
position of this eminent South Carolinian in the political 
history of the United States. No one can read these let- 
ters without a profound impression of the exalted charac- 
ter and intellectual force of Mr. Calhoun. One effect of 
the publication of this Correspondence will be the dis- 
covery of much valuable material of similar character. 

The following letters from Mr. Calhoun to Judge Charles 
Tait have recently come into possession of the editor, and 
they are published as an addition to the Calhoun material 
now coming to light. The question of their value is left 
to the special student of Mr Calhoun and his times. 
Judge Tait was born in Louisa county, Virginia, Febru- 
ary 1, 1768, and was a cousin of Henry Clay. He was 
educated as a lawyer, and later came to Georgia. He be- 
came a successfulmember of the bar of that State, and 
was at one time a member of the Georgia Supreme Court. 
He entered the Federal Senate from Georgia in 1809, 
where he served until 1819. It was during this period 
that he and Mr. Calhoun developed a strong friendship 
which lasted through life. In 1819 he came to Alabama, 
and in 1820 was appointed the first Federal District Judge 
in that State. He served until 1826, when he resigned. 
He spent the remainder of his life as a planter in Wilcox 
county, and died October 7, 1835. — Editor. 

War Dept 

20th July 1818 
My dear Sir, 

Yours of the 24th May came to hand, while I was to 
the South, which will account for the long interval be- 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait. 93 

twecn its date and that of my answer. Tho' exceedingly 
anxious to remain at my post, I found, from letters, that 
my private affairs made it indispensible that I should visit 
my farm. I remained only nine days at home. I do 
trust, I will be able to reduce the War Dept to more 
method, than it heretofore has had; but, I find, it must be 
the work of time. It is dangerous to reform, before we 
know the state of the disease, and in a business so com- 
plicated as the affairs of an army, this cannot be done at 
once. I think, I am making daily some advances, and 
trust before the next meeting of Congress a good deal will 
be done. 

I do hope, that the administration will continue to act 
on the noble maxim which you have laid down as the bssis 
of our policy, "Justice with Force." So long as it is ad- 
hered to, we will be in the road to prosperity and national 
glory. It is peculiarly and emphatically applicable to our 
situation. We can have no just excuse for neglecting 
either of its branches; and we' cannot neglect either with 
impunity. It, and it only, can advance as to that splendid 
future, which any good citizen delights to dwell on. 

The taking of Pensacola has no doubt caused much 
speculation to the south, as well as in other parts of the 
Union. As you know, the act was unauthorized, and done 
by Jackson on his own responsibility. The place of course 
will be yielded up to Spain. It belongs to Congress, and not 
to the Executive, to make war on Spain. However improper 
the conduct of Spain has been, and however desirable to 
us to possess the Floridas, I am decidedly of tbe opinion 
that the peace of the country ought to be preserved. We 
have nothing to gain in a Spanish War and much, to loose. 
Should the contest be confined to Spain and us, our com- 
merce must pass from us to the neutral powers, particularly 
England. Should other powers be involved, and the war 
general, the wisest men cannot see its result. We must 
suffer. We want time. Let us grow. 

I shall at all times be happy to hear from my old friend. 
Your political course, (you will not suspect me of flattery) 
has been without an aberation, so far as I have seen it. 
You deserve well of your country. I trust a grateful 
country will remember your services. 

Your friend, 

»J. C. Calhoun. 

94 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

War Dept 
5th Sept 1818. 
My dear Sir, 

By some delay in the mail your very interesting letter of 
days the 18th of last month did not come to hand till a few 
since. Since the commencement of my public life, it has 
been my good fortune to have been associated with many, 
who are justly the pride and ornament of this country. 
Among these distinguished citizens, I know of none, tvhose 
opinions and acts have more invariably pointed to the 
prosperity and the honor of our country than yours. I 
know of not one article in your political creed, nor a vote, 
or an act of yours, which ought to give the least regret. 
Whatever may have been the delusion, for a time, in your 
State, I know, you must possess, that reward, which no 
public man, but the good and independent can enjoy. It 
is a high reward. I think, I know something of it from 
experience. I have, on some occasions, felt a conscious 
pleasure, of doing my duty in opposition to mere momen- 
tary popularity, which I would not exchange for scarcely 
any other moment of my life. 

Your train of reflection in relation to Jackson and Pen- 
sacola is such as I expected. It is indispensible that the 
military should on all occasions be held subordinate to or- 
ders, and I know of no excuse except necessity, that ought 
to exempt from punishment disobedience to orders. It is 
natural to ask why not apply this principle so indispensi- 
ble, to Col. Jackson? The| answer is that there was a 
diversity of opinion, as to the character of his conduct. 
Some thought, that tho' be had no orders directing him 
to do what was done, yet the prohibition, contained in his 
orders, did not extend to the circumstances under which 
he acted; and that, altho he may have mistaken the power 
of an American General, placed as he was, yet he honestly 
and fairly thought he had, the right to do, what he did. 
By those who took this view, it was not considered as a 
case of acknowledged disobedience, in which from the 
popularity of the General, it was impolitic to punish. 
When to this was added, the misconduct of the Spanish 
authority in Florida and the relation of this country with 
Spain, it wa3 thought it would be highly improper, to 
order any proceedings against the General. Such was the 
diversity of view taken ot this subject. The existence of 
this different mode of viewing this subject, would itself 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait. 95 

render it, perhaps, improper, to take the high toned course, 
as that ought not to be resorted to, but in a case free from 
doubt. I have spoken to you freely on this interesting 
subject. You will consider it between ourselves. 

1 wrote to General Mitchell several weeks ago very ur- 
gently in relation to the road to the Alabama territory. 
Shortly after the passage of the bill, I wrote to Gen. 
Gaines to render all the assistance he could; but the state 
of things in his command, has prevented him from fur- 
nishing any. The road is important & I hope the agent 
will do his duty. 

Your friend, 

Hon. 0. Tait. J. C. Calhoun. 

Address: Hon. C. Tait j Cooks Law Office | Elbert County | Georgia. 

War Dept 
29th Jany. 1820 
Dear Sir 

On my return from the South, I found on my table your 
letter of the 22d Oct'r; and lean assure you that it afforded 
me much pleasure to hear from an old friend, for whom I 
have so great a regard. You will not consider the long 
interval between the dates ot your letter and this commu- 
nication, as an evidence of a contrary state of feelings, 
when I state, that so great has been the pressure of public 
business, from my long absence from my office and feeble 
state of health till lately, that my private correspondence, 
till within a few days, has been wholly suspended. My 
health now is as good as usual. 

Since your letter was written the Presidents message 
has fully laid open our relations with Spain, and the 
opinion of the Executive on that subject. The measure 
recommended by the President, tho' different from the 
one which you suggested in your communication, yet it 
originates precisely in the same feelings and proceeds from, 
the same views of our national policy. In this business it 
is desirable to effect two objects at the same time, to do 
ourselves justice and to avoid war. The measure sug- 
gested by the President is most likely to do this. By the 
acquisition of Florida we acquire a country of more value 
to us, than the one between the Sabine and the Del Norte, 

96 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

not in extent, soil or climate, but what to us is more important 
in position and naval and commercial advantages. "Next to 
Cuba, the ports of Florida will command the trade of the 
Gulf of Mexico. Nor will its acquisition be so likely to 
produce war, as the country west of us. Florida is by 
itself, and its acquisition looks no further, that to the west 
is a part of the most valuable Spanish possession on this 
continent. Spain and all Europe will be much more alive 
to any extension of our territory tho in fact, it is believed, 
that one reason why the great powers of Europe, have 
confessed a satisfaction at our course, is, because we have 
been so moderate in the Spanish treaty as it regards our 
western limit. I believe, if we limit ourselves to Florida 
we may take it without the hazard of war; but if we pass our 
western limits, war is inevitable. This subject at present, 
slumbers in Congress, in the midst of the din of the Mis- 
souri question, but I do not doubt, but that Congress will, 
before it rises authorize the executive to occupy Florida. 

You can by this time form a more correct estimate of the 
advantages and disadvantages of your new location. I hope 
that the former greatly preponderate. From all I can 
learn, I am inclined to think, that both your soil and cli- 
mate excel the corresponding part of Carolina, or Georgia. 

Do you ever see our old friend Col. Barnett? It is a 
long time since I have heard from him. I have always 
entertained a great esteem for him, and should you see 
him do remember me affectionately to him. 

Your servant 

J. C. Calhoun. 
Hon. C. Tait. 

Address: Hon. C. Tait I Claiborne I Alabama. 

War Dept 
20th May 1820 
Dear Sir, 

I have received your very agreeable favour of the 2nd 
March, and I most sincerely congratulate you on the pleasu- 
rable prospects, which your new establishment holds out to 
you. With a healthy climate, a fertile soil and a continu- 
ance of the same articles of culture to which you have 
been accustomed, you cannot fail of a very considerable 
portion of happiness. The mere inconvenience of a new 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charees Tait. 97 

country will soon wear away while the invigorated hopes, 
which it usually excites, will long continue. My fear was, 
that your removal would cause too great a break in your 
established habits. Yon had long been accustomed to the 
habits of publick life; and your decrepitude does not per- 
mit you to change it with ease for the active pursuits of 
private life. Under thi3 view, I trust that you will find 
the office, to which you have been assigned not only useful 
to your state, but agreeable to yourself. 

The Spanish question remains yet unadjusted. Had not 
the revolution occurred in Spain, there would have been 
little, or no diversity as to the course to be pursued on the 
termination of the late correspondence with General Veves. 
The occupation of the country in dispute would have fol- 
lowed. But the great event, to which I have alluded has 
quite changed the aspect of our relations with Spain. 
Spain is making a great struggle to better her political con- 
dition; and it would have been wholly unjustifiable in the 
present state of our relation with her, to have adopted any 
measure, which would have embarrassed her in the work 
of regeneration. We are the only government in the world, 
which will regard the movement there with approbation. 
All others fear the example and deprecate the cause; and 
as far as our kind treatment is of any importance to her, 
she has a right to expect it of us. In fact the period is a 
momentous one. With the exception of Russia all Europe 
seems agitated. Great moral and political causes are in 
operation. They commenced with us; and their preva- 
lence must depend much on our wisdom. We ought not 
to be entangled in the course of events but to watch their 
progress, and to adapt our policy to the principles on which 
our. institutions are founded. The World is no longer as 
it has been; and the most enlarged views and liberal policy 
is now required. The dispute between nations is no longer 
about commerce, or territory, but whether this or that 
system of Government shall prevail. 

At home we have no serious difficulty to encounter but 
the state of the treasury. Our expenditure will be much 
reduced the next year; but I fear that our receipts will be 
still more. I speak, however, from the impression of 
others, for I have no leisure to look minutely into the state 
of that Department of our affairs. I regret the repeal of 
the internal taxes. I thought I saw,, years since, that com- 
merce, as the sole instrument of taxation, would fail. We 

98 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

are rapidly reaching a condition of society in which it is 
unequal to tax the country through its commerce only. 
But I am very far from desiring a resort to a new system 
of internal taxation till it becomes indispensible. 

The importance which you attach to the good and har- 
monious conduct of myself, and a few other individuals, I 
cannot but think is over estimated. The prosperity of our 
country never has, perhaps, depended much on the con- 
duct af any single individual. Those rise whose princi- 
ples and conduct are congenial to a majority of the 
people. Without this congeniality, let their intellect be 
what it may, they cease to have control. Be this as it 
may, as far as I am concerned, I feel conscious that I can 
never be swayed, to any considerable extent, by motives 
of ambition. My politics, I think I may say with perfect 
truth, has been a system founded on certain fixed princi- 
ples; and to carry them into effect has been my highest 
ambition. I would despise myself, if I were to change 
this noble object for the mean one of personal aggrandize- 
ment. Provided our country be free, powerful and mod- 
erate in her councils, I care not whether I have the princi- 
pal sway, or not. With these principles, I hope and 
believe, there is not much danger of collision. It will be 
in conformity to my principles to avoid them as far as 

With great respect 

& esteem 
I am 

J. C. Calhoun. 

Hon. C. Tait. 

War Dept 
26th Oct. 1820 
Dear Sir, 

Just about the time, I was about starting on an excur- 
sion to the North for exercise, amusement and improve- 
ment, I received yours of the 16th July; which together 
with a great pressure of business on my return will ac- 
count, I hope satisfactorily, for the long interval between 
the date of your favour and my answer. My excursion 
proved ruuch longer than what 1 at first expected, being 
tompted to go still farther by going; so that I not only 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait. 99 

found myself at Niagara and Sackett Harbour, but at 
Montreal, Plattsburg & Boston, and instead of 4 weeks ab- 
sence as I intended, I did not return till nearly the end 
of the 7th. I, however, was richly compensated for the time 
consumed by returning, not only with renewed health, but 
with my knowledge of an interesting portion of our country 
greatly enlarged. I have seen much to admire in the 
couutry through which I passed, as well as its inhabitants. 
Judging from such fact3 as came to my knowledge, I can- 
not but think that the impression, which exists on the 
minds of many of your virtuous and well informed citi- 
zens to the South, and among others are your owu, that 
there has commenced between the North and the South a 
premeditated struggle for superiority, is not correct. That 
there are some individuals to the north, who for private 
objects, wish to create such a struggle, I do not doubt. It 
suits their ambition, and gives them hopes of success, as 
the majority of votes both in Congress and the electoral 
college is from the north; or rather from non slave holding 
states. But their number is very small, and the few there 
are, are to be found almost wholly in New York, and the 
middle states. I by no means identify the advocates for 
restriction and. Missouri, with them. The advocates of 
restriction are actuated by a variety of motives. The great 
body of them are actuated by motives perfectly honest. 
Very few indeed look to emancipation. I state the case, 
as I am well assured that it exists. We to the South 
ought not to assent easily to the belief, that there is a con- 
spiracy either against our property, or just weight in the 
Union. A belief of the former might, and probably would, 
lead to the 'most disasterous (sic) conserpience. Nothing 
would lead more directly to disunion with all of its hor- 
rors. That of the latter would cooperate, as it appears to 
me, directly with the scheme of the few designing men to 
the north, who think they see their interest in exciting a 
struggle between the two portions of our country. If we, 
from such a belief, systematically oppose the north, they 
must from necessity resort to a similar opposition to us. 
( >ur true system is to look to the country; and to support 
s ueh measures and such men, without a regard to sections 
as are best calculated to advance the general interest. If 
tnere are adequate virtue and intelligence in the people, a.s 
I firmly believe there are, those individuals and sections of 
Couutry, who have the most enlightened and devoted 

100 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

zeal to the common interests have also the greatest influ- 
ence. I hope, that you will not consider this a long and 
cold essay. I have sometimes feared that the Missouri 
question will create suspicions to the south very unfavora- 
ble to a correct policy. Should emancipation be attempted 
it must, and will be resisted at all costs, but let us be cer- 
tain first that it is the real object, not by a few, but by a 
large portion of the non slave holding states. Our politi- 
cal horizon presents no reason to expect a storm. All 
exhibit marks of quiet, which, I hope, may long continue. 
The want of reverence is the only difficulty or a serious 
nature, which we have to encounter. I hope the deficit, 
which this year, will be considerable, will prove temporary; 
and may of course, if so, 1 airly be met by loans. I was 
averse to the repeal of the taxes; but would, be equally 
averse to their reimposition, till [it] is found absolutely 
impossible to avoid them. 

Europe is deeply agitated. If I am not much deceived 
a quarter of a century will greatly alter the political con- 
dition of that portion of the world. 

I have referred your letter relative to the use of Fort 
Charlotte at Mobile as a prison to the State Department, 
to which it refers itself, and have informed Mr. Adams, 
that if it should be desired for that purpose, orders would 
be given to evacuate it, if it can be done with propriety. 
I hope you continue to enjoy health aud that your new 
residence equals your expectation in soil climate and other 

With much respect 

J. C. Calhoun. 

Hon. C. Tait. 

War Dept. 
23rd April 1821. 
Dear Sir, 

Returning to my private correspondence after a long 
suspension, I find your favour, of the 24th I^ov. — among 
my unanswered letters. On opening it, I was struck with 
the rapid march of events. Much of your just reflections 
turned on the Missouri question, the acquisition of Flori- 
da, and the means of relief for the purchasers of the pub- 
lick lands. A few months have passed, and these subjects 
have ceased to be objects of speculation. Missouri is hap- 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait. 101 

pi {y admitted and eu circled by the golden chain of this 
Union. Florida is ours, and the American Eagle will in 
a few weeks spread its protective wings over the Barancas 
and the walls of St. Augustine; and the purchasers of the 
publiek land instead of being borne down by an adverse 
course ot events, have been sustained & cheered by an en- 
lightened and humane policy. Such is the disposition, 
which so short a period has made of these interesting sub- 
jects; you, however, have touched on another of still deep- 
er interest, not yet passed by, nor like to be in our time; 
"the interesting state of things in Europe." If on the 24th 
of Xov. last we could with propriety call [the] condition 
of Europe interesting by what term shall we now desig- 
nate it? Then liberty was bursting from the womb; but 
now we behold the combined effort of despotism to crush 
it in infancy. Every day is bringing us nearer and nearer 
the great strife, the mighty conflict, which must take place. 
The institutions of Europe are deeply seated, growing out 
of those feudal institutions, which once spread over Christ- 
endom and pervaded all the relations of society; but the 
genius of the age, from causes not to be resisted, has be- 
come wholly hostile to the existing order of society. The 
essence of feudalism was lords and vassals; that of the ge- 
tiius of the age is equality. Should Naples resist in a 
manner worthy of her illustrious career, should Austria 
be foiled in her first attack, she will not long struggle 
alone. The flame will spread, and the crisis will be has- 
tened. But admit her resistance to be feeble, and that 
Austria troops should occupy her territory, yet that safety 
and quiet will not be found, which the despots seek. The 
spirit will break out at some other point, not so easy to 
control. From this scene let us turn to ourselves. What 
part ought we to act? What ought to be our policy, in 
this interesting condition of the world? You have given 
the answer in two words, " justice and force." The latter 
is no less important than the former, in fact justice cannot 
be executed, or awarded without force. How mortifying 
to reflect, how many of those entrusted with the destinies 
of our country either did not comprehend this simple max- 
im, or had not the fortitude to act on it? Who could have 
believed, that in so short a time, that all of these estab- 
lishments, which were so nicely fixed at the termination 
of the late war, and which have since been gradually ad- 
vancing to perfection would have been so soon endangered? 

i02 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

In 1815-1G there was but one vote in the House of Rep- 
resentatives against the navy; in 1820-21, there is scarcely 
a majority in its favour. Lead where it will, my course 
is fixed. I will not hold any terms with such unwise and 
dangerous vacillation. No motives of popularity shall 
move me. I will not tamper with the high destiny of this 
country. In so fixed a course, I must expect to meet the 
opposition and censure of those of different principles. I 
am prepared for it; and shall not be intimidated. What- 
ever doubts may now exist as to our policy, the time will 
come, when there will be none. 

I hope you continue to enjoy health and. that you 
find your residence in Alabama agreeable to you. Each 
year must add to your comfort, and your state with its fine 
frontier and climate must soon become a powerful member 
of this Union. 

With sincere regard 

& esteem 

I am 
J. C Calhoun 
Hon. C. Tait. 

1st Oct. 1821. 
My dear Sir, 

I was startled in taking up your last letter to answer it 
to find its date so old as the 31st of May. I was strongly 
admonished of the tardiness of my correspondence and be- 
gan to call over the causes of the delay of my answer, which 
I found resolved themselves into my engagements, when it 
was received, arising out of the reduction of the army, the 
information of your intended visit to Georgia, and the un- 
certainty when a letter would find you there, and finally 
an excursion to the Bedford Springs in Pennsylvania, 
from which I have just returnel. 

I am glad to learn that your situation is growing more 
comfortable and that among the other objects, which con- 
tribute to it, you have a post office in the neighbourhood. 
To oue who has looked so long on the world as yourself, 
and who takes so much interest in what affects our coun- 
try this must add greatly to your enjoyment. 

The political world, would with little exception, appear 

Letters From John C. Calhoun to Charles Tait. 103 

very calm, but I am of the opinion, that an attentive ob- 
server may see symptoms of the brewing storm. I fear 
that an attempt is making extensively to form a party sys- 
tem at N. Y. against the powers of the general govern- 
ment. Believing as I do, that the powers, which fairly 
belong to it, are indispensible to our happiness and per- 
manent prosperity, I cannot but deprecate any attempt to 
diminish them below what a fair construction of the con- 
stitution would give. There is a vast space between a 
fair and practical construction of that instrument, and one 
which in any instance construes rigidly against it, and if 
the last is to prevail, the powers of the Union would be 
reduced almost to nothing. You have touched on a point 
of deep interest to our tranquility; I mean the temper of 
of the North towards the South. It is a subject, which I 
have observed with the closest attention; and I cannot but 
think, that the opinion, which you have formed is erro- 
neous, and that it has been formed by extending a few in- 
dications of the feelings of certain politicians to the whole 
North. I do not in the least doubt, but that the Missouri 
question was got up by a few designing politicians in or- 
der to extend their influence and power; and that the ten- 
dency of the question was of the most mischiveous char- 
acter, being such as was well calculated to alienate the af- 
fections of the people of one section from the other and to 
destroy that unity of sympathy which makes us one peo- 
ple. But we are not to infer, that, as the politicians were 
sustained by the North on the Missouri question, the peo- 
ple in that quarter entered into their views, or that even 
the leaders were actuated by a hatred to the South, rather 
than a restless ambition. The North considered it as a 
single question, involving only the extension of slavery, 
and under this view, it is not to be wondered at, that much 
excitement was caused. They viewed it in some degree in 
the same light, that they would the office of the ports to 
the introduction of Africans while the South, regarding 
its possible tendency, considered it in a character wholly 
different, and as involving in its consequence the question 
of abolition. Thus the question became highly dangerous 
and all sober statesmen became anxious for the compro- 
mise which happily for the country was effected, as I hope, 
and sincerely believe, forever. In this state of excitement 
the active, but unprincipled were only studious of ad- 
vancing their own interest without much regard to the 
interest of the country, or that of the North, or South. 

104 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

This I fear will always be the case iu either section; and I 
fear, that there is at this time a disposition on the part of 
some among us, to advance their own interests, on the be- 
lief which exists to the South of the unfriendly feeling of 
the North towards us; as we see in the latter there are 
some who would profit by what they call the clanish feel- 
ings of the former. That want of confidence, which you 
so strongly expect, I cannot but think, has resulted from 
partial observations. I speak with deference as I have 
the highest regard for your judgment and patriotism; but 
even if on an examination of facts it should still continue, 
yet I must think, that you will agree on reflection, that it 
ought not, without d< monstration iu its favour, to become 
the basis of our political conduct or action. Were we to 
act on the supposition, that we cannot trust; that by giv- 
ing power we arm a robber, we would no longer be one 
nation. We could not feel, or act other wise towards an 
avowed enemy. Thus virtually separated we ought to 
prepare for an actual separation. Distrust must engender 
distrust. We will not trust them, they will not trust us. 
Conflict must follow, thence violence and then disunion. 
I would neither give or exercise power under such cir- 
cumstances. It must be exercised over a prostrate enemy, 
and not over freemen delegating it for the advantage of 
the whole. When I see one of your age, experience, wis- 
dom and virtue thinking as you do on this point, 1 con- 
fess, I am alarmed if I say to myself, if the Missouri ques- 
tion has excited such feelings iu the breast of so expe- 
rienced and virtuous a citizen, what must be its effects iu 
our section of the country on those less wise and virtuous. 
I would write much more if T had not reached the limits 
of a long letter. 

With much esteem 
I am Sir 

J. C, Calhoun. 
Hon. C. Tait. 

Give my respects to my old acquaintance William Black. 
I hope he is doing well. 

lo? \ 


By Walter L. Fleming. 


One of the most vexing questions left by the Civil War 
was that of the relations of the churches, North aud 
South. The bitter feelings then aroused are yet scarcely 
allayed. They constituted one of the strongest forces 
that assisted to form the Solid South both in politics and 
in religion. 

At the close of 1861 every religious body represented 
in the South, except the Roman Catholic Church,* had 
been divided into Northern and Southern branches. The 
political rather than the moral aspects of slavery had led 
finally to strife in the churches. The Southern churches 
protested against the action of the Northern religious 
bodies in going into politics on the s'avery question and 
thus causing endless strife between the sections as repre- 
sented in the churches. The response of the Northern 
societies to such protests resulted in the gradual alienation 
and final separation of the Southern churches. The first sepa- 
ration came in 1821,when the Associate Reformed Presbyte- 
rian Church excluded slaveholders from communion and 
thereby Southern members. f Next came the division of the 
two strongest Protestant denominations, the Baptist and the 
Methodist. The Southern Baptists became convinced that 
slaveholders were to be excluded from appointment a3 
missionaries, agents or officers of the Board of Foreign 
Missions, although they had contributed their full share 
to the support of foreign missions. The Alabama Baptist 
Convention in 1844 led the way to separation with its 
protest against this discrimination by the Board. The 
latter seated in reply that under no circumstances would 
a slaveholder be appointed by them to any position. The 

*0'Gorman, History of the Roman Catholic Church in the U. S., p. 4S5 

jCarroll, Religious forces of the United States, p. 306; Thompson, 
History of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States, pp. 41, 135. 

106 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Board of the Home Mission Society made a similar de-. 
claratiou. The formal withdrawal of the Southern State 
Conventions followed in 1841, and in 1815 the Southern 
Baptist Convention was formed.* 

In the Methodist Episcopal Church the conflict over 
slavery had long heen smouldering, and in 1844 it broke 
out in regard to the ownership of slaves by the wife of 
Bishop Andrew of Alabama. The. hostile sections agreed 
to separate into a .Northern and a Southern Church, and 
a Plan of Separation was adopted. This was disregarded 
by the Northern body and the question of the division of 
property went to the courts. The Supreme Court of the 
United States finally decided in favor of the Southern 
Church. From these troubles angry feelings on both sides 
resulted. The Southern Church took the name of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South; the Northern Church 
retained the old name.f 

In 1858 the Northern conferences of the Methodist 
Protestant Church, having failed to change the constitu- 
tion of the church in regard to slavery, withdrew, and 
uniting with a number of Wesleyan Methodists, formed the 
Methodist Church. J 

The Southern Aid Society was formed in New York in 
1854 for mission work in the South because the American 
Home Mission Society refused to aid any minister or mis- 
sionary who was a slaveholder, and because it was gen- 
erally believed that the American Home Mission Society 
was allied with the abolitionists. In Alabama the South- 
ern Aid Society worked principally among the Presbyte- 
rians of North Alabama.§ 

The N. S. Presbyterians separated in 1858 "on account 
of politics," and the Southern branch formed the United 
Synod, South. || 

The East Alabama Presbytery (O. S.) in 1861 followed 

* Statistics of Churches, Census of 1890, p. 140; Eiley, History of the 
Baptists in the Southern States East of the Mississippi, p. 205, et seq.; 
Newman, History of the Baptists of the United States, pp. 443-454. 

fSee Smith, Life of James Osgood Andrew; Buckley, Histoni of 
Methodism; McTyeire, History of Methodism; Alexander, History of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South; Statistics of Churches, p. 581. 

X Statistics of Churches, p. 5C6. 

§Southern Aid Society Beports, 1854-1861. 

|| Statistics of Churches, p. G83; Carroll, Bdigions Forces, pp. 281, 
300; Thompson, History of the Presbyterian Churciies, 135. 

Churches of Alabama During 1'he Civil War. 107 

the Presbytery of Memphis with a protest against the 
action of the General Assembly in entering politics. The 
Presbytery of South Alabama met at Selma in July, 1861, 
severed its connection with the General Assembly, and 
recommended a meeting of a Confederate States Assem- 
bly. This Assembly was held at Augusta and formed the 
Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of Amer- 
ica. A long address was published setting forth the causes 
of the separation, the future policy of the church, and its 
attitude towards slavery. It declared that the Northern 
section with its radical policy was playing into the hands 
of both slaveholders and abolitionists and thus weakening 
its influence with both. "We," the address stated, "in our 
ecclesiastical capacity are neither the friends nor foes of 
slavery." As long as they were connected with the radi- 
cal Northern church the Southern Presbyterians felt that 
they would be shut out from useful work among the slaves 
by the suspicions of the Southern people concerning their 
real Hiieiiuons.'' 

The Christian Church separated in 1854. During the 
war the Southern Synods of the Evangelical Lutherans 
withdrew and formed the General Synod, South. There 
were few members of these churches in Alabama.f 

The Cumberland Presbyterians, while practically sepa- 
rated by the war seem not to have formally established an 
independent organization in the Confederate States. A 
convention was called to meet at Selma in 1864, but noth- 
ing came of it.J 

In May, 1861, the Protestant Episcopal Convention of 
Alabama declared null and void that part of the Constitu- 
tion ot the Diocese relating to its connection with the 
church in the United States. Instead of the President of 
the United States the Governor of Alabama, and later the 
President of the Confederate States, was prayed for in the 
public prayer. Wilrner was elected Bishop, Cobbs having 
died one hour before the secession of the State. § 

In July the Bishops of the Southern States met in Mont- 

*Thonipson, History of the Presbyterian Churches, p. 155; Johnson, 
History of the Southern Presbyterian Church, pp. 333, 339; MePherson, 
History of the Rebellion,, p. 508; Annual Cyclopedia, (1862), p. 707; 
Statistics of Churches, p. 683. 

fCarroll, Religious Forces, pp. 93, 178. 

% Annual Cyclopozdia, (1864), p. 683. 

§McPherson, 'Histoi-y of the Bebellion, p. 515. 

103 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

gomery to draft a new Constitution and Canons. A reso- 
lution was passed to the effect that the secession of the 
Southern States from the Union and the formation of a 
new government rendered it expedient that the dioceses 
within those States should form an independent organiza- 
tion. The new constitution was adopted in November, 
1861, by a General Convention, and the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church in the Confederate States was formed.* 


Before the beginning of hostilities the strained relations 
between North and South had caused many of the religi- 
ous organizations to put themselves on record in regard to 
political questions. 

The Alabama Baptist Convention in 1860 declared in a 
series of resolutions on the state of the country, that though 
standing aloof for the most part from political parties and 
contests, yet their retired position did not exclude the 
profound conviction based on unquestioned facts, that the 
Uniou of States had failed in important particulars to an- 
swer the purpose for which it was created. From the Fed- 
eral government they could no longer hope for justice, pro- 
tection or safety, especially with refereuceto their peculiar 
property recognized by the Constitution. They thought 
themselves entitled to equality of rights as citizens of the 
republic, and they meant to. maintain their rights, even at 
the risk of life and things held dear. They felt constrained 
"to declare to our brethren and fellow- citizens, before man- 
kind and before our God, that we hold ourselves subject 
to the call of proper authority in defense of the sovereignty 
and independence of the State of Alabama and of her 
sacred right as a sovereignty to withdraw from this Union, 
and to make any arrangement which her people in con- 
stituent assemblies may deem best for securing their rights. 
And in this declaration we are heartily, deliberately, unani- 
mously and solemnly united "f Bravely did they stand by 
this declaration in the stormy years that followed. A 
year later (1861) the Southern Baptist Convention adopted 

•Perry, History of the American Episcopal Church, vol. ii, p. 328, 
etseq.; McPherson, History of the Rebellion, p. 515. 

t Riley , History of the Baptists of Alabama, p. 279. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 109 

resolutions sustaining the principles for which the South 
was fighting, condemning the course of the North, and 
pledging hearty support to the Confederate government.* 
It is certain that like action was taken by the South- 
ern Methodist Church, but little can now be found on the 
subject. One authority states that in 1860 the politicians 
were anxious that the Alabama Conference should declare 
its sentiment in regard to the state of the country. This 
was strougly opposed and frustrated by Bishops Soule and 
Andrew who wanted a non-political church. f 

From auother account we learn that in December 1860 
a meeting of Methodist ministers in Montgomery declared 
in favor of secession from the union. i 

The young preachers all went to the front — some as 
chaplains, others as officers, leading the men of their 
former congregations. The associations and conferences 
were now made up of gray haired old men. But tbeir 
spirit was high until the last and all the churches faith 
fully supported the Confederate cause. They gave thanks 
for successes on the field of battle, cared for the cripples, 
widows and orphans made by the war, held society to- 
gether against the demoralizipg infiueuces of civil strife 
and were a strong support to the State when it had ex- 
hausted itself in the struggle. The fidelity of the slave 
during these trying times called forth expressions of 
gratitude from the churches and all of them did what they 
could to better his social and religious condition. § 

In 1862 a committee report to the East Liberty Baptist 
Association urged "one consideration upon the minds of 
our membership : the present civil war which has been 
inaugurated by our enemies must be regarded as a provi- 
dential visitation upon us on account of our sins." This 
called forth w r arm discussion and was at once modified by 
the insertion of the words: "Though entirely just on 
our part."|| 

In 1863 the Alabama ministers — Baptist, Methodist 
Episcopal South, Methodist Protestant, United Synod 
South, Episcopal, Presbyterian — united with the clergy of 

*McPherson, p. 514. 

■j-Smith, Life and Letters of James Osgood Andrew, p. 473. 

JNew York World, December 26, 1SG0. 

§Riley, Baptists of Alabama, pp 286, 300. 

|| Riley, Baptists of Alabama, p. 291. 

110 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

the other Southern States in "The Address of the Confed- 
erate Clergy to ^Christians Throughout the World." The 
address declared that the war was being waged to achieve 
that which it was impossible to accomplish by violence, 
that is, to restore the union. It protested against the ac- 
tion of the North in forcing the war upon the South and 
condemned the abolitionist policy of Lincoln as indicated 
in the Emancipation Proclamation. It made a lengthy de- 
fense of the principles for which the South was fighting.* 


When the Northern armies came South the military au - 
thorities attempted to regulate the devotioual services in 
the various churches. Prayers had to be offered for the 
President of the United States and for the Federal govern- 
ment. It was a criminal offense to pray for the Confed- 
erate cause or for Confederate leaders. Preachers who 
refused to pray "loyal" prayers and preach "loyal" ser- 
mons were forbidden to hold services. In Hunts ville in 
1862 the Reverend Frederick A. Ross a celebrated Presby- 
terian minister was arrested by General Rousseau and sent 
North to prison for praying for the success of the Confed- 
erate cause and the defeat of the Federal armies. f 

With the advance of the Federal armies came the 
Northern churches. Territory gained by Northern arms 
was considered territory gained for the Northern church. 
Ministers came, or were sent down to take the place of 
Southern ministers who were prohibited from preaching. 
The military authorities were especially hostile to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South,! and to the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, annoying the ministers and 
congregations of these bodies in every way. They were 
told that upon them lay the blame for the war, since they 
had done so much to bring it on. The Secretary o( War 
at Washington, in an official order dated November 30, 
1863, placed at the disposal of Bishop Ames of the North- 
ern Methodist Church all houses of worship belonging to 
the Southern Methodist Church in which a "loyal" minis- 
ter, appointed by a "loyal" bishop of the latter church, was 

*McPherson, pp. 5, 17-521. 

fKeifer, Slavenj and Four Years of War, vol. i, pp. 5, 27: 

JSmith, History of Methodists in Georgia and Florida. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. Ill 

not officiatiDg. Certainly there were few "loyal" ministers 
and no "loyal" bishops. It was a matter of the greatest 
importance to the government, the order stated, that 
christian ministers should by example and precept sup- 
port and foster the loyal sentiment of the people. Bishop 
Ames, the order recited, enjoyed the entire confidence of 
the War Department, and no doubt was entertained by 
the government, but that the ministers appointed by him 
would be loyal. The military authorities were directed 
to support Bishop Ames in the execution of his important 
mission.* A second order dated January 14, 1864, directed 
the military authorities to turn over to the American Bap- 
tist Home Mission Society all churches belonging to the 
Southern Baptists. Confidence was expressed in the 
loyalty of this society and its ministers.! Later orders 
placed the Board of Home Missions of the United Presby- 
terian Church in charge of the churches of the Associate 
Reformed Church, and authorized the Northern branches 
of the O. S. and N. S. Presbyterians to appoint loyal 
ministers for the churches of these denominations in the 

Lincoln seems not to have been displeased with the ac- 
tion taken by the War Department, but nothing mure was 
done than to modify the orders so as to concern only the 
churches in the "rebellious states."§ 

Lender these orders churches in North Alabama were 
seized and turned over to the Northern branches of the 
same denomination. In some of the mountain districts 
this was not displeasing to the so-called union element of 
the population. In Central and South Alabama where 
the Federal forces did not appear until 1865 these orders 
were not enforced when the invading army came. 

Throughout the war, there was a disposition on the 
part of a certain class of army officers to force ministers of 
Southern sympathies to conduct "loyal" services — that is, 
to preach and to pray for the success of the Federal gov- 
ernment. It was especially easy to annoy the Episcopal 
clergy, on account of the formal prayer used, but other 

*McPherson, p. 521. 


{February 15 and March 10, 186 i. McPherson, pp. 521, 522. 

§Nicolay and Hay, vol. v. p. 337; McPherson, p. 522. (Explanatory 

112 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

denominations also suffered sometimes. In one instance, 
a Methodist minister was told that he must fake tte oath 
(this was after the surrender) and pray for the President 
of the United States, or stop preaching. For a time he 
refused hut, finally he took the oath and, he said, "I pray- 
ed for the President; that the Lo;d would take out of him 
and his allies the hearts of beasts and put into them the 
hearts of men, or remove the cusses from office. The 
little Captain never asked me any more to pray for the 
President and the United States."* 


After the collapse of the Confederate government Bishop 
Wilmer of Alabama directed the Episcopal clergy to omit 
that part of the prayer for the President of the Confederate 
States. Further, he ordered that when civil authority 
should be restored the prayer for the President of the 
United States should be used.f 

Bishop Wilmer, consecrated in 1862, had never made a 
declaration of conformity to the Constitution and canons 
of the church in the United States and consequently even 
by the Northern Episcopal Church was not considered 
amenable to the constitution of that church. £ 

For several months these directions were not noticed 
by the Federal authorities and services were held in con- 
formity to the Bishop's directions. In September, "Par- 
son" William G. Brownlow of Tennessee, it is said, 
brought the matter of the Wilmer pastoral letters to the 
attention of General Thomas, who commanded the Mili- 
tary Division of the Tennessee, to which belonged the De- 
partment of Alabama. Thomas like Wilmer was a 
Virginian, and was regarded by the latter and other 
Southerners as a traitor to his State. Thomas was pecu- 
liarly sensitive to such a charge, and disliked Wilmer, who 
had expressed his opinion in regard to the matter. So it 
was easy to secure his interference. General Woods at 
Mobile was directed to investigate the matter. An officer 

♦Richard so:-, Lights and Shadows of Itinerant Life, p. 183. 

f Pastoral Letters May 30 and June 20, 1865. 

JPerry, Histoi-y American Episcopal Church, vol. ii. p. 328, et. aeq.; 
Whitaker, The Church in Alabama, pp 172 — 175; New York Herald, 
September 4, lSt>5; Wilmer, The Recent Past From a Southern Stand- 
point, p. 143. 

Churches of Alabama. During The Civil War. 113 

was sent to ask Wilrner when he intended to use the 
prayer for the President of the United States. The 
Bishop refused to direct its use at the dictation of the 
military authority, or while the state was under military 
domination, since no, one desired length of life, nor the 
least prosperity to such a government.* 

The result was the argumentative order which follows:f 

Headquarters Department of Alabama, 

Mobile, Ala., Sept. 20, 1865. 
-General Order No. 38: 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States has estab- 
lished a form of prayer to be used for "the President of the United 
States and all in civil authority." During the continuance of the 
late wicked and groundless rebellion the prayer was changed to one 
for the President of the Confederate States, and so altered, was used 
in the Protestant Episcopal Churches of the Diocese of Alabama. 

Since the "'lapse" of the Confederate government, and the restora- 
tion of the authority of the United States over the late rebellious 
States, the prayer for the President has been altogether omitted in the 
Episcopal Churches of Alabama. 

This omission was recommended by the Ht. Rev. Richard Wilmer, 
Bishop of Alabama, in a letter to the clergy and laity, dated June 20, 
1865. The ouly reason given by Bishop Wilmer for the omission of a 
prayer, which, to use his own language, "was established by the 
highest ecclesiastical authorities, and has for many years constituted 
a part of the liturgy of the church," is stated by him in the following 

"Now the church in this country has established a form of prayer 
for the President and all in civil authority. The language of the 
prayer was selected with careful reference to the subject of the prayer 
— all in civil authority — and she desires for that authority prosperity 
and long continuance. No one can reasonably be expected to desire a 
long continuance of military rule. Therefore, the prayer is altogether 
inappropriate and inapplicable to the present condition of things, when 
no civil authority exisrs in the exercise of its functions. Hence, as I 
remarked in the circular, we may yield a true allegiance to, and sin- 
cerely pray for grace, wisdom and understanding in behalf of, a 
government founded on force, while at the same time we could not in 
good conscience ask for its continaance, prosperity, etc." 

It will be observed from this extract, first, that the bishop, because 
he -cannot pray for the continuance of "military rule," therefore de- 
clines to pray for those in authority ; second, he declares the prayer 
inappropriate and inapplicable, because no civil authority exists in 
the exercise of its functions. On the 20th of June, the date of his 
letter, there was a President of the United States, a Cabinet, Judges 
of the Supreme Court, and thousands of other civil officers of the 
United States, all in the exercise of their functions. It was for them 
specially that this form of prayer was established; yet the bishop can- 
not, among all these, find any subject worthy of his prayers. 

Since the publication of this letter a civil governor has been ap- 
pointed for ihe State of Alabama, and in every county judges and 

*Perry, History American Episcopal Church, vol. ii. p. 328 et. seq. ; 
Whitaker, pp. 175, 176; Wilmer, pp. 143-145. 

t Whitaker, p. 177. A copy of the order was also found in the War 
Dtp^rtment Archives. 

Xl4 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

sheriffs have been appointed, and all these are, and for weeks have 
been, in the exercise of their functions; yet the prayer has not been 

The prayer which the bishop advised to be omitted is not a prayer 
for the continuance of military rnle, or the continuance of any 
particular form of government or any particular person in power. It 
is simply a prayer for the temporal and spiritual weal of the persons 
in whose behalf it is offered — it is a prayer to the High and Mighty 
Ruler of the Universe that He would with His power behold and bless 
His servant — the President of the United States — and all others in 
authority; that He would replenish them with grace of His holy spirit 
that they might always incline to His will and walk in His ways: that 
He would endow them plenteously with Heavenly gifts, grant them 
in health and prosperity long to live, and finally after this life, to at- 
tain everlasting joy and felicity. It is a prayer at once applicable and 
appropriate, and which any heart not filled with hatred, malice and 
all uncharitableness, could conscientiously offer. 

The advice of the bishop to omit this prayer, and its omission by 
the clergy, is not only a violation of the canons of the church, but 
shows a factious and disloyal spirit, and is a marked insult to every 
loyal citizen within the department. Such men are unsafe public 
teachers, and not to be trusted in places of power and influence over 
public opinion. 

It is, therefore, ordered, pusuant to the directions of Major-General 
Thomas, commanding the military division of Tennessee, that said 
Richard Wilmer, bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Dio- 
cese of Alabama, and the Protestant Episcopal clergy of said diocese 
be, and they are hereby suspended from their functions, and forbidden 
to preach, or perform divine service; and that their places of worship 
be closed until such time as said bishop and clergy show a sincere re- 
turn to their allegiance to the government, of the'United States, and 
give evidence of a loyal and patriotic spirit by offering to resume the 
use of the prayer for the President of the United States and all in civil 
authority, and by taking the amnesty oath prescribed by the Presi- 

This prohibition shall continue in each individual case until special 
application is made through the military channels to these head- 
quarters for permission to preach and perform divine service, and 
until such application is approved at these or superior headquarters. 

District commanders are required to see that this order is carried 
into effect. 

By order of Major-General Chas. R. Woods, 

Fred H. Wilson, A. A. G. 

Wilmer denied the right of civil or military officials to 
interfere in such matters. Prayer, he said, was religious, 
not political, and not to be prescribed by secular authority.* 

Woods threatened to use force and had the churches 
closed by soldiers. St. John's Church in Montgomery 
having been closed by the military authorities the congre- 
gation attempted to meet in Hamner Hall, a school build- 
ing. They were dispersed by soldiers at the point of the 
bayonet. Much to the indignation of Generals Wood and 

♦Pastoral Letter, September 28, 1865, in the New York Daily News, 
October 16, 1865. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 115* 

Thomas, services were held in private houses*. The 
House of Bishops of the iSForthern Church protested 
against this edict to the President. Wilmer appealed to 
Governor Parsons and found that the "civil governor" of 
G. 0. 38, was only a subordinate military official with no 
power. President Johnson, at first, refused to interfere, 
but was finally induced to order Thomas to revoke G. O. 
88. This was done in the following remarkable ordenf 

Military Division of the Tennessee, 
Nashville, Term., December 22, 1865. 

General Orders No. 40. 

Armed resistance to the authority of the United States having been 
pnt down, the President, on the 29th of May last, issued his Proclama- 
tion of Amnesty, declaring that armed resistance having ceased in all 
quarters, he invited those lately in rebellion to reconstruct and restore 
civil authority, thus proclaiming the magnanimity of our Government 
towards all, no matter how criminal or how deserving of punishment. 

Alarmed at this imminent and impending peril to the cause in which 
he had embarked with all his heart and mind, and desiring to check, 
if possible, the spread of popular approbation and grateful apprecia 
tion of the magnanimous policy of the President in his efforts to bring; 
the people of the United States back to their former friendly and na- 
tional relations one with another, an individual, styling himself Bishop 
of Alabama, forgetting his mission to preach peace on earth and good, 
will towards man, and being animated with the same spirit which 
through temptation beguiled the mother of men to the commission of 
the first sin — thereby entailing eternal toil and trouble on earth — issued, 
from behind the shield of his office, his manifesto of the 20th of June last 
to the Clergy of the Episcopal Church of Alabama, directing them to 
omit the usual and customary prayer for the President of the United 
States and all others in authority, until the troops of the United States - 
had been removed from the limits of Alabama; cunningly justifying 
this treasonable course, by plausibly presenting to the minds of the peo- 
ple that, civil authority not yet having been restored in Alabama, there 
was no occasion for the use of said prayer, as such prayer was intended 
for the civil authority alone, and as the military was the only author- 
ity in Alabama it was manifestly improper to pray for "he continuance 
of military rule. 

This man in his position of a teacher of religion, charity, and good, 
fellowship with his brothers, whose paramount duty as such should 
have been characterized by frankness and freedom from all cunning, 
thus took advantage of the sanctity of his position to mislead the- 
minds of those who naturally regarded him as a teacher in whom they 
could trust, and attempted to lead them back into the labyrinths of 

> For this covert and cunning act he was deprived of the privileges of 
citizensnip, in so far as the right to officiate as a minister of the Gos- 
pel, because it was evident he could not be trusted to officiate and con. 

*Whitaker, pp. ISO, 181; Wilmer, pp. 145, 146; Montgomery Mail, 
October 2, 1865 

fWhitaker, p. 182; Wilmer, p. 146. Copy of order in W?*r Dspsri- 
ment Archives. Republished in G. O. 2, January 10, 1866, Hq D^pu 
Ala., Mobile. 

116 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

fine his teachings to matters of religion alone — in fact, that religions 
matters were but a secondary consideration in his mind, he having 
taken an early opportunity to subvert the Church to the justification 
and dissemination of his treasonable sentiments. 

As it is, however, manifest that so far from entertaining the same 
political views as Bishop Wilmer, the people of Alabama are honestly 
endeavoring to restore the civil authority in that State, in conformity 
with the requirements of the Constitution of the United States, and 
to repudiate their acts of hostility during che past four years, and 
have accepted with a loyal and becoming spirit the magnanimous 
terms offered them by the President; therefore, the restrictions here- 
tofore imposed upon the Episcopal clergy of Alabama are removed, 
and Bishop Wilmer is left to that remorse of conscience consequent to 
the exposure and failure of the diabolical schemes of designing and 
corrupt minds. 

By command of Major-General Thomas. 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Wilmer had won, and three day's after the order was 
promulgated in Alabama, he directed the use of the prayer 
for the President of the United States. Two mouths ear- 
lier, the General Council of the Confederate States had 
provided for such a prayer, but this provision was not to 
have the force of law in each diocese until approved by 
the bishop. Thi3 was to enable Wilmer to win his fight 
and then resume the use of the prayer.* 

"This action of the Bishop established for all time to 
come, in this land at least, the principle that in spirituali- 
ties the Church's rule is supreme."! 

The General Council of the Confederate Church in No- 
vember, 1865, decided that each diocese should decide for 
itself whether to remain in union with the General Coun- 
cil or to withdraw and unite with the General Convention. 
A small party in the Northern Church wanted "to keep 
the Southern Churchmen out for a while in the cold" 
and "to put the rebels upon stools of repentance," but 
better feeling and better policy prevailed. The Southern 
Church was met half way by the Northern Church, and 
the only re-union of Churches separated by sectional strife 
was accomplished. The diocese of Alabama was the last 
to join. Bishop Wilmer made the declaration of conform- 
ity, January 31, 1866. £ 

*Whitaker, p. 186; Mobile Register, ■ January 9, 1866; Montgomery 
Mail, January 19, 1866. 

fPerry, quoted by Whitaker, p. 187. 

X Annual Cyclopaedia (1865,) 25; Wilmer, pp. 147-152; Whitaker, pp. 
189-194; Perry, vol. ii, p. 328 el seq. The Northern Conferences of the 
Methodist Protestant Church returned in 1877 to the old organization. 
See Statistics of Churches, 566. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 117 


After the close of the war, all the Southern church or- 
ganizations were more or less demoralized. Property was 
destroyed, there was no money. It was a question whether 
some of them could survive the terrible exhaustion follow- 
ing the war. The Northern churches "coming down to 
divide the spoils," acted upon the principle that the war 
had settled the question of separate church organizations 
along with that of State sovereignty, and made prepara- 
tions to "disintegrate and absorb' 5 the "schismatical" South- 
ern churches.* 

The Methodists, 

In 1864 the ISTorthern Methodist Church declared the 
South a proper field for mission work and made prepara- 
tions to enter it. None were to be admitted to member- 
ship who were slaveholders or "tainted with treason."! 

In 1865 the Bishops of the Northern Church resolved 
that "we will occupy so far as practicable those fields in the 
Southern States which may be open to us . . for black 
and white alike/'f 

The General Missionary Committee of the Northern 
Church divided the South into Departments. Alabama 
was in the Middle Department. Bishop Clark of Ohio 
was sent (1866) to take charge of the Georgia and Ala- 
bama Mission District. The declared purpose was "to dis- 
integrate and absorb" the Southern Church, w^hich was 
generally believed to have been shattered by the war.§ 

In August,il865, three Southern Methodist Bishops met 
at Columbus, Georgia, to repair the shattered organization 
of their church and to infuse new life into it. They stated 
that the questions of 1844 were not settled by the war. 
"A large portion of the Northern Methodists has become 

incurably radical They have incorporated social 

dogmas and political tests into their church creeds." The 
Northern Church was arraigned for its action during the 

*McTyeire. A History of Methodism, p. 670; Smith, Life of Geo. F. 
Pierce; Southern Review, April, 1872. 

t Buckley, History of Methodism in the United States, pp. 516, 517. 

JMatlack. Anti Slavery Struggle and Triumph in the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, p. 339; Smith, Life and Times of George F. Pierce, p, 530. 

§ Annual Cyclopaedia, (1865) p. 552; Caldwtll, Reconstruction of 
Church and State in Georgia, (pamphlet.) 

118 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

war in taking possession of Southern Church property 
against the wishes of the people and retaining it as their 
own, aud for its attempts to destroy the Southern Church.* 

In the confusion following the war, before the church 
administration was in working order again, the Episcopal 
Church attempted to secure the Southern Methodists. 
Some Methodists wanted to go over in a body. The great 
majority, however, were strongly opposed to such action, 
-and it only caused more ill-feeling against the North. f 

There was a belief at that time among the Northern 
Methodists that in 1845 thousands had been carried oft 
against their will by the Southern Methodists, and. that 
now they would gladly seize the opportunity to get back 
into the old church. Those thousands proved to be as 
disappointing as the ''Southern loyalist" had been, in 
character and in numbers. The greatest gains were among 
the negroes, and to the negroes the few whites secured 
were intensely hostile. In 1866 the Reverend A. S. Lakin 
was sent to Alabama to organize the Northern Methodist 
Church. After two years work the Alabama Conference 
was organized with 9,341 members, black and white. $ In 
1871 Lakin reported 15,000 members, black and white. The 
whites were from the "loyal" element of the population* 
There was great opposition by the people to the establish- 
ment of the Northern Church. Lakin and his associates 
excited the negroes against the whites, and kept both ra- 
ces in a continual state of irritation. Governor Lindsay 
stated before the Congressional Committee that in his 
opinion the people bore with Lakin and his church with a 
marvelous degree of patience. They encouraged the ne- 
groes to force themselves into congregations where they did 
not belong and obstruct the services. They also made at- 
tempts to get control of church property belonging to the 
Southern Church. § Only in the Northern Hill coun- 
ties and in the Southeastern section of the State was any 
progress made among the whites. The congregations were 

* Annual Cyclopaedia, (1365), p. 532. 

f'The schismatic plans of the Northern Methodists and the subtle 
proselytisin of the Episcopalians." (Pierce) Smith. IAfe and Times of 
George F. Pierce, pp. 491, 499, 505. 530; West. History of Methodism in 
Alabama, p. 717; McTyeue, A History of Methodism, p. 673. 

{New York Herald, May 10, 1S6S; Buckley, History of Methodism, 
vol. ii, p. 191. 

§Affiir.-» in late Insurrectionary States: Alabama, (KuKlux Report,) 
£>p. Ill, 112, 124, 125, 180, 623, 957. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 119 

few and scattered and served for the most part by mission- 

The Baptists. 

The organization of the Baptist Church into independent 
congregations saved it from much of the annoyance felt by 
such churches as the Methodist and Episcopal with their 
elaborate system of government. Yet in North Alabama, 
danger was threatened when the negro members were en- 
couraged by political and ecclesiastical emissaries to assert 
their rights under its democratic form of government by tak- 
ing part in aU church affairs, election of pastors and other 
officers. Often there were more negro members than white^ 
and under the guidance of a missionary from the North 
these could elect their own candidate for pastor regardless 
of the wishes of the whites or of the character of the 
would be pastor. This danger was, however, soon avoided 
by the organization of separate negro congregations.! 

The Southern Baptist Convention continued its separate 
existence. The Northern Baptists demanded, before co- 
operation and fellowship, a profession of loyalty to the 
government. During 1865, the Southern Associations 
took position in favor of continuing the former separate 
societies. The Northern Baptists were severely censured 
for their action in obtaining authority from the Federal 
government to take possession of Southern church prop- 
erty against the wishes of owners and trustees, and for 
trying to organize independent churches within the bounds 
of Southern Associations. They were not in favor of 
fraternal relations with the Northern societies.:}: 

The Presbyterians. 

In May, 1865, the N. S. Presbyterian General Assembly 
voted to place on probation the Southern ministers (of the 
United Synod, South) who had supported theConfederacy.§ 
It is certain that but few, if any, offered themselves for 
probation. The United Synod joined the (0. S.) Southern 
Presbyterians. The O. S. General Assembly of the Northern 

♦In some sections the Northern Methodists are now known as "Re- 
publican" Methodists, as distinguished from "Democratic" or South- 
ern Methodists. 

fShackleford, History of (lie Muscle Shoals Baptist Association, p. 84. 

ZAmiual Cyclopaedia, (1865), p. 106. 

5 <il Cycloy&clia t (1S65), p. 705. 

120 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

church (1865) stigmatized "secession as a crime and the 
withdrawal of the Southern churches as a schism.'' The 
South, the Assembly decided, was to be treated as a mis- 
sionary field, and loyal ministers to be employed without 
presbyterial recommendation. Southern ministers and 
members were offered restoration if they would apply for 
it and submit to certain tests, namely — proof of loyalty 
or a profession of repentance for disloyalty to the govern- 
ment, and a repudiation of former opinions on slavery.* 
Naturally this policy was not very successful in recon- 
structing their organization in the South. The General 
Assembly (0. S.) of the Presbyterian Church in the Confed- 
erate States met (1865) at Macon, Georgia, and warned the 
churches against the efforts of the Northern Presbyterians 
to sow seeds of dissension and strife in their congrega- 
tions.-)- A union was formed with the United Synod, 
South, (N. S.), and the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States, popularly known as the Southern Presbyterian 
Church was formed. To this acceded, in 1867, the As- 
sociate Reformed Church of Alabama. J 

The attempt at "Reconstruction" in the churches had 
practically failed. Only the Episcopal Church, one of the 
weakest in numbers, had reunited. The others seemed 
farther than ever apart. The Episcopal Church in the 
United States had during the war held consistently to the 
6ame theory in regard to the withdrawal of the Southern 
dioceses that the Washington administration held in regard 
to the secession of the Southern States. There was no 
recognition of a withdrawal, or of a Southern Church. 
All actions of the so-called Confederate Church were ille- 
gal, and it was a schismatic body. The roll in the Gen- 
eral Convention was called as usual, beginning with Ala- 
bama^ Yet after the war a generous policy of concilia- 
tion was pursued. The Southern churchmen were asked 
to come back. The House of Bishops of the Northern 
church upheld Wilmer in his trouble with the military 
authorities. Such a policy easily resulted in reunion. No 
tests or conditions were imposed. The work of the South- 

*Thompson, History Presbyterian Churches, p 167. 

\ Annual Cyclopaedia (1865), p. 706. 

^Carroll, Religious Forces, p. 281; Thompson, History Presbyterian 
Churches, pp. 163, 171; Johnson, History Southern Presbyterian 
Church, pp. 333, 339. 

§Perry, p. 328, et seq. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 121 

em church was recognized and accepted as valid by the 
Northern church. 

On the other hand, the other denominations had recog- 
nized the legal division of their churches before the war. 
Now they acted on the principal that territory couquered 
for the United States was conquered for the Northern 
churches. They took the same view of the situation as 
the political authorities, thus accepting the former Episco- 
pal theory, which the 'latter had renounced. Southern 
ministers and members were asked to submit to degrading 
conditions in order to be restored. They must repudiate 
former opinions, and renouncing their sins, ask for pardon 
and restoration. 


At the end of the war, nearly every congregation had 
black members as well as white, the blacks often being the 
more numerous. With the changed conditions, the vari- 
ous denominations felt it necessary to make declarations 
of policy in regard to the former slaves. General Swayne, 
Assistant Commissioner of the Freedman's Bureau in 
Alabama, in his report for 1866, stated that very early the 
several religious denominations took strong position in fa- 
vor of the education of the negro. "The principal argu- 
ment was an appeal to sectional and sectarian prejudice, 
lest, the work being inevitable the influence which must 
come from it be realized by others; but it is believed that 
this was the shield and weapon which men of unselfish 
principle found necessary at first."* 


The Alabama Baptist Convention (1865) passed the fol- 
lowing resolution in regard to the relations between white 
and black members: 

"Resolved, That the changed civil status of onr late slaves does not 
necessitate any change in their relations to onr churches; and while 
we recognize their right to withdraw from onr churches and form 
organizations of their own, we nevertheless believe that their highest 
good will be subserved by their retaining their present relation to 
those who know them, who love them and who will labor for the pro- 
motion of their welfare." 

The Convention ordered renewed exertions in work 
*Senate Executive Documents, No. 6, 39th Congress, 2d session. 

122 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

among the negroes by means of lectures, private instruc- 
tion, and Sunday schools.* 

In 1866 the North Alabama Baptist Association directed 
that provision be made for the religious welfare of the ne- 
groes and for their education in common schools. They were 
to be allowed to choose their own pastors and teachers 
from amoug the whites.f But soon the efforts of Northern 
missionaries and political emissaries began to result in the 
reparation of the races. The nogroes were taught that 
the Southern whites were their enemies and that they 
•must have independent negro churches.^ They were en- 
couraged to obstruct and in the North Alabama Baptist 
Churches where they were in the majority there was danger 
that they would take advantage of the democratic system 
of church government and prompted by emissaries trom 
the North, control the administration of the churches. 
They were, therefore, assisted by the whites to form 
-separate congregations and associations of their own.§ 

The principal work of the Northern Baptist missionaries 
in Central and South Alabama was to separate the blacks 
into independent churches. The free form of government 
■of the Baptist Church attracted both ministers and mem- 
bers. In 1868, Bethel Association reported that a large 
number of the negroes desired no religious instruction 
from the whites, but that there was great need of it. 
"Their opposition was caused by ignorance and prejudice. 
There must be, the report stated, no relaxation in the effort 
to impart to them a knowledge of the Gospel. The first 
-duty of the church was to instruct the ignorant and su- 
perstitious at home before sending missionaries to far oft* 
heathen. Advice and assistance were given to the negro 
congregations, which were organized into associations as 
soon as possible. In 1872, three negro churches, with a 
white pastor, applied for admission to Bethel Association. 
But it was though^ best to maintain separate associations. || 
For years the white Baptists ot Alabama exercised a 

*Riley, History Baptists in Alabama, p. 310; Montgc rtiery Adverti- 
ser. October loth, 1S65; New York Times, OtoVr. 22, 1865. See also 
Rev. George E. Brewer, History of the Central Association, pp. 46, 49 
jHmitsYille Advocate, May 16, 1866. 
tGov. Lindsay's Testimony in K. K. Bepovt (Alabama). 
§Shackleford, History Muscle Shoals Baptist Association, p 84. 
J|Ball, history of Clarke County, pp 591. 630. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 123 

watchful care over the colored Baptists. The latter 
were assisted in the work of organizing congregations 
and associations, in the erection of school houses and 
churches. The old plantation preachers were ordained 
and others called and regularly ordained to the min- 
istry. The negro preacher was often incompetent and 
often immoral. At last the whites seem to have given 
up as hopeless their work for the negroes. In 1885 
an urgent appeal from the Colored Baptist Convention for 
advice and assistance met with no response from the white 
convention. Politics, prejudice, imprudent and immoral 
bodies had completed the work of separation.* 


In 1869, encouraged by the white members the negro 
members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Ten- 
nessee and North Alabama asked for and received organi- 
zation as a separate church— -the African Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church.f 

Branches of Northern Presbyterians worked in Ala- 
bama among the negroes. The principal result of 
their work was the separation of the blacks into inde- 
pendent churches. The Southern Presbyterian Church 
(Presbyterian Church in U. S.) made earnest efforts for 
the negro after the war, and has had some success. The 
Institute at Tuscaloosa for the education of colored Pres- 
byterian ministers is the only school in the South for 
negroes which is conducted entirely by Southern white 

Roman Catholic. 

The Roman Catholic Church worked much among the 
negroes in the cities and at first had a fair degree of suc- 
cess. It was strongly opposed by all protestant denomi- 
nations, Northern and Southern, especially the Northern 
Methodist Church. It was terrible news to them when it 

*Riley, History Baptists in Alabama, pp. 337, 396; Ball, Clarke 
County, p. 620; Riley, History Baptists in Southern States East of the 
Mississippi, p. 310, et seq. See W. H. Thomas, The American Negro, in 
regard to the character of the negro preacher of the 70's and 80s. 

fFoster, Sketch of History of Cumberland Presbyterian Churcfi. p. 300; 
Carroll, Religious Forces, p. 294; Thompson, History Presbyterian 
Churches, p. 193. 

^Thompson, History Presbyterian Churches, p. 193; Sconller, His- 
tory United Presbyterian Church of North America, p. 246. 

124 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

was reported that the Catholic Church would soon open 
fifteen schools in Alabama for the negro, giving free 
board and tuition.* The American Missionary Associa- 
tion, supported mainly by money from the Freedman's 
Bureau used its influence among the negroes against the 
Catholic Church, which, it stated in a report, "was making 
extraordinary efforts to enshroud forever this class of the 
unfortunate race in popish superstition and darkness."! 

JBut the Catholic Church had no place for the ambitious 
negro preacher of little education and less character, who 
desired to hold high position in the negro church. There 
was a better prospect for promotion in the Baptist and 
Methodist Churches and to those went the would-be negro 
preacher, and through his influence most of his people. 


The Episcopal Church had done most of its work 
among the negroes in the cities and among the slaves of 
the large plantations of the Black Belt. This church 
offered little more hope of advancement to the average 
negro preacher than the Roman Catholic. The hostility 
of the military authority in 1865 and 1866 and the efforts 
of missionaries and political schemers caused a loss of most 
of the negro membership. In 1866 the laity of the Con- 
vention seemed not very enthusiastic in regard to work 
among the negroes, and left it to be managed by the 
Bishop and clergy. The General Convention established 
the . "JFreedman's Commission" to assist in the work. 
This work was not to be under the jurisdiction of 
the Bishop. Bishop Wilmer stated that he was not will- 
ing to accept this "schism-breeding proposition," but would 
be glad of assistance which would be under his direction 
as bishop. So no aid was forthcoming. By 1867, only 
two congregations of negroes were left — one in Mobile 
and one in Marengo county. A few solitary blacks were 
to be found in the white congregations, but these suffered 
real martyrdom on account of their loyalty to their old 
churches. They were ostracised by other blacks, called 
heathens and traitors, and left alone in sickness and death. 
Under such treatment, most negroes were forced to with- 
draw from the Episcopal Churches. J 

*8th AnnualBeport Freedman's Aid Society. 

f House Reports, No. 121, 41st Congress, 2d Session. 

JWhitaker, T!t£ Church in Alabama, pp. 19S. 205, 206-212. 



The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, had in 1861 
more than 200,000 colored members and 180,000 children 
under instruction. One year after the surrender of Lee 
only 78,000 remained.* 

The Montgomery Conference, in November 1865, con- 
cluded that there was no necessity for a change in the 
church relations of white and black; that in the church 
there should be no distinction on account of color and race, 
and that the negro had special claims on the whites. Pre- 
siding elders and preachers were directed to do for 
colored congregations all that lay in their power. They 
were to establish Sunday Schools and day schools for them 
when practicable.! Methodist Protestants had already an- 
nounced a policy." % General Swayne of the Freedman's Bu- 
reau reported that he received much assistance from the 
Southern Methodist Church, and especially from Eev. H. 
~R. McTyeire (afterwards Bishop.)§ 

The Southern Methodists lost their negro members from 
the same causes that operated to cause the separation of 
the races in other churches. The negroes were told by 
their new leaders that they must hate the Southerners as 
their natural enemies. There was spiritual safety, they 
were convinced, only in Northern Churches or in inde- 
pendent churches. All the forces of social ostracism were 
employed against those who chose to remain in the old 
churches. The Southern planter was not able to support 
the missionary who formerly preached to his slaves. The 
negroes would not pay. The church treasury was empty. || 
In 1866 the General Conference directed that the colored 
members be organized as separate charges when they de- 
sired it. Colored preachers and presiding elders were to 
be appointed by the bishop, and annual conferences or- 
ganized when necessary. Especial attention was to be di- 
rected toward Sunday Schools for negroes.*)]' 

Against all efforts of the Southern Methodists the North- 
ern Methodists worked with a persistence worthy of a 

♦Carroll, Religious Forces, p. 268. 

jMontgomery Advertiser, November 24, 4865. 

tldem. November 11, 1865. 

^Report for 1866, Senate Executive Docs., No, 6, 39th Congress, 2d 

II Governor Lindsay in K. K. Report, Alabama p. 180; Montgomery 
Advertiser, November 24, 1865. 
TTHuntsville Advocate, May 5, I860; Carroll, Rtligious Forces, p. 263. 

126 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

better cause. Missionaries were sent down — narrow, pre- 
judiced sincere men and women, possessed with the fixed 
conviction that no good could come to the negro except 
from the North — schools were established and churches 
organized.* Their injudicious and violent methods, and 
their bitter prejudices caused their absolute exclusion from 
all desirable society, and naturally they became more 
violent and prejudiced than ever. Their letters written 
home show that they believed the native white to be pos- 
sessed by an inhuman hatred of the black, and that on the 
slightest provocation the whites would slaughter the en- 
tire black population. f The country, they thought, hav 
ing been made what it wa3 by the labor of the negro slave, 
more of it should belong to him. Through the Freed- 
man's Aid Society the Northern Church entered upon 
work among the whites, opposing the Southern Church 
on the ground that it was sectional. All efforts of South- 
ern Churches to work among the blacks were condemned 
as useless. For years there was not a word of recognition 
of the work done by the Southern churches among the 
slaves.'^ The missionaries were afraid of "the old feudal 
faces," which were still working, they thought, under 
various disguises — Historical Societies, Memorial Days, 
and Monuments to the Confederate dead."§ Their work 
was thoroughly done. Two African Methodist Churches 
organized in the North secured the larger part of the ne- 
groes. Some went to the Northern Methodist Church, 
"which also come down to divide the spoils.'' || After 
1866 the colored churches of the Southern Metho- 
dists had been divided into circuits, districts and con- 
ferences. By 1870 political differences and the efforts of 
other churches had so alienated the races that it was 
thought best to set up an independent organization for the 
negroes. This was done by the General Conference in 
1870. Two negro bishops were ordained. All church 
property that had ever been used tor negro congregations 
was turned over to the new organization which was called 
the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church. A few negroes 

* Reports of Freedman's Aid Society, 1866-1874. 

JThe first recognition of snch work I find in the Reports of the 
Freedman's Aid Society in 1878. 
§10th and 11th Reports Freedman's Aid Society. 

Churches of Alabama During The Civil War. 12? 

chose to remain, and in 1892 there were still 357 colored 
members in the Methodist Episcopal Church South.* 

Until recently there has been strong opposition on the 
part of the other African Churches to the Colored M. E. 
Church, on account of its relation to the Southern Metho- 
dist Church. The latter has continued to aid and direct 
its protegee and the opposition is gradually subsiding.* 

An editorial in the Nation, in 1866, expressed the situa- 
tion from one point of view clearly and forcibly: The 
Northern churches complain that the South is determined 
to make the religious division permanent, though "slavery 
no longer furnishes a pretext for separation." Too much 
pains are taken to bring about an ecclesiastical reunion. 
Irritating offers of reconciliation are made by the North- 
ern churches, all based on the assumption that the South 
has not only sinned but sinned knowingly in slavery and 
in war. We expect them to be penitent and gladly ac- 
cept our oilers of forgiveness. The Southern people look 
upon a "loyal" missionary as a political emissary. '-Loyal" 
men do not at present possess the necessary qualifications 
for evangelizing the South or softening its heart and are 
sure not to succeed in doing so. We look upon their de- 
feat as retribution and expect them to do the same. It 
will do no good if we tell the Southerners that "we will for- 
give them if they will confess that they are all criminals, 
offer to pray with them, preach with them and labor with 
them over their hideous sins."* 

"Reconstruction" in the church was closely related to 
"reconstruction" in the state, and was so considered at the 
time by the ^constructionists of both.* The same mis- 
taken, revengeful, intolerant policy was followed, on the 
theory that the Southern whites were as incapable of 
good action in church as in state. Irritating and impos- 
sible tests and conditions of readmission were proposed 
before reconciliation. Then the efforts to weaken and de- 
stroy the Southern churches after attempts at reunion 
had failed completed the alienation which seems to be 
permanent. There was a Solid South in church as well 
a8 in politics. 

*McTyeir*, A History of Southern Methodism, p. 670; Carroll, Religious 
Forces, p. 263; Alexander, Methodist Episcopal Church South, pp. 91-135. 

*Carroll, Belioious Forces, p. 263; Bishop Halsey in the New York 
Independent, March 5, 1891. 

*T?te Nation, July 12, 1866. Condensed. 

•Caldwell, .Reconstruction of Church and State in Georgia, (pamphlet.) 




The abbreviations are : w., s. w., and d., weekly, semi-weekly, and 
daily ; v., volume, meaning one bound book; ind., dem., rep., est., 
Independent, Democrat, Republican and Established. 

Alexandria . 
Louisiana Herald, w. 

Jan. 21, 1820-Dec. 2, 1820. 1 v. 
Jan. 6, 1821-Dec. 15, 1821. 1 v. 
Jan. 12, 1822-Oct, 19, 1822. 1 v. 
. Jan. 11, 1823-Dec. 17, 1823. 1 v. 
Jan. 14, 1824-Aug. 31, 1825. 2 v. 

Louisiana Messenger and Alexandria 
Advertiser, w. 

Jan. 20-Dec. 15, 1826. 1 v. 

Red River Republican, w. 

Jan. 30, 1847-Dec. 23, 1848. 2 v. 
Jan. 5, 1850-Dec. 21, 1850. 1 v. 
Jan. 4, 1851-Dec. IS, 1852. 2 v. 

Baton Rouge. 
The Daily Advocate, dem. est. 1842. 

Jan. 2, 1853-Dec. 30, 1854. lv. 
Jan. 1, 1856-Dec. 31. 1857. 2 r. 
Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1900. 

The Weekly Advocate, dem. est. 1842. 

Jan. 5, 1856-Dec. 21, 1856. 1 v. 
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Mar. 12-Aug. 20, 1898. 

Baton Rouge Gazette, w. 

Feb. 8, 1826-Dec. 16, 1826. 1 v. 
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Baton Rouge Weekly Messenger. 

Apr. 5-Dec. 5. 1S26. 1 v. 

*Keprinted by permission from the Check List of American News- 
papers in the. Library of Congress (1901.) 

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By Thomas McAdory Owen. 

There are numerous families of the name of Fisher in the 
United States, the relationship of which, however, is not 
known. They are found among the early colonists in Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia. In the latter half of the 18th century 
the particular family which forms the subject of this geneal- 
ogy is found in the Shenandoah valley; and at the present 
time it has members living in the Northern part of Shen- 
andoah county, Ya. It is of unmistakable German origin, 
but it is not known whether the immigration was direct to 
Yirginia, or to Virginia, from York or Lancaster counties, 
Pennsylvania. The latter is the more probable. 

Kercheval, the historian of the Valley, and whose ac- 
count of its settlement is the best known, says : 

A large majority of onr first immigrants were from Pennsylvania, 
composed of native Germans or German extraction. There were, 
however, a number directly from Germany, several from Maryland 
and New Jersey, and a few from New York. These immigrants brought 
with them the religion, habits and customs, of their ancestors. They 
were composed generally of three religions sects, viz: Lutherans, Men- 
onists and Calvinists, with a few Tnnkers. They generally settled in 
neighborhoods pretty much together.* 

In John Esten Cooke's History of the People of Virginia, 
a brilliant picture is given of the " Virginians of the 
Valley." He says : 

Virginia in these years was reaching out steadily past the moun- 
tains. The smiling valley of the Shenandoah was becoming the home 
of brave settlers who carried civilization into this wild region, long 
the battle ground, tradition said, of the Northern and Southern tribes 
of the continent. We have seen the first attempts to explore the 
country, the expedition of Batte in 1670, and the march of Spottswood 
in 1716. The impetus was thus given, and adventurous explorers 
followed the Knights of the Horse-shoe. The Virginians began to 
holdout longing arms toward the sweet fields along the Shenandoah; 
and the wave of population, like a steadily rising tide, advanced up 
the lowland rivers, reached the mountains at last, and flowed over into 
the Valley of Virginia. 

Contemporary with or a few years before this lowland immigration, 
the region toward the Potomac had been settled by Scotch-Irish and 
Germans, who had come to Pennsylvania, and thence, attracted by the 

♦Kercheval's History of the Valley of Virginia, p. 50. 

The Fisher Family. 135 

rumor of its fertility, passed on to the Shenandoah Valley. The exo- 
dns thither bfgan about the year 1732. The Scotch-Irish, who were 
good Presbyterians, were the pioneers, and established their home- 
steads along the Opequon, from the Potomac to above what is now 
Winchester. As soon as they had built their houses they proceeded 
to build their churches; and the 'Tuscarora Meeting House,' near 
Martinsburg, and the 'Opequon Church,' a little South of Winches- 
ter, are, it is said, the oldest churches in the Valley of Virginia, — they 
are still standing. 

The Germans followed closely. Joist Hite obtained forty thousand 
acres of land in the vicinity of Winchester; and his thrifty Teutons 
built Strasburg and other towns along the Massinutton Mountain. To 
this day the Germans constitute an important element of the popula- 
tion, and in some places the language is spoken. It was an excellent 
class of immiv rants. Everywhere was the appearance and the reality 
of thrift: well-kept fields, fas cattle, and huge red barns.* 

Probably for a generation or more the family lived amid 
these scenes and environments, when, the discovery of new- 
lands and the expansion of population and settlement, 
caused the removal, prior to 1776, of many of them and 
their neighbors to Rowan county, North Carolina. 

Kercheval (p. 153) further says: 

Within the last half century., our valley has poured out thousands 
of emigrants, who have contributed towards peopling the Carolinas, 
Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and other regions of the south 
and west, and migrations still continue. 

Rowan County N. C, wa3 formed in 1753. Its records 
furnish some items relating to the family, viz: 

(1) Will of Martin Fisher, dated January 21, 1781, in 
which mention is made only of his wife Maria Margaret. 

(2) Will of James Fisher, dated August 6, 1795, in 
which mention is made of his wife Esther, son John, and 
daughters Jane, Esther and Margaret. 

(8) Will of Jacob Fisher, dated March 4, 1803, in which 
mention is made of wife Christina, and son Henry. 

(4) Bond, dated March 16, 1790, of George Fisher to 
marry Catharine Fisher. 

(5) Bond, dated January 30, 1793, of Frederick Fisher 
to marry Barbara Tarr. 

(6) In the will of Frederick Fisher, dated 1796, he makes 
a devise of 300 acres "of land in the Waxsaws (sic) which 
I got from Charles Fisher." 

In Mecklenbarg county, X. C, lived a brother of Fred- 
erick Fisher, named William, who about 1818 emigrated to 
Wilcox county, Ala. His son, William Phillips Fisher has 
a son, Lorenzo C. Fisher, now of Galveston, Texas. 

*Cooke's History of the People of Virginia, pp. 323-323. 

336 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

J. Frederick 1 Fisher. — The exact relationship of the 
•several ISTorth Carolina Fishers has not been ascertained. 
The first of the family here presented, of whom definite 
information is preserved, is Frederick Fisher. He came 
about 1770 to Rowan county from Shenandoah county, 
Va., where he was born probably, about 1735-50. He is 
known to have had a brother William Fisher who 
lived in Mecklenburg county, 2s\ C, and it is not improb- 
able that Martin, James and Jacob Fisher, whose wills are 
referred to above, are his brothers. From the dates of 
their several wills they appear to be of the same genera- 
tion, and if not brothers to him. or to each other, were 
certainly related. The Charles Fisher who i3 mentioned 
.above as once owning land in the Waxsaws, is probably a 
brother, or a cousin. 

The seven year conflict with the mother country coming 
•on in 1776, he allied himself with the friends of liberty 
and became "a sturdy republican/' "He served in the war 
as a militia officer."* He was in the battle of King's 
Mountain as a private, and was wounded there.f The war 
over, he resumed his lite as a "planter" (his will where 
he so styles himself.) He owned large tracts of land, and 
many slaves. The estate disposed of in hi3 will shows 
him to have been a man of influence and property. 

His wife was Ann McBride, who undoubtedly belonged 
to that strong and sturdy class of Scotch settlers who im- 
migrated to the Valley of Virginia cotemporaneously with 
the German ancestors of her husband. The wills of each 
are of record in Rowan county. His is dated December -4, 
1796, and recorded in Will Book "E," p. 170 et seq.; hers 
is dated March 22, 1803. The dates of probate do not 
appear, but it is not unlikely that they died within a very 
. short time after the respective dates. The names of the 
children below, together with facts pertaining to them 
are to be found in part in his will, and also in a commis- 
sioners^ report (in the Rowan county records) of a division 
of the lands devised in his will to his daughter Rosanna 
Fisher, she having died intestate and unmarried. Chil- 
dren : 

-I, Jacob 2 Fisher. He removed to Athens, Ala., abont 1835, 
where he lived for a time, after which he removed to Texas. 
His daughter Julia, married E. H. English, late Chief Jus- 

*Wheeler's Xorth Carolina, vol. ii, p. 392. 
fDraper's King's Mountain and its Heroes, p. 304. 

The Fisher Family. 137 

tice of the Supreme Court of Arkansas.* Two successive 
wives of Gen. Bates of Texas are said to have been the 
daughters of Jacob Fisher. 

- 2 (daughter), in. Cobble, and had three sons, Fred- 

erick 3 , Jacob 1 ', and Peter 3 Cobble. 
3. Mary 2 , m. .Henry Bruner. both of whom were dead June 25, 
1808. They had children, but no particulars known. 
II. 4. George 2 , m. Catharine Sossaman. 

5. Barbara 2 , m. Henry Sossaman. Members of the Sos.-aman 

family now live in Rowan county, while in Mobile, Alabama, 
they are also found. The contractor for the wood work on 
the*State capitol at Tuscaloosa, Ala., was Henry Sossaman. f 

6. Amelia 2 , m. John Sossaman. He was dead June 25, 1803. 

7. Marean 2 . 

8. Christina 2 , unmarried on June 25, 180S. 

9. Rosanna 2 , died unmarried prior to June 25, 180S. 

10. Charles 2 , born in Rowan county, N. C, October 20, 1789 .J 

11. George 2 Fisher (Frederick 1 ) son of Frederick and 
Ann (McBride) Fisher, was born either in Virginia, or Rowan 
county, Xorth Carolina, about 1765-75. tie lived in the 
latter county until 1812 when he prepared tor removal to 
the Mississippi Territory, having selected as his home a 
place in the present State of Alabama. An account of his 
removal and the difficulties which surrounded it during the 
bloody Creek War are told in an affidavit made by his son- 
in-law, Robert G. Hayden, this affidavit being filed in sup- 
port of a claim made in after years by Col. Fisher for 
property lo3t in 1212-13 by the depredations of the In- 
dians and the use by the United States troops. The affi- 
davit recites : 

_ That in the year 1812 and 1813 he resided in the then Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, Washington county, before the commencement of the Indian 
war; that he resided near the Indian line of said Territory, and was do- 
ing business for Colonel George Fisher, of North Carolina, who had 
moved a number of hands to that part of the country, and who had pur- 
chased some open land of the previous settlers, and made every arrange- 
ment and preparation for the removal of his whole family, and to 
remove there until the land should be for sale by the government; but 
before he could get his family to the Territory, the hostility of the In- 
dians commenced, and he had to leave his family in the State of Georgia 
until the Indian war was over, and after the massacre of Fort Mims, 
which happened in 1813, as well as I can recollect, the 29th or 30th of 
August of that year. Twr or three dajs after that attack of Fort 
Mims, the Indians attacked Fort Sinkfie]d, about three or four miles 
from where I was doing business. I had the care of said Fisher 2 s 
property. We were compelled to fly to Fort Stephens, between thirty 
■and forty miles. The Indians then in the settlement destroyed every 
thing they could, after which the troops, who were otdered in pursuit 

*John Hallum's History of Arkansas, (18S7.) p. 301 
fSee Act for the relief of, in Acts of Alabama, 182^-30, p. 76. See also 
Nelson H. Smith's Histo-ry of Pickens County, Ala., (1856.) p. 128. 

{For extended sketch of this distinguished son of North Carolina, 
see Wheeler's North Carolina, vol. ii, pp. 391-4. 

138 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

of said hostile Indians, were commanded by Colonels Thomas Carson 
and Rnssell, and a number of militia, who took and made use of some 
of the crops and stock which was not taken by the hostile Indians.* 

The home of Col. Fisher was about three miles south 
of Suggsville, first in Clarke, then iu Monroe, and again 
in Clarke couuty. Among the early settlers and his 
neighbors, were William Suggs, who gave his name to the 
village, Robert G. Hayden, Bronson Barlow, for whom 
Barlow's Bend is named, Ira Portis, Abraham Presnell, 
and John G. Creagh. On June 29,1815, by proclamation 
of Gov. Holmes the county of Monroe was formed to in- 
clude "all that tract of country, which was ceded by the 
Creek Indians in their treaty with Gen. Jackson." Col. 
Fisher became the first Sheriff of the new county, a posi- 
tion which emphasized his prominence and character.! 

Col. Fisher married (1) Catharine Sossaman; and (2) the 
widow Gordon. He had no issue by the second marriage. 
Children, all by first wife: 

1. Anne Amelia 3 Fisher, b. 1796; m. Feb. 11, 1817; Jack Ferrill 

Ross, first Treasurer of Alabama; and d. August 25, 1826. 
They are the parents of William H.* Ross, Esq., of Mobile, 


2. Sarah Maria 3 , b. June 5, 1793; m. Henry H. B. Hays; d. April 

16, 1818, and is buried at old St. Stephens. 3 n the same grave 
rests her infant son, b. April 1, 1818, and d. same day. A 
marble slab covers their grave. 

3. Mary 3 , m. Robert G. Hayden. He signed the affidavit men- 

tioned in the foregoing sketch. Ball says of him that he 
"had one of the first tanneries [in Clarke county, Ala.] 
He also started a small shoe factory about three miles south 
of Suggsville. The probable date of this enterprise is IS 15. 
Hayden's Tanner was a colored man named Solomon. "§ 
Milo Abercrombie married a daughter. 

4. Rosanna 3 , m . James Gaines Lyon, son of James and Behethland 

(Gaines) Lyon. || They are the parents of Sarah B. 4 Lyon, who 
married Charles K. Foote, Esq., a prominent citizen of Mo- 
bile. The latter are the parents of Nellie Gaines 5 , wife of 
Hon. Richard H. Clarke, distinguished citizen, lawyer and 
statesman of Mobile. 

*The claim here referred to was first presented to Congress, February 
12, 1832, and eight times afterwards. It received the attention of that 
body as late as 1877. Payment was at first stubbornly resisted; and 
although the claimant died before the adjudication, his three successive 
administrators pressed its payment with persistence and energy. As 
much as $66,803.33 was finally paid. For full account of, see various 
printed Congressional reports and papers, principally Senate Report 
No. 252, 41st Cong., 2nd Sess. 

\Trans. Ala. Hist Society, 1898-99, vol. iii, p. 161, alsopp.209,2*J2?i,232. 

|A sketch of Jack F. Ross is in Brewer's Alabama, p. 392. and one 
of William H. Ross will be found in the Memorial Record of Alabama, 
vol. ii, p. 582. 

§Ball's Clarke County and its Surroundings, pp. 173 and 481. 

^Publications of the Southern History Association, April, 1898, voL 
ii, pp. 168-172; Bail's Clarke County, Alabama, pp. 442, 482. 



Georgians in the Naval Service of the Confederacy 

The Quarter-Master's Department, C. S. A., as well as the various 
State departments of similar character present an interesting, bnt 
an nnesplored field cf inquiry. The document here given is illustra- 
tive, and shows a condition highly creditable to Georgia. It is from 
a large collection left by Col. Foster. 

Flag Ship ''Virginia." 

James Biver Squadron 

Feb. 21st, 1865. 

I have bad the honor to receive your letter of the 20th 
instant, together with its enclosure, ^printed instructions 
from the Governor of Georgia to you, of the date of the 
24th of December 1864) informing me, that, if I should 
be of opinion that these instructions apply to the Georgians 
serving in this squadron under my command, you would 
be happy to issue to them such of the articles of clothings 
in your possession, as they may need. 

Although your instructions speak only of "our gal- 
lant troops from this State, now in Virginia," I do not 
doubt for a moment, that your legislature & Governor 
both intended to embrace the case of Georgians serving 
in the Naval Service, in the waters of Virginia; otherwise 
an unjust discrimination would be made between the land> 
& naval forces, which is not supposable. This supposi- 
tion is reudered the more plausible by the mode in which 
the Naval Service is usually recruited, very few of the sea- 
men being shipped directly for this service, but the ships- 
being, for the most part, supplied by requisitions upon the 
Army, so that, although the seamen, when transferred 
from the Army, are no longer technically "troops," they 
were yet originally enlisted, or conscribed as troops. 

Accepting your very kind invitation, I have the honor 
to enclose herewith, a requisition for such of the articles 
of clothing on hand as the Georgians serving in the squad- 
ron are in need of. I enclose also for your information^ 

'440 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

the returns from the different ships, giving the name of 
-each Georgian & the articles required by him.* 
I have the honor to be, 

Very respectfully, 
Yours obedt: servt: 
Ii. Semmes 
Rear Admiral 
Comdg: J. E. Squadron. 
-Col. I. R. Foster 

Q. M. Gen. State of: Georgia 
St. Charles Hotel 
Richmond, Ya. 

Winthrop Sargent, Governor oe the Mississippi 

The following letter, the original of which is in the U. S. Depart- 
ment of State in a bound book, entitled "Papers' and Records of the 
Territories," vol. i, is one of the very last official communications of 
"Governor Winthrop Sargent. On April 3rd, John Steell, the territo- 
rial secretary, entered upon his duties as acting governor, and on 
April 4th, Mr. Sargent left the Mississippi Territory never to return in 
an official way. The governor early after his arrival in Mississippi 
became the subject of attack, the outcome of which was unfavorable 
-to him. The leading historian of Mississippi, J. F. H. Claiborne, ha3 
nothing good whatever to say of him, or any feature of his adminis- 
tration, and without farther investigation of a judicial character, it 
has become the fashion for all subsequent writers to follow his work. 
A non-partisan and careful inquiry into the career of Gov. Sargent is 
much to be desired. The principal documents for his side are to be 
found in a very rare pamphlet entitled Papers in relation to the Official 
Conduct of Governor Sargent. Published by the particular desire of his 
.friends. (1801; 8vo. pp. 64.) 

Mississippi Territory April 2d,' 1801. 

The honorable Colonel Pickering when Secretary of 
State was kind enough to obtain the President's Permis- 
sion that I might be a short time absent from this Govern- 
ment "when the same should have been organized and 
Peace established for the United States." 

The late ratification of the Treaty with France author- 
izes me to avail myself of this indulgence, and which the 
present state of my health, impaired by long service in 

*The returns mentioned are apparently lost. 

Documents. 141 

all the Extremes and Vicissitude of TJ. S. climate, press- 
ing demands I should embrace without delay. 

Since the commencement of the revolutionary war I 
have been almost always upon public Duty — and from the 
early part ot ninety-six my attentions thereto have been 
uaremitted. These considerations I trust may justify me 
in embracing the Leave of Absence had from President 
Adams — 

I propose to embark for the Atlantic States in the pres- 
ent month and shall take the verv earliest opportunity to 
pay my respects to you Sir — and if I may be so permitted 
to the President of the United States also — 

The mighty obloquy cast upon my reputation I hope 
may not deprive me of this honor. I yet know not the 
result of Mr. Davis' motives upon my official conduct — 
they have no doubt made unfavorable Impression — 

That member ot the honorable house of representatives 
and his colleague Mr. Claybourne I could indeed wish to 
believe have been influenced by no improper — no im- 
pure motives, but if they have not been very greatly de- 
ceived they have been so imposed upon — 

I take Leave Sir to enclose to the Department of State 
Eome very strong Testimony in Point—attestations from 
the most respectable people of the Territory and which I 
solicit you would do me the Favour to lay before the 
Supreme Executive in reparation to my wounded char- 
acter — 

With great respect 

I have the honor to be 
Your Obedient 

Humble Servant 

Wintheop Sargent. 

Honorable Secretary 

of ths Department of State. 

System of Laxd Division Adopted by the Tennessee 
Yazoo Company. 

In 1789 the "Tennessee Company" became the purchaser from 
Georgia of over three million acres of land in what is now North Ala- 
bama. This was one of the purchases known as the first Yasoo sale. 
President Washington issued his proclamation against the sales, but 
the 'Tennessee Company," of which Zachariah Cox was one of the - 

142 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

principal members, disregarded it and proceeded to occupy the lands. 
He and his grantees gave the Federal Government much annoyance 
for years. Th^ following document, supplied by O. D. Street, Esq., 
of Guntersville Ala , from the original in his possession, shows the 
system of division adopted. It has never before been printed. It is 
regrettable that the plan referred to has been lost. Further details 
may be had by consulting the American State Pipers: Public Lands, 
vol. i, pp. 129, IS6, 202 et seq.; Owen's edition of Pickett's History of 
Alabama, pp. 409, 447. 

Zachariah Cox, Original Grantee of the Tennessee Com- 
pany's purchase, being desirous of extinguishing the In- 
dian claim To such part of said purchase, as may appear 
practicable and To Establish permanent Settlements there- 
on, for and in behall of the Said Company, by consent oi 
the Government, Does for that purpose by His Lawful At- 
torney, Samuel May, Esquire, expose for sale the valuable 
Tract of Land Represented by the Annexed Plan Sit- 
uate lying and being in that part of the Great Bend of the 
Tennessee River, Included in the Tennessee Com- 
pany's Purchase. 

This Tract of Country is Generally Levele (sic), and 
ap(pears) well calculated for Farming, The Timber large, 
and principally Oak Hickory, and poplar, in some places 
Cherry, Wallnut (sic) and Mulberry the Country is clear 
of under Growth except cane Pick weed, and Grave Tine, 
very large, the Soil is black; very Deep and Rich, abound- 
ing with excellent Springs of fine W&ter, Generally .Lime- 
stone, with every appearance Indicating Health. 

In order to promote the Improvement of the Town of 
Elkf [each purchaser of one] Thousand acres of Land 
in the afore Described Tract of Country shall be entitled 
to Receive and Hold Gratuitously a Lott (sic), which shall 
contain One Acre In the Town of Elk: provided they Shall 
Take possession of and Improve the Same within Six 
months after a peaceable Settlement takes Place. 

There w T ill be taken in payment for said Land one 
fourth Cash, the other three fourths in likely Horses, Beef 
Cattle, Merchantable Elour, and Pork at Cash prices. 

Zach'h Cox,. Grantee V. C. 

*The"Plan" is missing. 

■{•Illegible, but the meaning is erident. 




ty contained in the respective Lots 


Lot no. one 


550 acres 

Lot no. two 


625 Do. 

Lot no. three 


725 Do. 

Lot no. four 


775 Do. 

Lot no. five 


775 Do. 

Lot no. six 


775 Do. 

Lot no. seven 


775 Do. 

Lot no. eight 


750 Do. 

5750 acres. 

All of the remaining Lots in Town- ^ 

Bhip no. Twelve which the An- j 

nexed Plan represents from no. 9 J> 88,000 acres. 

to no. 96 inclusive contains one j 

thousand acres each. J 

Total 93,750 acres. 

Certified by me this 20th day of July A. D. ; 1797. 

Zach'h Cox, Grantee V. C. 
In the power of attorney to Samuel May, esquire, written on the 
same sheet of paper and bearing the same date, "Township No. 
Twelve" is described as follows: 

"Situate lying and being In District no. Four, Begin- 
ning on the north side of the Main Tennessee River, at the 
fourth corner of Township no. Eleven, Running thence 
Due north by Said Township no. Eleven, Two Thousand 
Three Hundred and Twenty Chain (sic), To a point on 
the northern boundary line of the State of Georgia, fifteen 
hundred Chains Due East of Elk River, thence along said 
line four Hundred Chains, to the third corner of District 
no. four, thence Due South along the East boundary line 
of said District no. four Two Thousand Two Hundred and 
Sixty Chains, to the fourth corner thereof on the north 
bank of the Main Tennessee River, thence Down the said 
River Tennessee to the place of Beginning Including Ninety 
three Thousand Seven Hundred and fifty Acres, in ninety- 
six Lots, lying and being in District no. four, and in that 
part of the Great Bend of the Tennessee River, Included in 
the Tennessee Company's Purchase. 




The original commission of Gen. Israel Putnam as ma- 
jor-general in the revolutionary arm}', is one of the most 
high-prized treasures of the Tennessee Historical Society. 

It was executed at Philadelphia on June 19, 1775, dur- 
ing the session of the continental congress, only lour days 
after Gen. Washington was appointed commander-in-chief 
of the colonial army, and was delivered to Gen. Putnam 
by Gen. Washington a few days later, when he arrived in 
New England to take command. The commission was ex- 
ecuted in the name of the united colonies, all or them 
being mentioned in the caption, and was signed by John 
Hancock, President, and Charles Thompson, Secretary. 
It is a most artistic and elegantly prepared commission. 
It came down by inheritance to Col. A. W. Putnam, 
of Tennessee, formerly the honored President of the Ten- 
nessee Historical Society, and was presented to the society 
years ago by his daughter, Mrs. Julia Putnam Perkins, of 

The officers of the Putnam Phalanx at Hartford, Conn., 
one of the prominent historic organizations of New Eng- 
land, have been perseveringly writing and longing for 
the possession of thi3 famous commission ever since they 
first discovered it among the treasures of the Historical 
Society at the Centennial, but the Tennessee Society with 
patriotic loyalty, has turned a deaf ear tc their entreaties. 
As the original commission is somewhat faded and pale in 
lettering, the Historical Society has had an exact and beau- 
tiful fac-simile of it made. It would be difficult to tell 
the copy from the original, excepting that the latter is pale 
and faded. 

The fac-simile will be at once framed, hung in the his- 
torical rooms, and the original will be placed in some safe 
place of deposit. 

The original Commission could not be successfully pho- 
tographed owing to it3 faded lettering, but an excellent 
photographic reproduction of the fac-simile has been pre- 

Minor Topics. 145 

pared and has just been forwarded by Gen G. P. Thrusto n 
to the officers of Putnam Phalanx, at Hartford, with th e 
compliments of the Tennessee Historical Society. 

Gen. Israel Putnam was one of the most heroic charac- 
ters of the Revolution and his name is greatly venerated 
in JSew England. He was the first major-general com- 
missioned by the Continental Congress after the beginning 
of the war with England. — The Nashville American, June 
9, 1902. 


In a letter of Col. George S. Gaines written from St. 
Stephens, February 8th, 1814, and published in vol. iii, of 
the Transactions of the Alabama Historical Society, p p. 
188-189, occurs the following passage : 

"Col. McKee with 6 or 700 Choctaws and Chickas aws 
is now on the Black Warrior Eiver in search of M us co- 
gees." There is a foot note to this passage by the e ditor, 
which reads as follows, "Pickett, vol. ii, p. 292, and Brew- 
er's Alabama, p. 552, evidently following the former, put 
McKee's Black Warrior expedition in 1813. Thi3 state- 
ment corrects the date." Is this observation of the editor 
accurate? Col. Pickett,who derived his information fro m CoL 
Gaines, states positively that Col. McKee'3 Black W arrior 
expedition occurred in October, 1813. It hardly seems rea- 
sonable that Pickett could have made a mistake as to the 
month in which the expedition occurred. He represents 
Col. McKee as negotiating with the Chickasaws at the same 
time that Col. Gaines was visiting the Choctaws on a sim- 
ilar mission, which we know was in the fall of 1 813, 
and that McKee at once, at the head of his Iudian war- 
riors, made his Black Warrior expedition. 

The following paragraph is from Halbert and B all's 
Creek War, p. 286 : 

"We learn from the records of the Department of the 
Interior that in February, 1814, a Choctaw force of sev- 
enty-five warriors under the command of Pushmataha 
made an expedition across the Tombigbee, just below the 
mouth of the Black Warrior. Neither history nor tra d^. 
tion has preserved any details of this expedition, the ba r 
fact alone being revealed by the records of the Gover n 

146 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

The writer is of the opinion that this is the same expe- 
dition as the one referred to in the extract cited above 
from the Gaines letter. Doubtless Gaines' information at 
the time was based largely on rumor or hearsay, which 
undoubtedly must have exaggerated the number of the 
Chickasaw and Choctaw warriors. But, assuming that 
both authorities refer to one and the same expedition, — 
to reconcile the disparity in the two writers as to the num- 
ber of the warriors, apart from the seventy-live 
warriors uuder Pushmataha regularly mustered into the 
U. S. service, it is probable that there may have 
been large numbers of Choctaws and Chickasaws 
that attached themselves to the expedition as volunteers 
serving without pay. Their names, of course, would not 
appear on the Government muster roll, a copy of which is 
in the possession of the writer. It will be noticed, too, 
that the expedition of the seventy-five warriors crossed 
the Tombigbee just below the mouth of the Black War- 
rior, and if they operated in the Black Warrior country, it 
must ha^e been on the lower course of that river. 

As the writer views the subject, there were thus two 
B ] ack Warrior expeditions, one in October, 1813 to the 
Tuscaloosa Falls, and one in February, 1814, operating on 
'the lower course of the Black Warrior. 

It is to be hoped, however, that tuture research will 
clear up the entire subject, as to whether there were one 
or two expeditions. 

Henry S. Halbert. 

Meridian, Miss. 

Wednesday, July 14, 1819. 

jjMft Minor offered the following resolution — Resolved, 

th^t a committee of -members be appointed, to draw and 

report to this Convention a Memorial to the Congress of the 
United States praying that if the treaty with Spain, made 
at Washington during the present year, shall be ratified by 
the Spanish government — so much of the Territory thereby 
ceded to the United States as lies West of the Apalachi- 
cola river, may be annexed to the State of Alabama. 

And the question being taken thereon, it passed in the 

Minor Topics. 147 

Oq motion — Resolved, That the blank in said resolution 
be tilled with the word 'five'. 

And the question being taken thereon, it passed in the 

Whereupon the following members were appointed in 
pursuance of the said resolution, Messrs. Minor, Touiniin, 
Cook, Terril and Jackson. ' 

Wednesday, July 23, 1819. 

"Mr. Minor from the committee appointed to draw and 
report to this Convention a memorial to the- Congress of 
the United States praying that. if the treaty with Spain 
made at Washington during the present year, shall be rat- 
ified by the Spanish government, so much of the Territory 
thereby ceded to the United States as lies West of the Ap- 
alaehicola River may be annexed to the State of Alabama, 
made a report which was received and read the first time, 
and ordered to be laid on the table. 

Friday, July 30, 1819. 

"The memorial to Congress praying that all that part 
of Florida which lies west of the Apalachicola river may 
be annexed to and form a part of the State of Alabama, 
provided that the late treaty between Spain and the United 
States, relative to the cession of the Floridas be ratified, 
was read a second time. And on motion ordered that the 
said memorial be now taken as engrossed and read a third 
time by its title which was done accordingly. The ques- 
tion was then taken on its passage, and decided in the 

On motion of Mr. Pickens (of Washington) Resolved, 
that said memorial be signed by the President and coun- 
tersigned by the Secretary of this Convention, and trans- 
mitted to the Congress of the United States." — Journal of 
the Convention of the Alabama Territory, (1819), pp. 14, 


The prudence and wisdom of the last legislature of Mis 
sissippi in establishing a State department of archives and 
history is being demonstrated daily. Valuable records 
and archives of priceless value are being constantly brought 

148 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

from their hiding places and made a part of the historical 
material of the State. 

The latest and greatest addition to the department which 
has recently been made, consists of the complete muster 
and pay rolls, with detailed historical facts of the troops 
furnished by the SUte of Mississippi to the army of the 
Confederate States. These rolls are estimated to be worth 
$15,000, as it would cost at least that amount to have them 
copied from the records of the war department at Wash- 
ington, even if they existed there in as complete form, and 
they make practically a complete Confederate military his- 
tory of the State. The history of these records reads like 
a romance of danger and war, and brings to mind many 
of the stirring scenes of May, 1863, when the city of Jack- 
son was captured and made desolate by the Federal army. 

Alitttle history here may throw light on these interest- 
ing archives. The following telegram to Gov. Pettus at 
Macon, is now on file in the department of archives and 
history and describes the desolating work of the invading 
army; as seen by an eye witness, as the soldiers evacuated 
the city, and shows the necessity for secreting the valuable 
records of the State: 

"Federals evacuated Jackson Friday and Saturday, last of our rear 
guard leaving about 2 o'clock; our cavalry pickets dashed in, killed 
federal colonel and two operators, captured seven; Grant occupied 
place in full force; his entire army don't exceed fifty thousand. Fed- 
erals captured and paroled two hundred South Carolinians and Geor- 
gians. They leave two hundred wounded here and nine hundred at 
ftaymoad. Loring cut off and captured supply train Friday. Jack- 
son badly sacked and burned; Green's factory and banking house, all 
work shops, penitentiary, Catholic church, Confederate house, two 
hospitals, a block of brick houses were burned. Some of the burnt 
buildings used as medical store houses, all burnt. All stores sacked 
and contents destroyed, iron safes broken open, Mississippian office 
gutted, presses broken, type thrown into streets; Jackson rond, South- 
ern road torn up badly for several miles, and railroad buildings and 
rolling stock burned, damage estimated at from five to ten millions. 
About three thousand negroes have joined the enemy /rom Hinds 
county; country plundered generally. No serious engagement has 
occurred; enemy retreating hastily; furniture in state honse badly 
abused, also in governor's mansion furniture demolished; telegraph 
wires torn down and cut for several miles; ladies robbed of jewelry 
and Jioney; much destitution here." 

When it was known that Jackson would inevitably fall 

into the hands of the federals the officials at the capitol 

had the records of the State moved to Macon, which was 

made the temporary seat of government. It was deemed 

b' st, however, to place the military records in a safe hiding 

place in the city of Jackson, and those valuable docu- 

Minor Topics. h$ 

ments were deposited with the faithful masons of the city, 
who stored them away among their archives at the city 
hall and county court house. Only a few men knew of 
the whereabouts of these valuable records when they were 
hid away thirty-nine years ago, and all parties having a 
knowledge of them are now dead. 

The late Col, D. P. Porter and Col. J. L. Power of 
Jackson seemed to have been in the secret, and Col. Por- 
ter imparted it to Hon. E. E. Baldwin of Norrel, Hinds 
county, formerly a prominent attorney of the capital city. 
On the death of Col. Porter and Col. Power, Mr. Baldwin 
became the sole possessor of the secret hiding place of the 
long hidden records, and knowing their value he lost no 
time after the establishment of the department of archives 
and history in laying his information before the director. 
Mr. Baldwin gave his knowledge of the facts to Hon. Cal- 
vin Wells, who in turn gave them to the writer. Mr. Bald- 
win, on arriving in the city, went immediately to the office 
of the state archivist, aud in the company of that official 
and Mr. George Power and Mr. George Swan, representing 
the Masonic fraternity of Jackson, proceeded, to the 
archivist room at the city hall and located the records in 
three large boxes. 

The officials ot the fraternity were exceedingly kind and 
courteous to the representatives of the State and were de- 
lighted at the thought that their order had been for so 
many years the safe custodian of such records. This is not 
the first time that the State of Mississippi has been placed 
under obligations to the noble Masonic fraternity. 

In the name of the State sincere thanks were extended 
Mr. Baldwin. Mr. Baldwin is a veteran of Barksdale's 
brigade and is deeply interested in the future military 
history, which can now be accurately written. 

Dunbar Rowland, Director, 
Department of Archives and History. 

Jackson, Miss. 



[This Department is intended for practical purposes. General invitation is ex- 
tended all readers to use it. Communications in reply to queries, or on other subjects, 
should be addressed to the Editor. No answers to queries will be given by private 

Historical Works Wanted.— Peter J. Hamilton, Esq., Mobile, 
Ala., is anxious to correspond with any one who has old books or 
pamphlets relating to the Gulf region, which may be for sale. 

Information Desired Concerning Fort Crawford.— I desire 
all possible information which can be had, whether printed or tradi- 
tional, concerning Fort Crawford, the site of which is supposed to be 
located near the present Brewton, in Escambia county, Alabama. I 
am told that it was erected by General Jackson, but if so it must have 
been in connection with his Florida campaign. For whom was the 
Fort named? . What the necessity for its construction? Are any plans- 

Peter J. Hamilton. 

Mobile, Ala. 

* * 

O'Reilly's Ordinances and Instructions for the Govern- 
ment of Louisiana.— For a long time it has been known that 
O'Reilly caused to be printed in French, ordinances and instructions 
for the Government of Louisiana, compiled from the Spanish laws. 
Four copies of the French edition are known to be in the hands of col- 
lectors. It has not been known until recently, that there was 
struck off, by the same printer, and in the same style, with similar 
ornaments one or more copies in Spanish. Of these, one has been re- 
ceived from Madrid. It consists of forty-two pages of printed matter, 
containing the ordinances which are printed in French, in the Appen- 
dix of the second volume of Gayarre's "Histoire de la Louisiane," 
pages 383 to 401, with the exception that, in the Spanish copy, the 
titles of Don Alexander O'Reilly are given at full length. The trans- 
lation in the French is not quite literal but sticks very closely to the 
Spanish original. It is dated Nov. 25, 1769. 

Wm. Beer. 

Howard Memorial Library, 
New Orleans, La. 

Who Is the Author of this Poem?— I wish to know the author- 
ship of a Poem commencing 

"I sing the hymn of the conquered, who fell in the battle of life — 
The hymn of the wounded, the beaten, who died overwhelmed in 
the strife," — 

and ending as follows: 

"Speak history! who are life's victors? nnroll thy long annals an»* 
say — 
Are they those whom the world called the victors who won the 
success of the day? 

Notes And Queries. 151 

The martyrs, or Nero? The Spartans who fell, at Thermopylae- 

Or the Persians and Xerxes? 
His Judges or Socrates? Pilate or Christ?" 

If you can ascertain for me authorship of above, you will confer a 
special favor. 

Charles Edgeworth Jones. 
Augusta, Ga. 

Ensign Isaac W. Davis and Hanson's Mill.— Replying to 
query on page 56 (Jul\ r , 1902) of this Magazine, I desire to say that in 
1888, at my suggestion, the late Col. John A. Watkins of New Orleans 
began to collect materials and unwritten traditions relative to the 
massacre of Fort Minis with a view to writing a monograph on that 
subject. With this in view he wrote to Hon. Jefferson Davis seeking 
information in regard to Hanson's Mill, a small fortified place not far 
from Fort Minis, under the charge of Ensign Isaac W. Davis, supposed 
by him to be an older brother of Mr. Davis. Mr. Davis replied to Col. 
Watkios, and in a letter which I received from the latter soon after- 
wards, he' gave me some extracts from Mr. Davis' letter. I have lost 
Col. Watkins' letter, but fortunately, before losing it. 1 had copied 
the portion containing the most important extracts which are here re- 

"We shall by tomorrow be in such a state of defense, that we shall 
not be afraid of any number of Indians."— (See Claiborne's Bale, p. 105.) 

"This refers," writes Mr. Davis, "to his having strengthened the 
dam so as to flood with water the ground, except the path by the side 
of the mill race, and to have covered the roof of the mill with green 
plank to prevent its being fired by arrows with burning punk attached 
to them. After the massacre at "the fort, some women, who had been 
outside washing, fled to this mill, and came in the night as near as 
they could approach on account of the water. Their cries were heard, 
and Ensign Davis went out and brought them in. After a few days, 
being short of provisions and receiving no orders from any quarters, 
he took his command with the fugitives on board of a sloop lying at 
the mill, and went with them, — I am not positive, but I suppose to 
Mount Vernon." 

"I also," he adds, "remember as an incident in this matter the state- 
ment that the Indians passed by the head of the mill pond on their 
way to attack Fort Minis; but as they could only approach the mill by 
the narrow pathway along the" race, they contented themselves with 
giving some whoops and passed. It was for this service that Ensign 
Davis was favorably noticed and commissioned in the United States 

It may be stated that Mr. Davis in his letter to Col. Watkins referred 
to Ensign Davis as his brother. 

Henry S. Halbert. 

Meridian, Miss. 



Historical Collections of the Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy of Georgia. — Under a resolution of the legislature of Georgia, 
Nov. 5, 1901, space in the capitol in Atlanta ha3 been set aside for the 
Daughters of the Confederacy of that State in which they are permit- 
ted to preserve such papers, historical facts, relics, flags, and souve- 
nirs of the war between the States as may be collected by them. 

Prof. Fortier Honored.— Professor Alcee Fortier, professor of 
Romance Languages at Tulane University, New Orleans, has been 
decorated with the cross of the Legion of Honor. Prof. Fortier is 
president of the Louisiana Historical Society, and has done much mer- 
itorious work in the fields of history and literature. The honor in his 
case has been worthily bestowed. 

Monument to Confederate Dead at Paris, Texas.— Ground 
was broken at 6 o'clock on the evening of Aug. 6, 1902.' in the south- 
west corner of the square, in Paris, Texas, for a monument to be 
erected at a cost of $4,000 in honor of the Confederate dead. The first 
dirt was thrown by Captain O. C. Connor, followed .by Mrs. Martha 
Dyer and Mrs. M. A. McArthur, the two oldest ladie3 present. A num- 
ber of ladies and children participated in breaking ground. Addresses 
were delivered by Hon. E. W. Fagan and L. L. Hardison, Esq. The 
song service was in charge of Miss Martha Dickson. The monument 
will be built as rapidly as the funds can be provided. 

Monument to Gen. Andrew Lewis.— The Margaret Lynn Lewis 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, of Roanoke, have 
erected over the grave of Gen. Andrew Lewis, in East Hill Cemetery, 
Salem, Va., a handsome monument to the memory of the hero of 
Point Pleasant. This monument, which was designed by J. H. Mars- 
teller, of Roanoke, is a beautifully symmetrical shaft fifteen feet in 
height. On one side are these words: 

"Geu. Andrew Lewis, 1716-1781, pioneer patriot. Hero of the battle 
of Point Pleasant, which was the most closely contested of any battle 
ever fought with the Northwestern Indians; was the opening act in 
the drama whereof the closing scene was played at Yorktown." 

On the reverse side is inscribed: 

"Erected by the Margaret Lynn Lewis Chapter, Daughters of the 
Amtrican Revolution." 

Proposed Monument to Governor Roberts of Texas.— The 
lawyers of Texas are being nrged to contribute to a fund to erect a 
monument over the grave of Orau M. Roberts, one of the most distin- 
guished citizens and jurists of that State. The following appeal will 
doubtless receive general response: 

Austin, Tex., Aug. 11, 1902. 
To the Lawyers of Texas: 

The spot here in the public burying grourd in Austin, where the 
remains of the Hon Oran M. Roberts repose, is marked by no monu- 
BQMit. The grave of that distinguished jurist who, as associate ju - 
ce hi «t aft erwards as chief justice of our supreme court, did so muc 

Historical News. 153 


in the construction of law, and for the administration of justice, 
should not be neglected. 

The Hon. Robert S. Gould, who succeeded Judge Roberts as chief 
justice, will receive contributions from the lawyers of this state to 
erect a suitable monument to Judge Roberts. 

Judge Gould, who lives in Austin, will be glad to receive sugges- 
tions from those who will contribute as to the character of the monu- 


Historic Edwards House at Vicksburg, Miss., destroyed 
BY Fire. — The old Edwards house, situated a short distance from the 
east gate of the National Cemetery, in Warren county. Miss., was 
burned, June 28, 1902. It was occupied at the time by some negroes, 
and had been for many years. The house was built before the civil 
war by Samuel Edwards, then sheriff of the county, which position he 
rilled for a number of years and up to the breaking out of hostilities. 
It was a big, comfortable and handsome country residence. The build- 
ing being situated between the lines of the Federal and Confederate 
armies, received rough usage from both and was badly shattered. 
During the battle of Chickasaw Bayou, north of Vicksburg, in 1862, 
it was a prominent mark. The old house received its worst treatment 
when the siege of this city by Gen. Grant began. It was visited by a 
number of the commanding officers of the Federal army, among whom 
were Generals Grant, Sherman, McPherson and Logan, and was used 
by the United States troops as a lookout station. It is regretted by 
manvthat the old building could not have been preserved on account 
of its "war record," and for the benefit of the many strangers visiting 
this city at different times, who are always anxious to visit the many 
points of interest on these historic hills. Ever since the siege, forty 
years ago, there had been lying under the, old building one of the 
largest size Parrott shells, which during the progress of the fire ex- 
ploded with a terrific report, blowing one of the fragments at least 
one hundred yards. Fortunately, no one was injured, notwithstand- 
ing a number of persons were standing around witnessing the confla- 

Monument to Gen. Walker at Atlanta, Ga. — A monument to 
the memory of Major-General Williara H. T. Walker, a famom Con- 
federate officer, who was killed in the battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, 
was unveiled near Atlanta, Ga., July 22, 1902, on the spot where he 
fell. Among the distinguished guests present were General Oliver O. 
Howard, who commanded a portion of the Federal forces in the battle 
•of Atlanta, and General A. P. Stewart of Virginia a fellow officer of 
Oeneral Walker. The monument was unveiled by Miss Janet McLean 
Walker, the little granddaughter of General Walker. Addresses were 
delivered by Julius Brown of Atlanta and Major Joseph B. Cumming 
of Augusta, who was General Walker's chief of staff. Brief remarks 
were aL-o made by Governor Allen D. Candler. The memorial is com- 
posed of five large cannons, three in the center and four others mark- 
ing the corners in the square which is enclosed by iron railings. A 
suitable block of stone properly inscribed, makes the center piece and 
upon this stands the large cannon. It is erected close by the roadside 
near the DeKalb and Fulton county line, and about three miles east of 
Atlanta. Interesting references to the career of Gen. Walter, and the 
erection and unveiling of the monument will be found in the Atlanta 
•Constitution, July 13 and 23, 1902. 

Iberville Historical Society.— The Iberville Historical Society, 
Mobile, met Monday night, July 14,in the Young Men's Christian Associ- 

154 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ation building, President P. J. Hamilton in the chair. The president laid 
before the society a number of manuscripts, Confederate war orders, 
letters by distinguished men of war times, etc., being part of a collec- 
tion of Hamilton family papeis. Mr. Louis V. Chaudron presented to 
the society a bound copy of "Joseph the Second and His Court," a 
translation of Muhlbach's historical novel by Madam A. de V. Chau- 
dron, and printed in Mobile in 1884. The book was originally bound 
in wall paper. Mr. P. C. Boudousquie presented to the society a copy 
of the first and only issue of an illustrated Mobile paper called the 
Lorgnette, the frontispiece being a picture of the late Consul Pillichody. 
The paper was edited by Mr. T. C. DeLeon. A paper on "Mobile in 
War Times," prepared by Mr. Erwin Ledyard, containing many in- 
teresting reminiscences of scenes in Mobile, was read by Rev. A. G. 
Moses. The society holds regular meetings on the second Monday 
evening in each month, except during the mouths of August and Sep- 

Death of Bishop Barnwell.— Robert Woodward Barnwell, 
third Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Alabama, died at his home in 
Selma, July 24, 1902. He was the son of John G. and Emma {Elliott) 
Barnwell, and was born in Beaufort, S. C, Dec. 27, 1849. He was grad- 
uated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., in 1871, and after a two 
years attendance at the General Theological Seminary in New York, 
was ordained deacon in 1873. He was ordained to the full ministry in 
1875, and for one year was at St. George's Church, Griffin, Ga. In 
1876 he came to Alabama as rector of Trinity Church, Demopolis. In 
1880 he left this charge to enter upon the larger work of St. Paul's, 
Selma. For twenty years he served this charge, and May 18, 1900, 
was elected Bishop Co-Adjutor of the Diocese of Alabama to succeed 
Bishop H M. Jackson. Prior to his consecration Bishop R. H. Wilmer 
died. Mr. Barnwell was then consecrated Bishop of Alabama on the 
Festival of St. James, July 25, 1900, in St. Paul's Church, Selma. He 
received the degree of lJ;. D. from the University of Alabama, in 
1900. Rev. Stewart McQueen, editor of The Church Record, Mont- 
gomery, devotes the issue of that valuable periodical for Aug. 15, 1902, 
to a series of memorial tributes to the distinguished and lamented 

Death of Commodore Joseph E. Montgomery.— Commodore 
Joseph E. Montgomery of the Confederate Navy who died Aug. 4, 
1902, at the home of his son, Dr. James Montgomery, 183 Cass Street, 
Chicago, at the age of 85 years, was a notable character. 

The commodore is survived by his son, Dr. James Montgomerv, a 
daughter, Mrs. C. M. White, and six grandchildren. Commodore 
Montgomery was born in Carrollton, Ky. , eighty-five years ago. After j 

receiving his early education he showed a fondness for navigation and 
the earlier years of his life were spent in this pursuit on the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers. The experience gained at this work proved valua- 
ble to him in later years and also to the Confederacy. 

In 1861 he offered his services to Jefferron Davis, of whom he was a 
warm personal friend, and he entered the service under the command 
of General Leonidas Polk. Owing to his perfect knowledge of the 
country he was placed at the head of a band of scouts and gained his 
first marked distinction at the battle of Belmont, where he attempted 
to capture General Grant. The latter escaped, but without his horse. 
Because of his bravery shown in the fight Commodore Montgomery 
was commissioned by Jefferson Davis to construct a fleet for the pro- 
tection of the Mississippi River. He fought as commodore of the fleet 
in engagements at Fort Pillow, New Orleans and Memphis. After 
the last named battle he came to Montgomery, Ala., and superintended 

Historical News. 155 

the construction of the gunboat Nashville and took it down the Ala- 
bama River to Mobile, where he sank seven of Admiral Farragut's 
federal boats on mines laid in Mobile Biy. After thi-i he made an at- 
tempt to cross overland to Texas, but was taken by the northern 

At the conclusion of the war he was pardoned by President Johnson. 
His boat, the Nashville, was made a government training ship. Soon 
after the close of the war Commodore Montgomery removed his fami- 
ly from Montgomery to St. Loais. Ten years ago he removed to 

Monument to Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard.— It is gratifying to 
know that rapid progress is being made by the Beauregard Monument 
Association towards the completion of its patriotic task. 

This Association was organized and incorporated by act before Mar- 
cel T. Ducros, Notary Public in the City of New Orleans, Louisiana, 
on February 23, 1S93. 

The following persons were named and designated as "The first offi- 
cers and members ot the Executive Committee,' viz: 

Francis T. Nichols, President, Win. Porcher Miles, 1st Vice-Presi- 
dent, S. D. McEnery, 2nd Vice President, Lawson L. Davis, 3rd Vice- 
President, A. B. Booth, Secretary, John Glynn, Jr., Treasurer, Mur- 
phy J. Foster, Chas. Parlange, F. P. Poche, Jno. L. Rapier. B. F. 
Jonas, Jubal A. Early, Chas: A. Brusle, W. L. Cabell, Jeremiah 
Lyons, A. L. Tissot, E. Kirby Smith, James Campbell, Geo. A. Watts, 
T. A. Faries, B. R. Forman, H. E. Witherspoon, Prosper Gauel, J. C. 
Denis, Leon Jastremski, John Fitzpatrick, J. B. Vinet, E. B. Whee- 
lock, Donnelson Caffery, J. E. Nores, Paul Conrad, Albert Voorhies, 
C. A. Harris, Joseph Demoruelle, Joseph Henry, T. L . Broussard, H. 
P. Kernochon, W. J. Behan, Jules Tuyes, C. H. Hyams, Albert Bald- 
win, E. D. White, Jno, W. Fairfax, J. Numa Augustin, George Moor- 
man, John B. Gordon, aff. T. Ducros, F. T. Howard, Walter H. Rogers, 
andU. A. Gueringer. 

The Charter states: — "The objects and purposes of this corporation 
are hereby declared to be, to associate together those interested in per- 
petuating a true account and correct history of the gallant deeds and 
noble sacrifices of the civil war between the States, and especially 
those events connected with the life, and patriotic services of General 
P. G. T. Beauregard deceased of this city, and to this end, to raise a 
sufficient fund and finally to erect a suitable monument in this city- 
commemorative of his life and services, that his name and fame may 
thus be trans fitted to our children, as worthy of emulation." 

Membership in the Association is divided into three classes, viz: 
honorary members, who contribute ten dollars or more, members who- 
contribute two dollars and over but less than ten dollars, and associate 
members who contribute one dollar. 

All such contributors receive a receipt in the form of a certificate,, 
with a lithograph likeness of General Beauregard in 1865. 

On the 16thof May, 1893, the treasurer's report showed cash on hand 
$1,896.00 in the Louisiana National Bank, and on the 16th of August 
same year, his report showed $2,343.35 cash on hand. 

October 1695, a sham battle was given at City Park for the benefit of 
the monument fund, and there was $1,336.65 turned into the treasury 
from that effort. The funds thus raised have been augmented by mi- 
nor efforts gradually increasing the fund, which was in the meantime 
invested in City premium bonds, until the treasurer's report of June 
12th, 1902, showed 119 premium bonds, and $17.60 on hand and con- 
trolled by an able finance committee composed of Gen. B. F. E*hle- 
man, Chairman, Col. J. A. Chalaron, and Capt. Alden McLellan, thus 
showing over five thousand dollars on hand. 

"156 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Dr. Crawford IV. Long Selected for Statuary Hall.— Geor- 
gia's Statuary Hall Commission met in the library at the state capitol, 
• July 2, 1902, and selected Dr. Crawford \V. Long as one of the Geor- 
gians whose statne shonld be placed in statuary hall at Washington. 
Dr. Long's name met with no opposition, as he is universally consid- 
ered Georgia's most famous son from the fact that he was the discov- 
erer of anaesthesia. 

There was considerable discussion as to which other of Georgia's 
sons should be thus honored. The name of General Oglethorpe was 
.presented, but it was argued that since he was neither born in Georgia 
nor died there that he could not be called a Georgian. Alexander H 
Stephens was also mentioned as one -vortny of the honor. The name 
of General John B. Gordon was also presented, but according to the 
provision of the statute in regard to the hall, the statue of no living 
man can be placed therein. It is thought that this is one reason why 
the commission deferred action on the third name. 

A committee was appointed to cooperate with a committee from the 

Cxeorgia Medical Association in the raising of ftin&s for the statue of 

Dr. Long. Those placed on this c.mmittee were Judije A. L. Miller, 

-Judge George Hilly er and A. L. Hnll. Dr. Willis Westmoreland is 

chairman of the committee from the Medical Association. 

The .nembers of the statu j-ry commission are Judge Columbus 
Heard, chairman; Madison Bell, Secretary; F. G. DuBignon, Clark How- 
ell, E. B. Gresham, John Allen. A. L. Hull, L. G. Hardeman, H. P. 
Bell, J. B. Park, C. C. Houston, George Hillyer, John Litrle, Wil- 
liam Harden, Spencer Atkinson and A. L. Miller. The commission 
■will meet again oh the first Wednesday in October. 

The commission was organized under a resolution of the legislature 
of Georgia, approved Nov, 8, 1901. (See Georgia Acts and Resolutions, 
1901, p. 764.) Congress provided for a statuary hall bv act of July 2, 
1864 in which each State of the Union might place statues of "two 
..chosen sons in marble or bronze," who through honorable or patriotic 
deeds are entitled to the lasting remembrance of the State and Nation. 

Continental Memorial Hall of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. — The following circular letter has been sent 
to the state regents and chapter regents of the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution throughout the United States, and is explanatory of 
the present status of the Memorial Hall work of the D. A. R : 
To the Chapter Regents, National Society, Daughters of the American 

I am glad to inform you thit a site for Continental Memorial Hall 
has just been purchased for $50,185.41. It fronts on Seventeenth street 
and extends from C to R streets, a instance of 210 feet, containing in all 
,about 35,000 square feet. It is near the Corcoran Art Gallery and the 
Washington Monument, and we are assured by United States Senators 
and prominent business men that the situation is most advantageous, 
and in the line of improvements which will make Washington one of 
the most beautiful cities in the world. 

To place upon this site a building worthy of ourselves, of our ances- 
tors and of tae great principles they sutferrd and fought to establish, 
will require the uuited. earnest eccort of our great society. We have 
upon our rolls nearly 40,000 members, bur deaths resignations, life mem- 
berships and "real Daughters' 1 (<vho pay no dues) have reduced the 
actual membership to about 33,000 There remains of the amount 
already collected nearly $60,000. We need £-25o,OuO more to erect a 
building that will properly Q aiorate the services and perpetuate 
the memory of our elorious ancestry. 

The buildiLg should contain rooms for the working force of the na- 
tional society, and for the preservation of its archives and relics, a 

Historical News. 157 

meeting place for the annual congress, and above all, it ehonldbe a. 
fitting memorial to those men and women who considered no sacrifice 
too great to win for us our priceless heritage. 

I hare never known the society to fail to respond promptly and gen- 
rously to every call that had for its object the good of the order and- 
the honor of our country. 

Therefore, I place the facts plainly before you, that we m^y take 
counsel together and devise some way to raise the necessary amount 
promptly and gladly, even at a sacrifice to ourselves. Asking that 
you will advise me through your state regent, of your plans for raising 
your part of the sum needed for this great work, I am, in the bonds of 
the past and present, very sincerely, 

Mary Desha, 
Founder and Chairman of Committee on Ways and Means Conti- 
nental Memorial Hall Committee. 

The Carnegie Library of Atlanta.— The Carnegie Library 
of Atlanta was organized May 6th, 1899. The organization of this 
library united library interests in the city and consolidated the prop- 
erty of the Young Men's Library Association; the gift of £145,000.00 
of "Mr. Andrew Carnegie; and the annual appropriation of $5,000.00 
which the City of Atlanta agreed to give for the support of a free 
public library. By the terms of the consolidation the Young Men's 
Library Association agreed to furnish the site for the new library, and 
accordingly a centrally located lot on the corner of Forsyth and 
Church streets (since changed to Carnegie Place) was purchased at a 
cost of about $35,000.00. In addition to this the Association donated 
its stock of books, pamphlets, pictures, and all property to the new 

The new building which was commenced May 15th, 1900, was de- 
signed by Ackerman & Ross, of New York. The building is similar 
in style to that designed by the same architects for the free library at 
Washington, being of the conventional Ionic order with classic orna- 
mentation. The general eft>ct is simple and pleasing. The material 
used is white Georgia marble. The total cost of the building, archi- 
tects' fees, etc., i3 $125,000.00. The furniture, stacks, and ail technical 
appliances are the best of their kind, and cost $20,000.00. 

The chief architectural feature of the interior is the grand marble 
staircase and public corridor. The reading rooms are quiet and de- 
signed for the comfort of the reader. Especial attention has been 
given to the designing of the tables and chairs which are particulaily 
comfortable . 

t The tables are supplied with table lights and the room iB also well 
lighted by ceiling and bracket lights. 

There are now 20,000 books in the library, classified and catalogued, 
and in good condition. 

The Decimal system of ciassification, with certain modifications, 
has been adopted, and a catalogue has been made. A monthly bul- 
letin of new books is distributed free of cost among the members. The 
book capacity is about 70,000 volumes The collection of books is well 
selected on general lines. A new department has recently been estab- 
lished on Georgia History and Archives. 

The Library staff is composed of a librarian, an assistant librarian, 
five assistants and two apprentices. 

The children's room is one of the especial features of the library. 
It is 60 by 33 feet, has a separate entrance, and is provided with cloak 
room and toilet. The main feature of the room is the great old- 
fashioned fire-place which holds five foot logs. The tiles about the 
mantle-piece are in blue and white, and are handpainted reproductions 
of Frost's illustrations of Uncle Remus. The tables and chairs are 

158 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

of three sizes, and deep window seats are justly popular among the 
small readers. Cabinets with glass doors are provided for specimens, 
and a bulletin board 20 feet long, covered with dark blue cork is used 
to display picture collections, lists of books, etc. 

The building throughout is characterized by a dignity and simplicity 
of design, which is in keeping with the spirit of the institution. The 
lighting throughout is good, the windows reaching to the ceiling are 
raised five feet from the floor. The corridors and public toilets are 
finished in marble and mosaic, and throughout the building the best 
material has been used. The woodwork is oak treated with a brown 
finish. The walls are a uniform green and the general effect is har- 
' monious. (For illustrations see Atlanta Constitution, June 29, 1902.) 

Anne Wallace, Librarian. 

Georgia Soldiers and Sailors in the Civil War.— The late 
legislature of Georgia adopted a resolution, approved Dec. 18, 1901, in 
reference to securing "a complete roster and historv of all the soldiers 
and sailors that the State of Georgia sen; into the service of the State, 
and Confederate States, during the late war between the States." 
Among other things the resolution appropriately recited that the value 
of such & roster and history could not "be measured in dollars an 1 
cents," and that it would ''be invaluable to the citizens of the State 
in the distant future." Gen. Clement A. Evans and associates were 
authorized "to gather up from the archives of the State all such rolls 
and information as are in possession of any of the departments of the 
State, or from any other source whatever, and make as complete a 
roster as possible of all of the soldiers and sailors that the State 

enlisted in her own service, and of the Confederate States, 

and have the same published in book form without expense to the 
State." Georgia's congressional representatives were requested to 
obtain "by resolution, from the [U. S.] government permission au- 
thorizing the officers of the government having the possession of the 
Confederate States papers and files to allow Gen. Clement A. Evans, 
hiB associates and authorized ageut, to examine said papers and ales, 
and make copies of all such as may pertain to and give information of 
the Georgia Soldier and Sailor," etc. 

This step is to be commended in the highest terms, though it can 
scarcely be deemed creditable for a rich State like Georgia to throw 
the burden of publication on private individuals. If the men who 
fought for the State are worthy of honor, then the State'? represents 
tives should have the courage to make au appropriation to publish the 
records. It may be observed that only an imperfect roster and history 
can be made up from records in the State archives. A careful histo- 
rian could not afford to rely on records compiled from memory by sur- 
vivors. Since 1895 a law has existed under which the States may 
secure copies of the records of their troops in the War Department. 
It is a dead letter, however, because the officials throw annost insur- 
mountable obstacles in the way of its execution. Instead of beicg 
liberally construed every barrier is imposed to prevent copies going 
out. No one is permitted to examine them except Department offi- 



Volumes 128 and 129 of the Reports of the Supreme Court of Ala- 
bama have been issued (8vo. pp. 804; and 8vo. pp. 828.) The reportec of 
the Court is Phares Coleman, Esq. 

The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey has issued, as No. 440, a Chart 
of Tybee Ro ads, Savannah River, and Wassaw Sound, first published 
in 1867. It is 30.2 x 39.6 inches. 

TheU. S. Bureau of Education continues its contributions to Ameri- 
can educational history with the publication of a History of Education 
in West Virginia, prepared by A. R. Whitehili (1902; 8vo. pp. 163, 33 

Bulletin No. 192 -of the U. S. Geological Survey is a GazePeer of 
Cuba, prepared by Henry Gannett (1902; 8vo. pp. 113, 8 maps.) It is 
also published as House document No. 474. 

The Proceedings of the First Annual Session of the South Alabama 
Educational Association, held at Montgomery, Ala., Aug. 28 and 29, 
1901, has been issued, (1902; 8 vo. pp. 40.) 

Miss Mildred Rutherford, principal of the Lucy Cobb Institute, 
Athens. Ga., is engaged in arranging for another edition of her work, 
American Authors, which has enjoyed a splendid sale and has been 
'introduced as a text-book in many schools. Her other work, English 
Authors, has already gone through several editions. 

Conclusions Reached after an Investigation of Receipts and Expenditures 
of Texas on account of Greer County, Oklahoma, is the title of a 
pamphlet of local value which has been issued by the U. S. Interior 
department as House document No. 571 (ISO J; 8 vo. pp. 36.) 

The Final Report on the Survey of Ouachita and Black rivers, Ark. 
and La. has been completed by the U.S. Department of Engineers, and 
is published as House document 448 (1902; 8 vo. pp. 136, map.) 

The official proceedings of the twenty-first annual sefsion of the Ala- 
bama Educational Association, held at Birmingham, Ala., June 17-19, 
1902, have been published in the July- Aug., 1902, issue of the Alabama 
Educational Exchange (8 vo., pp. 94.) 

Capt. J. Q. Burton, of Opelika, has reprinted, from the Opelika In- 
dustrial News, in an edition of 100 copies, his History of the 47th Regi- 
ment of Alabama Volunteers, C. S. A. It is 4 pp, 3 columns to the 
page; without title (1902.) 

The address to the Society of the Alumni of the Louisiana 
State University and A. & M. College was delivered Jane 3, 

160 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

1902, during the commencement exercises, by H. L, Favrot, Esq., of 
New Orleans. The address deals largely with ths history and traditons 
of Baton Rouge, and the history of the University (8 vo. pp. 18).) 

The Charleston, S. C , News and Courier, Aug. 9, 1902, contains the 
address of Gen. M. C. Butler on the life of his old comrade in arms, 
Gen. Wade Hampton, delivered in Greenville, S. C, before the South 
Carolina Confederate Reunion, held there in the early days of August. 

The Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Alabama, hereto- 
fore mentioned (July, 1902, p. 72) has been completed by the issuance 
of vol. iv (8 vo. pp. 1237), covering subjects from "Justice to Year" 
The same high degree of excellence is maintained in this as in the 
preceding volumes. 

Mr. H. L. Bentley has compiled a series of Experiments in Range 
Improvement in Central Texas, which is 'published as Bulletin No. 13 
of the Plant Industry Bureau of the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
(1902; large 8 vo. pp. 72, illustrations.) 

The U. S. Geological Survey has published (1902) the "Wedowee 
Quadrangle," as one of the series of topographic sheets now being 
issued by that bureau. It includes portions of the States of Alabama 
and Georgia. These sheets are projected without reference to political 
divisions, and are designated by some prominent feature found on 

Character Building is the title of a new work by the negro educator, 
Booker Washington, of Tuskegee, from the press of Doubleday, Page 
& Co. It contains the author's Sunday evening talks to the students 
of Tuskegee Institute. He is also the author of Up from Slavery, and 
The Future of the American Negro (1900; 12 mo. pp. 244), besides nu- 
merous pamphlets on educational topics. 

In the Editor and Publisher, New York, June 7, 1902, appeared a 
statement in reference to the suspension of the Cherokee Advocate, 
which had been in existence since 1856. The substance of the state- 
ment was embodied in a note on page 58 of the last issue of this Maga- 
zine. It has now developed that it has not in fact suspended, and the 
error is here corrected. 

The Matthews-Northrup Works, Buffalo, N. Y., have issued Where, 
When and How to Catch Fish on the East Coast of Florida, written by 
William H. Gregg of St . Louis, assisted by Captain John Gardner of 
Mosquito Inlet, Fla. The book is handsomely bound in red, contains a 
large map of Florida, and is illustrated with more than 100 engravings 
and color plates of fishes. Mr. Gregg has fished the Florida waters 
for years, and speaks from experience. His practical information will 
be welcomed by those in search of plain facts about the Florida fishing 
grounds. * 

Thomas L. Broun, Esq., of Charleston, W. Va., has reprinted the 
news account of the death of his brother, Dr. William LeRoy Broun, 
which appeared in the Birmingham Age-Herald, January 24, 1902, and 
also an account of the Memorial exercises at Auburn in honor of Dr. 
Broun, from the Montgomery Advertiser, June 14, 1902. Dr. Broun 
had been President of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute for twenty 
years. He was pre-eminently a great educator. He died January 23, 
1902, and is buried at Auburn . 

John W. Beverly (colored) has prepared A Guide to tlie English Ora- 

&ook Notes and Reviews. 161 

Hon (12 mo. pp 44.) The author is a teacher in the State Normal School 
for negroes, at Montgomery, Ala. He explains in his preface that the 
work grows out of a school room necessity, his experience being that 
neither students nor teachers of rhetoric have any well defined knowl- 
edge of what the oration is. The work consists of general principles, 
and an analysis of some of the finest specimens of orations in the 
English language. 

The U. S. Census Office has issued the following recent Bulletins 
(1902) bearing upon the Gulf and adjacent states: No. 181, Agriculture 
in Georgia (pp. 14); No. 188, Agriculture in rhe Indian Territory 
(pp. 9); No. 206, Cotton Ginning (pp. 23); No. 215, Cotton Manufactures 
(pp. 56); No. 225, Agriculture in Mississippi (pp. 14); No. 226, Agricul- 
ture in Tennessee (pp. 13); No. 227, Agriculture in Louisiana (pp. 17); 
No. 229, Agriculture in Texas (pp. 17); No. 230, Agriculture in Okla- 
homa (pp. 13); and No. 237, Agriculture in the United States (pp. 25). 

These Bulletins can be obtained free on application to the Director 
of the Census, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Frederic Bancroft, 1700 H St., Washington, D. C, is engaged in 
writing a history of life in the south from 1860 to 1865. Residing in 
Washington, he finds there an abundance of printed material bearing 
upon the subject. In order to supplement sources of this character, 
and to secure private correspondence descriptive of life in the confed- 
erate armies, and on the plantations of the south, and to secure by 
observation and conversation as vivid an idea as possible of how things 
looked and what people thought and said during the war, he made an 
extended tour through the entire south in April last. 

The new volume in Small, Maynard & Company's "Beacon Biogra- 
phies" — the Life of Audubon, by John Burroughs — emphasizes a qual- 
ity which has marked this entire series. It is the special fitness of the 
writers for the tasks assigned to them. This fitness has never been 
stronger than in the case of Mr. Burroughs and Audubon. To the 
fellow-feeling of one naturalist for another, Mr. Burroughs adds the 
qualification of a critical faculty, already made known in his admira- 
ble volume, Walt Whitman: A Study. Now he wins fresh laurels by 
writing about the great delineator of birds in the delightfully sympa- 
thetic spirit which has always marked his writings about the birds 
themselves. This new little volume is one which no member of the 
large and growing army of bird lovers can afford to overlook. 

The Alabama-Mississippi Investment Co. , of Mobile, ha3 issued a 
prospectus of its properties, the most valuable part of which is the 
report of Dr. Eugene A. Smith, State Geologist of Alabama, made 
after a critical examination of the lands of the company. The com 
pany is capitalized at $1,000,000, and its business is "a bona fide oil, 
gas, salt, coal, iron, and cement developing enterprise." The lands 
consist of 75,000 acres, located in one almost continuous unbroken 
tract, beginning at old St. Stephens, in Washington County, Ala., on 
the Tombigbee river, about sixty miles nortn of Mobile. 

Forestry Bulletin No. 32 is A Working Plan for Forest Lands Near 
Pine Bluff, Arkansas, prepared by Frederick E. Olmsted, of the Bu- 
reau of Forestry U. S. Department of Agriculture (1902; 8 vo. pp. 48, 
illustrations). "A working plan is simply a scheme of arrangement for 
a forest tract. To prepare it a thorough study must be made not only 
of the present character of the forest, but also of its capacity to fur- 
nish future yields and of the conditions which will govern the transport 
and marketing of the timber cut. Upon this study is based a system- 
atic plan for lumbering. The point of view is purely practical, the 

162 The Gulp, States 'Historical Magazine. 

purpose is to prescribe cuttings which will not only pay, but will also 
tend toward the gradual and sustained improvement of the forest.- It 
is a business policy recommended after an expert investigation." 

The recent books of importance concerning the inter-oceanic canal 
question are Ocean to Ocean, by Lieut. J. W. G. Walker, U. S. N. , 
and Notes on the Nicaragua Canal, by Henry I Sheldon. Each volumo 
is handsomely printed and illustrated. Lieut. Walker, who is the son 
of Re#£- Admiral Walker of the Canal Commission, condacted the 
western branch of the survey of 1S9S in Nicaragua. He has added to 
his volume the full text of the Clayton -Bulwer and Hay-Pauncefote 
treaties, and also some account of the famous Walker filibustering ex- 
pedition. The notes of Mr. Sheldon are of special interest because 
of his practical views, and his high reputation as a business man of 
foresight. The volumes are $1.25 each net; and are from the presses of 
A. C. McClurg & Co., of Chicago. 

The Sewanee Review (Sewanee, Tenn.) for July, 1902, (Vol. x, No. 3) 
maintains the high standard of excellence already attained. This 
journal is "devoted to reviews of leading books and to papers on such 
topics of general literature as require fuller treatment than they re- 
ceive in popular magazines, and less technical treatment than they 
receive in special publications. " It conforms "more nearly to the type 
of the English reviews than is usual with American periodicals." 
Nine volumes have been published. The current number contains the 
following historical papers: "Francis Parkman, the Man," by John 
Spencer Bassett, "The Poetry of Sidney Lanier," by Winfleld P. 
Woolf, and "Wade Hampton," by William Porcher DnBose and B. J. 
Ramage. There is a review of William Garrott Brown's Lower South 
in American History, prepared by Charles W. Turner. The typograph- 
ical and general excellence of this periodical is all that could be de- 
sired . 

The University of Texas Mineral Survey has issued Bulletin No. 3» 
May, 1902, treating of "Coal, Lignite, and Asphalt Rocks" (8 vo. 
pp. 137.) It forms the third in a series of economic publications re- 
lating to the mineral resources of the State. Bulletin No. 1 was on 
"Texas Petroleum," and was issued July, 1901. Bulletin No. 2 was on 
"Quicksilver, Oil and Sulphur in Trans-Pecos Texas," and was issued 
in February, 1902. The edition of these two Bulletins has been com- 
pletely exhausted. 

A special Bulletin on the Quicksilver District of Brewster county is 
in preparation, and will be ready by September. Mr. B. F. Hill, As- 
sistant Geologist, has it in hand and the report will be accompanied by 
a topographic map of that district, by the United States Geological 
Survey, Mr. Arthur Stiles being in charge of the field work. 

Later in the year, about January, 1903, will be issued a report deal- 
ing with the southwestern part of Brewster county and the southeast- 
ern part of Presidio county, bein^ accompanied also by a topographic 
map covering about GOO square miles of area. The change that has been 
wrought in industrial circles by the introduction of fuel oil within the 
last year renders the publication of reliable data concerning the other 
fuels of the State of Texas especially pertinent at this time. 

In the Confederate column of the New Orleans, La., Picayune, Aug. 
3, 1902, Dr. J William Jones, chaplain general, United Confedemte 
Veterans, and formerly the secretary of the Southern Historical Soci- 
ety, has a paper on the "Study of History in Southern Schools, Col- 
leges and Universities." The paper is largely devoted to a discussion of 
Buch portions of American history as relate to the period of the great con- 

Book Notes and Reviews. 163 

flict from ISO I to ISoo, and which bear upon the questions leading np to 
or connected with that struggle . He commeats severely on errors found 
in many of the histories of the United States in common use in the 
schools. He concludes: "Let us have chairs of American history in 
our southern universities and colleges f ally endowed and equipped and 
filled by thoroughly competent professors, who shall teach the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, concerning the history of 
this great country of ours, and who shall also prepare text books on 
American history, which shall be not psartisan, but broad, conservative 
and judicial, but which will at the same time recognize the south as a 
part of the country, and so present her glorious history that coming 
generations may net be ashamed for their fathers, or of 'the laud they 
loved' so well." 

Judge 0. W. Raines, of Austin, Texas, so well known to students 
as the author of a Bibliography of Texas, Life of Santa Anna, and also 
as the editor of Lubbock's Memoirs, and the compiler of Gammel's 
Early Laws of Texas, has just published a Year Book for Texas (8 vo. 
pp. 400.) It contains a wealth of most interesting and valuable ma- 
terial, and v/ill prove of invaluable use to every business and profess- 
ional interest, as well as to all who want accurate information on the 
political, institutional, and industrial life of Texas. From his posi- 
tion as State librarian the author had exceptional facilities for the 
work, which have been utilized to the best advantage. It embraces 
an official directory of the State, and of each county; a summary of 
current legislative work, and reports of State Departments and insti- 
tutions; also, of churches, denominational universities and colleges, 
and patriotic societies; the agricultural, manufacturing, mining, and 
transportation industries; the Congressmen of Texas during the Re- 
public and since annexation; members of the political conventions 
from 1832 to 1875; the limits of the administrations under the Repub- 
lic and State, with the Presidents, Governors and heads of Depart- 
ments; the evolution of our Judicial System, including names of the 
Judges of the higher Courts, from their organization to the present; 
notable events, such as President McKinley's tour through the State 
and the Beaumont oil discoveries, with obituary notices of the 
distinguished dead of Texas. 

All the subjects relate to Texas, and are arranged alphabetically. 
The annual contains historical documents never before published. The 
preparation of the volume has cost much toil and patient research 
through the official records. 

The price, $2.00 prepaid, is exceedingly small. 

Th9 Minutes of the Seventh Annual Reunion of the United Sons of 
Confederate Veterans has been issued in pamphlet form (8vo. pp. 144, 
illustrated.) The session was held in the City of Dallas, Texas, April 
22-25, 1002, simultaneously with the twelfth annual reunion of the 
United Confederate Veterans. The reunion is said to have been a no- 
table one in many respects, the attendance was larger than ever before, 
the interest was greater, the amount of work done, including an entire 
revision of the Constitution was larger than ever before accomplished. 
The objects and purposes of this organization are strictly historical 
and benevolent. It is endeavoring, among other things, "to encour- 
age the writing by participants therein, of accounts, narratives, me- 
moirs, histories of battles, episodes and occurrences of the war between 
the States," and "to gather authentic data, statistics, documeuts, re- 
ports, plans, maps and other material for an impartial hi'htory of the 
Confederate side; to collect and preserve relics and mementoes of the 
war, to make and perpetuate a record of the service of every member 
of the United Confederate Veterans, and all other living Confederate 

164 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Veterans, and, as far as possible, of those of their comrades who have 
preceded them into eternity." 
Previous sessions have been held as follows: 

First reunion, Richmond, Va., June SO, 1896; 

Second, Nashville, Term., June 22, 1897; 

Third, Atlanta, Ga., July 20-23, 189S; 

Fourth, Charleston, S. C, May 10-13, 1899. 

Fifth, Louisville, Ky., May 31, June 1, 1900; and 

Sixth, Memphis, Tenn., May 28-30, 1901. 

The principal contents of the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical 
Association for July, 1902, (vol. vi, No. 1, Austin), are "Louis Juchereau 
de Saint-Denis and the re-establishment of the Tejas Missions," by Rob- 
ert Carlton Clark, and "Educational Efforts in San Fernando de 
Bexar," by I. J. Cox. The first article is a continuation of a paper 
which appeared in the January issue entitled "The Beginnings of 
Texas." It takes up the narrative of Texas history where it was 
there left, the abandonment of the first Tejas Missions, and carries it 
on to include the year 1716. The development of the facts connected 
with the second paper presents a series of surprises for it has not hith- 
erto been supposed that the citizens of San Fernando ever gave any 
attention to education. After reading the paper one is led to the con- 
clusion that the net result of these educational efforts is not inconsid- 
siderable. The subject is treated under two heads, 4 'Education under 
Spanish Rule" and "Education under Mexican Rule." Mr. Clark has 
recently been appointed fellow in American history in the University 
of Wisconsin for 1902-1903; and Mr. Cox is the holder of the C. C. 
Harrison fellowship in American history at the University of Penn- 
sylvania for the year 1902-1903. The remainder of the number is de- 
voted to "Book reviews and notices," "Notes and fragments," "Que 
ries and answers," and "Affairs of the Associations." Included in 
the latter is a list of the accessions to the library of the Association 
from June 15, 1901, to June 15, 1902. 

The Publications of the Southern History Association, Washington, 
D. C, for July, 1902, contains a continuation of the following original 
documents: "Diary of a Texas March," "Journal of Charles Porter- 
field," and "Early Quaker Records in Virginia." Printed in their 
entirety and with literal accuracy these documents take rank as the 
very highest character of historical material. Hon. John H. Reagan, 
who was the postmaster-general presents an "Account of the Organi- 
zation and Operations of the Post Office Department of the Confede 
rate States of America, 1861 to 1865." Mr. Reagan, by the aid of a 
fine memory and a full set of his official reports, gives a most inter 
esting account of this branch of the civil administration of the Con- 
federate Government. Mr. Reagan was the only incumbent of the 
office of postmaster general during the existence of the Confederacy, 
but before his acceptance it had been tendered to Mr. Henry T. Ellett, 
and also to Mr. Wirt Adams, both of Mississippi. The paper cannot 
be read without a profound, as well as melancholy interest. One of 
the most valuable points noted by Mr. Reagan is the self-sustaining 
character of his department. He says "that while expenditures and 
receipts were increased as the number of States were ad led to the 
Confederacy," his "reports show that this service was from the start 
made self-sustaining, and that for each year from 1861 to 1865 there 
was annually a net increase of receipts over expenditures." A paj>er 
on "North Carolina in the Civil War," evidently prepared by Dr. 
S. B. Weeks, is called forth by a number of recent valuable special 
publications in reference to her troops in that great struggle. The 
"Development of Historical Work in Mississippi," recounts the recent 
growth in historical work in that State, resulting in legislative aid to 

Book Notes and Reviews. 165 

the Historical Society, and in the establishment of a State Department 
of Archives and History. Mr. William Beer has a short article on an 
early Louisiana book in two volumes, on the commerce between 
France and America. The departments of "Reviews and Notices," 
"Periodical Literature," and ".Notes and News," are filled with 
many items of importance . 

The American Historical Magazine was established as the repre- 
sentative of the Chair of American History in the Peabody Nor- 
mal College, Nashville, Teim.,and the initial number appeared in 
January, 1896. Dr. William R. Garrett, who held the Chair, was the 
editor. In stating the objects of the Magazine the editor said that it 
would "serve as a medium for disseminating the information obtained 
through the researches whiuh have been instituted- by the Chair of 
American History, and which will be directed to reviving neglected 
facts of history, to correcting misrepresentations of historical writers, 
and to presenting historical facts hitherto unpublished." The coutrol 
of Dr. Garrett continued until the January issue of 1902. Six volumes 
of four numbers each were issued during this period, and they consti- 
tute a monument to the industry and excellent work of the editor. 
Beginning with the April, 1902, number, the Magazine passed into the 
hands of the Tennessee Historical Society, and in addition to its old 
title, there was added: "and Tennessee Historical Society Quarterly." 
Under the new arrangement Mr. A. V. Goodpasture, the Secretary of 
the Society tS the editor. From the character of the two numbers issued 
the excellent work of the past will be maintained. The July, 1902, 
issue, has the following: "Georgia and the Cherokees," by Burr J. 
Ram age; "Documents relating to the Creek War;" "Sketches and An 
ecdotes of the Family of Brown;" "Alta Vela;" "Letter from Wash- 
ington Irving;" "Records of the Cumberland Association;" "Origin 
of the Democratic National Convention;" "Dandridge" (town); "Se- 
lect Document?;" "Robert Henry Hynds;" "Editorial;" "Tennessee 
Historical Society." 

The issue of The South Atlantic Quarterly for July, 1902 (vol. i, 
No. 3, pp, 200-300,) «ontains the following papers: "The Problems of 
the Author in the South," by Dr. J. S. Bassett, the editor; "Two New- 
England Ralers of Madras," by Bernard C. Steiner; "The Renais- 
sance in New England," by Edwin Sims; "Southern History in Amer- 
ican Universities," by William K. Boyd; "The College Professor in 
the Public Service," by Wm. H. Glasson; "Andrew Johnson's Admin 
Juration. "by Burr J. Bamage; "An Unconsidered Aspect of tbe Negro 
Question," by Robert W. Winston; "The Work of the Smithsonian 
Institution," by Enoch W. Sikes; "Canora s Statue of Washington," 
»*y Marshall DeLancy. Haywood: "Book Reviews"; and "Literary 
Noes," The full table of contents is given in order to indicate 
the extent and variety of topics treated, and to point out the ambitious 
design of the editor. While unstinted praise cannot be accorded ad 
the papers, a superior tone is maintained throughout the entire nu ru- 
ber. Dr Bassett is to be congratulated on the editorial success of his 
venture. It is to be hoped that it will have the financial succes-s 
which it merits. 

166 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 


G. and Mary Newton Stanard. Albany, N. Y., Joel MunselVs 
Sons, 1902. (8 vo. pp. 249; $5.00 ) 

This is one of the most valuable of recent reference books of South- 
ern history. Every historical student in the United States owes the 
compilers a debt of gratitude, for the work is of value to others than 
mere residents or students interested in Virginia history and gene- 
alogy. The compilers have at great pains, through diligent research 
and great industry, brought together from all known and available 
sources, lists of governors, secretaries of state, auditors general, re- 
ceivers general, treasurers, attorneys general, surveyors general, and 
members of the council the house of burgesses, and the Conventions 
of 1775 and 1776 of the Colony of Virginia. Mr. Stanard is the secre- 
tary of the Virginia Historical Society and a genealogist of ability 
and repute. His accuracy and thoroughness are well known, and 
this volume attests the most paiDstaking care. By way of preface is 
given a brief history of the various offices of the Colonial Government, 
with notes on the sources whence the lists are derived. 

YOU, OR CHAPTERS FROM REAL LIFE, in which you are your 
own hero. By E. L. C. Ward. 1903. F. Tennyson Neely, New 
York. (12 mo. pp. 266; $1.00.) 

This is a story without a plot, and with but a single character. I* 
is a narrative, with much datail, of the life of a man, told in choice 
English and sympathetic touch. The publisher classes the book "in 
tile first rank of didactic literature. :; The author appropriately says 
that the "true book is as real as the character it portrays; and *><s 
valuable as the lessons it teaches." Beginning with child life in the 
first chapter he presents a series of pictures true to life down to old 
age. While no reader can find himself photographed in every par- 
ticular, yet he will recognize many p>iufcs in am own life, and wi*l 
discover much to avoid in his future The aim of the author is to 
make better, brighter and happier the lives of his readers. 

Mr. Ward is also the author of The Scrapbook, and Heart Shots. He 
resides at Talladega, Ala., and is the owner and proprietor of a success- 
ful weekly newspaper. 

ILY. By Joseph Gaston Baillie Bulloch,. M. D. Columbia, S. C. 
The R. L. Bryan Co., 1901. (8 vo. pp. 222; Cloth, $5.00.) 

There is a rapidly increasing interest in the South in Genealogical 
investigations. Many elaborate volumes have appeared in recent years, 
tracing in detail the several branches of many Southern families. 
The foregoing volume is intended by the author to embrace "a history 
of most of the families of the coast country of Georgia." This is uot 
his first work. He has previously published separate Genealogies of 
the "Bellinger and deVeaux Families" (5 vo. pp. 109), and "Baillie of 
Dunain" (8 vo. pp 111.) 

While the author shows commendable enterprise in bringing into 
the convenient comp'iss of a single volume a vast mass of data iu re- 
laiioa to a large number of the most prominent families of Georgia, 

Book Notes and Reviews. 167 

it is to bo regretted that be has not more closely adhered to the ac- 
cepted methods of preparing works of this character. It would have 
greatly facilitated research to have taken the title genealogy as & cen- 
tral thread around which to group the inter-related fainiles. Without 
special information it is impossible to test the accuracy of the various 
statements and deductions. Dr. Bulloch, in his preface, gives his 
references and authorities. It is proper in this connection to note that 
A. S. Salley, Jr., in the S. C. Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 
July, 1902, "pp. 174-176, attacks the statements made in reference to 
the Brewton and related families. 

While it may contain some erroneous facts, almost impossible to 
avoid, the book will doubtless prove of interest to a large number of 
people. In addition to the Kabershams, there will be found mention 
or sketches of the following named families: Adams, Alexander, An- 
derson, Barrington, Bayard, Barnard, Bard, Baynard, Berrien, Bolton, 
Bowers, Bower, Bond, Bulloch, Bryan, Brewton, Boyie, Caperton, Oal- 
houn, Clay, Clark, Crane, Curds, Cobb, dimming, Outhbart, Coleman, 
Colquitt, Darbye, Davis, Davies, DeTreville. Dennis, Dunster, Dan- 
wody, Ellis, Elliott, Ellerbe, Feuwick, Find, Gignilliat Gray.Guerard, 
Habersham, Hardee, Haines, Heyward, Hayne, Harris, Houstoun, 
Irvine, Jackson, Johnston, Jones, King, Kollock, Langhorne, Lamar, 
Lewis, Lestargette, Lesesne, Manigault, Mackay, Maxwell, (Yliliedge, 
Millen, Mcintosh, McQueen, McLeod, Nephew, Newell, Nicoll, Neuf- 
ville, Newton, Owens, Parker, Pendleton, Pinckney, Potter, Poullain, 
Pratt, Pyncheon, Rsade, Rockwell, Rogers, Rounsaville, Savage, 
Screven, Simkins, Sales, Stanyarne, Sullivan, Thiot, Tatnall, Turn- r, 
Verdery, Wcishburn, Washington, Wayne, West, Woodbridge, Wool- 
eey, Williamson, Wright, Yonge, and others. 

ALLIED PUBLICATIONS currently received in the principal libra- 
ries of the District of Columbia. Compiled under the direction of A. 
P. C. Griffin, chief of Division of Bibliography. 1901. 4to. pp. 315. 

BRARY OF CONGRESS. Compiled under the direction of Allan B. 
Slauson, chief of Periodical Division. 1901. 4to. pp.293. 

GRESS, preceded by a list of works relating to Cartography. By P. 
Lee Phillips chief of the Division of Maps and Chart3. 1901. 8vo. 
PP- 1,137. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Compiled under the direction of Herbert 
Friedenwald, Ph.D. 1901. 8vo. pp. 315. 

TED TOPICS. Second edition, with additions. 1900. 8vo. pp. 15*i. 


168 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ON THE DANISH WEST INDIES. 1901. Svo. pp. 18. 

ON PORTO RICO. 1901. Sro. pp. 55. 

ON SAMOA AND GUAM. Compiled under the direction of A. P. 
C. Griffin, chief of Division of Bibliography. 1901. Svo. pp. 54. 

RELATING TO TRUSTS. By A. P. C. Griffin, etc. Second edition, 
with additions. 1902. 8vo. pp. 36. 

Notice has already been made (July 1902, p. 78) of the excellent 
Report of the Librarian of Congress for the year ending June 30, 1901. 
The foregoing list shows the principal publications of the Library 
since July 1, 1900, and will serve to c*ll to the attention of the readers 
of this Magazine the importance of this phase of its activity. The 
four volumes first named are of the highest value, and have received 
merited praise from all classes of students. 



A N D R K W J A C K SO N . 

From an original oil painting by Earle. 

NOVEMBER, 1802. 



GulfStates Historical 

Vol. 1, No. 3. Montgomery, Ala., Nov., 1002. Whole No. 3 


By Arthur St. Clair Colyar, Nashville. 

A careful reading of two books, the Life of Andrew Jack- 
son by Parton, and also his Life by Sumner, quickened in me 
a purpose long entertained of writing sketches of his life. 
The consideration moving me was mainly that the obligation 
rested on some one of a generation now fast passing away to 
give to the country, especially posterity, a candid and truthful 
history of his character as found in a life that literally never 
had an idle day, and also an impartial account of the services 
rendered his country. While it may be that soon after the 
death of a public man whose conflicts mark every phase of his 
public life impartiality cannot be attained, it must be admitted 
that a friendly pen may invoke truth and justice in reply to 
spiteful criticisms. 

I am not unmindful that a true biography and not the ex- 
posure of error in others who have written is what the country 
wants, and if the criticisms of General Jackson were simply 
what grows out of the contentions in public life, no defense 
would be needed in the life I am going to write. But the pub- 
lic will bear with me for turning aside occasionally to make 
defence when it is remembered that the unkindly criticisms 
come from those who as biographers are looked upon as friends 
and as making confessions instead of giving evidence, and 
when, as in this case, both biographers were disbelievers in 
General Jackson's theory of government, and were both apolo- 

*Mr. Colyar has practically ready for the press a new Life of 
Andrew Jackson, in which the effort is made to give the true Jack- 
son, without laudation, but in a sympathetic spirit. The paper 
here presented is in a certain sense the introduction to that work. — 

170 The Gitlf States Historical Magazine. 

gists for the section of country and for the conduct of the 
people, who were opposed to the. war in which he made his 
reputation as a general and who as a rule believed it was an 
unnecessary and an unjust war. 

Fair minded men will at once see that such biographers 
could not write an impartial history, and that truth demands 
criticism. Both of these biographers are the apologists of the 
Hartford convention, and are in sympathy with the doctrines 
of the party that opposed the Jefferson and Jackson theory of 
government, and which carried its opposition to the war of 
1812 to such an extent as to cause the President, Mr. Madison, 
the greatest alarm ; for indeed that party controlled New Eng- 
land, by far the most populous part of the United States. 
These gentlemen were incapable of writing impartial history 
and of doing General Jackson full justice. Full justice to Gen- 
eral Jackson and the southwest puts him in the history of the 
United States where a just measure of praise could not be ex- 
pected from New England. To be candid, an enlightened con- 
science should be a monitor, ever warning so deeply prejudiced 
men as Parton and Sumner from giving the country a life of 
Andrew Jackson. The Etheopian cannot change his skin, nor 
the leopard his spots. 

There is not an intelligent man in the southwest who does 
not know that no sort of justice has been done that section. 
New England has written our history as well as its own. New 
England has written our school books, and who will dare say 
justice has been done the southwest in the schools? 

What New England writer has fairly told the story of the 
hero of New Orleans? What New England writer has in an 
open, fair way put him above an "accident," "a lucky man," 
a man "favored by chance?" The New England writers have 
delighted to tell the country he was "ignorant," "a back- 

Mr. Parton is not content with personal assailment, but 
seeks to dishonor* the race from which he sprung — the Scotch- 
Irish — with this : 

"More than he was anything else he was a North of Ireland- 
er. A tenacious, pugnacious race; honest, yet capable of dis- 
simulation ; often angry, but most prudent when most furious ; 
endowed by nature with the gift of extracting from every af- 
fair and even' relation all the strife it can be made to yield ; at 
home and among dependents, all tenderness and generosity : to 

*Life of Andrew Jackson (1861), Vol. iii. p. 685. For subsequent 
quotatons see pp. 695, 699, 700. 

Necessity fob a New Life of Andrew Jackson. 171 

opponents., violent, ungenerous, prone to believe the very worst 
of them ; a race that means to tell the truth, but, when excited 
by anger or warped by prejudice, incapable of either telling, or 
remembering, or knowing the truth ; not taking kindly to cul- 
ture, but able to achieve wonderful things without it; a 
strange blending of the best and the worst qualities of two 
races. Jackson had these traits in an exaggerated degree; as 
Irish as though he were not Scotch; as Scotch as though he 
were not Irish. Not to be of his party was to be a traitor, 
and death was too good for traitors." 

As a rule the Scotch-Irish have been considered a very good 
people. Then here is a specimen of the hate that rankled 
while he wrote : 

"He was a thorough-going, human fighting-cock, very- kind 
to the hens of his own farm-yard, giving them many a nice 
kernel of corn, but bristling up at the faintest crow of chanti- 
cleer on the other side of the road." 

"And in his most autocratic moments, he really thought 
that he was fighting the battle of the people, and doing their 
will while baffling the purposes of their representatives. If he 
had been a man of knowledge as well as force, he would 
have taken the part of the people more effectually, and left 
to his successors an increased power of doing good, instead 
of better facilities for doing harm. * * * But his 
ignorance of law, history, politics, science, of everything which 
he who governs a country ought to know, was extreme. * * 

* * His ignorance was a wall around him — high, impene- 
trable. He was imprisoned in his ignorance, and sometimes 
raged round his little, dim enclosure like a tiger in his den. 

* * * To this most lamentable divorce between the peo- 
ple and those who ought to have been worthy to lead 
them, and who would have led them if they had been 
worthy, we are to attribute the elevation to the presi- 
dency of a man whose ignorance, whose good intentions, and 
whose passions combined to render him, of all conceivable 
human beings, the most unfit for the office." 

Sumner's book lacks the coarseness of Parton, but as a life 
of Jackson it must be regarded as a fraudulent advertisement 
to get before the country New England's defence for opposing 
Jackson and the war of 1812. The whole book is the New 
England side not only of the war of 181 2, but the New Eng- 
land side of all the questions that came up during Jackson's 
eight years as President, with only one variation that is any 
side or dogma that is at issue with Jackson. For instance, 
on the question of Jackson's position on nullification, he says : 

172 The Guij States Historical Magazine. 

"We may say what we like of the milliners, but so far as 
they met with and knew of this disposition on the part of 
Clay and his supporters, they would not have been free men if 
they had not resisted it, for it must not be forgotten that the 
real question at issue was whether their property should be 
taken away from them or not." Think of this New England 
biographer whose whole book is made up of short phrases in 
praise of New England theories and jerky epithets about 
Jackson's illiteracy going off on the side of nullification because 
of the tariff of 1828 just to keep on the side that Jackson was 
never right, not even on the question of nullification. 

Here is the text on which the whole book is written : 

"In 1804 Jackson resigned his office as Judge. From that 
time Parton gives letters of Jackson which are astonishingly 
illiterate for a man in his position, even when all the circum- 
stances are taken into consideration. " 

This will give the reader a rational view of the situation and 
impression made on my mind when I read these two books, 
and the full realization came home to me. Is this the man? 
Is this the misrepresentation that is to go to posterity of the 
South's greatest actor? Of the man whose life, when told, is 
a history of the southwest in the time of the nation's greatest 
trial? Is all Europe to see this great idol of the South through 
these discolored glasses, for the two have put this misrepre- 
sentation in all the libraries of this country and in Europe, as 

It came to me, shall the South be put before the world 
(among the men that know who Jackson was, what he did at 
the head of the army, and as President), as a people who will 
not stand by and defend the name of a man in his grave who 
did so much for his country? 

All that can now be done in the way of defence to the as- 
sault made on the southwest and its great men and great deeds' 
must be carefully written in truthful biographies, while at the 
same time we cultivate taste and improve the talent for pro- 
ducing good style magazines. New England writers on Jack- 
son and the Jacksonean period have so generally followed Par- 
ton and Sumner in unfriendly criticisms and in belittling the 
great soldier, and then have so flippantly given each other as 
authority in acknowledged professor style, that the rising gene- 
ration in the east, and even in other parts of the country, 
through school books as well as in biographical literature, has 
become so saturated in a false belief that time and patience are 
the only remedy. 

Necessity for a New Life of Andrew Jackson. 173 

Parton's book is in every great library in the world, and 
Sumner's book has been put upon the country as one of the 
"series of American Statesmen," thus giving it a certificate of 
good character which it does not by any means deserve. 

Without much hope of regeneration for New England, the 
country is entitled to know certain great truths about the 
southwest and about its great general, and what he did for 
the country at large, including New England. It may be well 
to introduce the life of Gen. Jackson with certain palpable and 
indisputable facts which the reader will not be able to shake 
off as he passes along, no matter what section he may belong 

Among these I now recount that in the war of 1812 British 
soldiers had triumphed over our northern armies to such an 
extent that New England was crying out for peace on any 
terms, and was strongly in sympathy with England because 
the war had land-locked her ships and did for her what the 
new dispensation threatened for Demetrius, who made silver 
gods for the people to worship. Hence the cry : "Give us 
back our ships and the carrying trade though our sailors be 
imprisoned and our flag taken down from the capital at Wash- 
ington. " 

So disastrous had been the war all along the Canada line 
and in New England that the President confessed his weak- 
ness by sending Messrs. Adams, Gallatin, Clay, Bayard, 
Crawford, and Russell to Europe as commissioners to try and 
make peace. 

But the British were here to renew the battle of Yorktown 
and fight it over, with which they had never been satisfied. At 
the time our commissioners met the British commissioners at 
Ghent, a darker day and deeper humiliation had never come 
on the American people. 

This is what Mr. Schurz says in his life of Clay, made up 
manifestly from the diaries of Mr. Clay and Mr. Adams, 
about the meeting at Ghent, and about the disasters at the 
north, and about the demands of the British commissioners : 

"These disasters were scarcely counterbalanced by Gen. 
Jackson's success against the Creeks in the southwest; but 
this and the recovery of Detroit were the only considerable ad- 
vantages gained on land in 1813. The opening spring brought 
another failure of an expedition along the shore of Lake 
Champlain under Wilkinson. The blockade was constantly 
growing more rigid. Not a single American man-of-war was 
on the open sea. The successful fights at Chippewa and 

174 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Lundy's Lane, and then the crowning disgrace of the capture 
of Washington, were still to come. Meanwhile the discontent 
with the war was prevailing in New England, which w T as des- 
tined to culminate in the Hartford convention, although ap- 
parently not spreading, continued to be active and to threaten 
rebellious outbreaks. But the most ominous events were the 
downfall of Napoleon, the conclusion of peace in Europe, and 
in consequence, the liberation of the military, naval, and 
financial resources of Great Britain for a vigorous prosecution 
of the war in America. What had already happened was only 
child's play. The really serious business was now to come. 
The outlook appeared, therefore, extremely gloomy. While 
on his way to Ghent, Gallatin had spent some time in London, 
and had earnestly tried there to interest, in behalf of the United 
States, the Emperor of Russia, who was on a visit to his Eng- 
lish ally. That effort, too, had failed; the United States was 
without an active friend. 

"Most of these tilings had become known, not only to the 
Americans, but also to the British commissioners. These 
gentlemen were, therefore, naturally inclined to treat the 
United States as a defeated enemy suing for peace. 

"At the opening of the negotiations, the British demanded 
as a sine qua non that a large territory in the United States, 
all the country now occupied by the States of Michigan, Illi- 
nois, and Wisconsin, the larger part of Indiana, and about one- 
third of Ohio should be set apart for the Indians, to constitute 
a sort of Indian sovereignty under British guaranty, not to be 
purchased from the Indians by the United States, and to serve 
as a "buffer," a perpetual protection of the British possessions 
against American ambition. They demanded that also the 
United States should relinquish the right of keeping armed 
vessels on the Great Lakes, and, in addition to all this, they 
asked for the cession of a piece of Maine in order to make a 
road from Halifax to Quebec, and for a formal renewal of the 
provision of the treaty of 1783, giving the English subjects the 
right of navigating the Mississippi." 

This humiliation was tendered our commissioners as an al- 
ternative, in the spring of 18 14, and was never yielded or 
modified until Gen. Jackson destroyed England's most hope- 
ful ally, the Creek nation, by fighting the five battles of the 
Creek war. When this news reached England, together with 
the news of Jackson's gallant defence at Fort Bowyer, at the 
entrance of Mobile Bay, and of his capturing the Spanish gov- 
ernor at Pensacola, shooting the ships out of the bay, and dis- 

Necessity for a New Lite of Andrew Jackson. 175 

mantling the forts, then it was and only two days before the 
treaty of Ghent was signed, that the British commissioners 
notified our commissioners of the abandonment of the humi- 
liating demands, as shown in the foregoing extract. 

The treaty was signed on the 24th of December, 181 4, the 
day after Jackson's great night victory. Such was the hope- 
less prospect of a treaty that our commissioners had abandoned 
all effort and were scattered about over the country in the 
early part of 18 14. 

Mr. Clay was at Gottenburg, and Mr. Gallatin was in Lon- 
don, and on the 14th of April Mr. Gallatin wrote Mr. Clay as 
follows : 

"You are sufficiently aware of the total change in our affairs, 
produced by the late revolution, and by the restoration of uni- 
versal peace in the European world, from which we are alone 
excluded. A well organized and large army is at once liber- 
ated from any European employment, and ready, together with 
a superabundant naval force, to act immediately against us. 
How ill prepared we are to meet it in a proper manner no one 
knows better than yourself; but, above all, our own divisions 
and the hostile attitude of the Eastern States give room to 
apprehend that a continuance of the war might prove vitally 
fatal to the United States." 

And at the same time Mr. Gallatin wrote the President of 
the United States : 

"That the most prodigious and over-whelming effort against 
America had been resolved upon. He knew not where the 
first blow was to fall. He gave no hint, for he had none to 
give, of the intended conquest of the southwest. He knew 
only that great fleets were equipping, that many of the finest 
regiments in the service were preparing to embark, that simul- 
taneous operations were contemplated, and that every seaport 
on the Atlantic coast was in danger." 

And on the 15th of October, 1814, Lord Castlereigh said 
to the King of France: "Sire, it is true beyond all question; 
and I expect that at this time most of the large seaport towns 
in America are laid in ashes, that we are in posession of New 
Orleans, and have command of all the waters of the Mississ- 
ippi and the lakes ; so that the Americans are little better than 
prisoners at large in their own country." 

In our entire history no such cloud has hung over us ; no such 
disaster has been threatened, and in great measure because 
New England had thrown her influence in favor of peace on 
any terms. It is a notorious fact that when the news came that 

17S The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Napoleon had capitulated there was in New England general 
rejoicing on the supposition that the President would be bound 
to make peace on such terms he could get, that such was now 
the disparity in military strength that we would have to aban- 
don the war. 

The capture of Hull's army had taken place. The British 
army had taken Washington in a spirit of vandalism, killing 
citizens on the streets, burning our public buildings, destroy- 
ing the archives, and driving the President out. Alliances 
had been formed with the southern tribes of Indians, the most 
powerful of which was the Creeks, with 10,000 warriors, who 
had opened -the campaign by murdering about 400 people at 
Fort Minis, on the Alabama river in the Mississippi territory, 
including what is now Alabama and Mississippi. 

Against this uprising, the frontiers being helpless, Jackson 
had raised an army, and under the Governor of Tennessee, 
when the United States was practically prostrate and could 
give him no help, and in five pitched battles destroyed this 
great ally, the only land victories in two years. 

London's principal entertainments were sham battles display- 
ing the cowardice of Americans, ready to bring on a war, but 
too cowardly to fight. 

The London Times said of the President, Mr. Madison : 

"This fellow, notorious for lying, for imposture of all kinds, 
for his barbarous warfare, both in Canada and against the 
Creek Indians, for everything in short that can debase and de- 
grade a government." 

And the London Sun said of our soldiers : 

"The American armies, of copper captains and FalstafT re- 
cruits defy the pen of satire to paint them worse than they are, 
worthless, lying, treacherous, false, slanderous, cowardly and 
vaporing heroes, with boasting on their loud tongues, and ter- 
ror in their quaking hearts. Were it not that the course of 
punishment they are undergoing is necessary to the ends of 
moral and political justice, we declare before our country that 
we should feel ashamed of the victory over such ignoble foes. 
The quarrel resembles one between a gentleman and a chimney- 
sweeper, the former may beat the low scoundrel to his heart's 
contentment ; but there is no honor in the exploit, and he is 
sure to be covered with the soil and dirt of his ignominious 
antagonist. But the necessity will sometimes compel us to de- 
scend from our station to chastise a vagabond, and endure the 
disgrace of a contest in order to repress, by wholesome cor- 

Necessity fop. a New Life of Andrew Jackson. 177 

rection, the presumptuous insolence and mischievous designs 
of the basest assailant." 

These conditions are here given and backed up by indis- 
putable facts, that all readers may know and especially that 
even those who have read New England literature on Jackson, 
on every page may be reminded that this is he who was New 
England's ''back-woods accident." 

New England has constantly said the battle of New Or- 
leans, being fought after the treaty was made, is indifferent in 
its consequences, but the reader who goes through the subject 
will realize, maybe for the first time, that Jackson made the 
treaty of Ghent just as much as he fought the battle of New- 

It was after England's new army, freed by the capitulation 
of Napoleon, had met the victorious army that captured Wash- 
ington, in Negril Bay at Jamaica, and after this fleet of fifty 
ships had reached the mouth of the Mississippi river, and 
after Jackson's great victories and after his treaty with the 
Creeks was made, and after Jackson had been raised from a 
backwood's soldier, having never seen a military school nor 
been even a lieutenant, but made a major-general in the United 
States army by the President of the United States, that, the 
British commisioners withdrew the peremptory demand for 
a great big slice of our territory, equal rights w T ith us in the 
Mississippi river, and a public highway through New England 
and on which immediately the treaty of peace was made. 

In addition to all this Jackson practically put into the treaty 
what our commissioners had been compelled in great mortifi- 
cation to leave out, a denial of the right to search our ships on 
the high seas, the thing we were fighting about. 

At New Orleans Jackson put it in and wrote it with blood, 
Mr. Clay having been almost coerced to agree to the treaty 
without securing what we were fighting about, and having 
brought on the war by a single speech was so mortified that 
he refused to go to London, but remained in the Netherlands 
until the news of Jackson's victory reached him ; then, he says, 
he went to London and walked the streets like a game chicken. 

In speaking of New England, I wish to be understod as re- 
ferring to its organized influence, for in New England there 
have always been thousands and hundreds of thousands who 
were at the time and have been since as loyal to the cause of 
the second war and to its great captain as their fathers were 
to the war of the Revolution and its great leader. 

178 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

But the south and especially the southwest would be un- 
American if it did not respectfully resent the liberties taken 
by New England book makers with the name and character 
of so distinguished a chieftain. When alive he always took 
care of his honor which seems yet to be of an offensive trait, 
but when the grave closed over him an obligation rests upon 
the lovers of the country he saved from dishonor to see at least 
that justice is done him. 

t When the martial spirit in some places was not at its best, 
when the president could not give him a single soldier, his 
neighbors from the backwoods followed him, obeyed his bid- 
ding and put the flag back on the capitol, sent England's gen- 
erals home in coffins, buried two thousand of her soldiers, put 
the balance on board their ships and sent them away under an 
injunction never to come back with guns. 

This great captain sleeps out at Hermitage, and my proposed 
work will tell the story of a birth that was a tragedy, a life 
that was a romance, and a death that was a triumph. 

An indulgent public will pardon me if in writing a truthful 
story of this great American, I shall feel compelled to be- 
come a witness against two books that are largely defamation. 


the continuity of constitutional govern- 
By Clarence Ousley, Houston, Texas. 

The .statement is frequently found in accounts of the French 
intervention in Mexico that President Juarez after his retreat 
to the north left the country and crossed over into the United 
States. It is made to appear, also, — and was so declared by 
the Maximilian regime — that the Juarez government ceased to 
exist during the period of retreat. On a recent visit to the 
town of Juarez (the old town of El Paso del Norte), I learned 
both that the fugitive president never crossed the border and 
that he never ceased to exercise the functions of chief exec- 
utive. Hence the constitutional government had a continu- 
ous existence — albeit an ineffectual administration — from the 
time of its overthrow at the capital to the time of its restora- 
tion. These facts ought to be set down with circumstantial 
detail for the guidance of future historians. 

En Este Lugar Risidia El Presidents Benito Juarez Sos- 
teneyido La Autonomia National Cuando El Ejercito Francis 
Invadio La Re public a 1865- 1866. La P atria Debe a Su Con- 
stancia y Energia La Reivindicacion Deradeos. 

So runs the inscription over the doorway of the postoffice 
building at Ciudad Juarez, the typical Mexican town on the Rio 
Grande just opposite to El Paso, Texas. Until a few years ago 
the name of the place was El Paso del Norte (the pass of the 
North), and so I shall call it in this narrative in order to avoid 
confusion, since I am writing of Juarez, the Washington of 
Modern Mexico, in whose honor the name of the town was 

The inscription, liberally translated, informs the visitor that, 
"In this place resided President Benito Juarez sustaining the 
national autonomy at the time of the French invasion of the 
republic in 1865- 1866. To his fidelity and energy the country 
owes the restoration of its rights." 

"This place" is a characteristic adobe structure of one story, 
with a somewhat modern brick front and entrance. It is now 
the local postoffice. But humble and unpretentious as it is, 

18© The Gulf States Histomcal Magazine. 

it is scarcely more so than the Hall of Independence in Phila- 
delphia to which it is close kin in liberty, and closer yet in that 
the republic born at Philadelphia was the exemplar and the 
champion of the republic in refuge at Paso del Norte. The 
government of Mexico should set it apart from utilitarian em- 
ployment and dedicate it to patriotic memories. But for the 
constancia y eucrgia there displayed by the stolid and perse- 
vering old Indian jurist and statesman, Benito Juarez, during 
the crucial winter of 1865- 1866, there might have been no 
republic of Mexico until a far later period, for at that time he 
appeared to be the only man of force and influence who had 
a clear vision of freedom and the craft to build a state. It may 
be remarked, also, as pertinent to the times, that no people ever 
exhibited less evidence of the capacity for self-government 
than the Mexicans prior to the Juarez regime. As instructive 
on this point, and by way of refreshing the reader's mem- 
ory, let us recall in a few words the main facts of modern 
Mexican history. 

Mexico became an independent government in 1823 under 
the regency of Iturbide, who was ousted by Santa Anna at 
the head of a revolutionary movement. The constitutional re- 
public had a fitful life until 1835, when Santa Anna assumed 
dictatorial powers. The next year Texas won her independence 
and two years later Santa Anna was overthrown by Bravo, 
but in 1 84 1 the constitution was restored and "the Napoleon 
of the West" was exiled ; but he became president again in 
1846, set up another dictatorship in 1853, was again compelled 
to flee the country and chaos reigned. Finally a provisional 
government was formed in 1855 under Comonfort, who in due 
time became dictator. Comonfort was deposed by Zuloaga, 
who abdicated in favor of Miramon, a militarist and imperialist, 
who afterwards became one of Maximilian's chiefs. Juarez 
was chief justice of the supreme court and constitutional suc- 
cessor to the president. Upon Zuloaga's faux pas he rightfully 
assumed the presidency, and in 1861 he triumphantly entered 
the capital. 

It was about this time that Louis Napoleon dreamed the 
dream of uniting all the Latin races, and he conspired with 
the church party and the imperialists of Mexico to make Ferdi- 
nand Maximilian, archduke of Austria, emperor of Mexico. 
Maximilian was deceived by the representation, but that is 
apart from this narrative. Supported by France, he arrived in 
June, 1864, and set up a splendid court which for a time dazzled 
the fickle populace and gave the appearance of a stable govern- 

Continuity of Constitutional Government in Mexico. 181 

President Juarez was driven from the capital and fled to 
the north with a few hundred ragged Mexican soldiers, while 
the dashing Diaz (now president) held together a small band 
of patriots in the far south. The president was pursued by 
the French as far north as Chihuahua, where they took posi- 
tion to starve him out or at least to prevent his return to the 
capital, as if principles lived by bread alone or the germ of 
the republic must be preserved in the hot house of a palace. 

Arrived at El Paso del Norte, Juarez set up his govern- 
ment in the present postoffice building. Indeed, he did not hes- 
itate to declare that where he was there was the State. And 
this was not egotism or dictatorship. The provisional govern- 
ment of the United States did not always preserve its geograph- 
ical status quo, and the Mexican president had a later exam- 
ple in the flight of President Burnet and the cabinet of the 
Texas republic before the army of Santa Anna, which came 
red-handed from the unspeakable slaughter at the Alamo and 
was further characterized by the infamous murder of Texas 
prisoners of war at Goliad. 

From August, 1865, to April, 1866, little disturbed by the 
French, who chose to believe that he had abandoned the strug- 
gle and had left the country, Juarez issued proclamations in 
the usual volume and frequency of southern revolutionists, and 
from time to time commissioned brave spirits to go forth, 
organize bands and harrass the enemy. 

It is descriptive of his bankrupt condition and his unsparing 
methods that he was generous in commissions — provided, the 
commander should find his own means of equipment and sup- 
port. From all accounts but slender restrictions were placed 
upon the commanders, and we can readily understand that 
they did not scruple to levy tribute in the most convenient 
fashion upon the most available subjects. That there was some 
savagery with- no little brigandage, under the guise of war, 
is not to be wondered at, especially in view of the half Indian 
character of the people, the desperation of their cause and the 
general demoralization of the times. But they could hardly 
have done anything more barbarous than Maximilian author- 
ized in the notorious "black decree" which ordered instant 
court-martial and death to all revolutionists. 

With Juarez in this retreat were Sebastion Lerdo de Tejada, 
ministro de gobernacion (Secretary of State) ; General Ygna- 
cio Mejia (not to be confounded with Tomas Mejia, one of 
Maximilian's faithful Mexican generals, a royalist and a man 
of gieat ability), ministro de guerra (Secretary of War), 

183 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

and Jose M. Ygleoias, ministro de hacienda (Secretary of the 
Treasury), with several minor officers and some three hun- 
dred soldiers who constituted the president's escort and guard. 

Residing in El Paso del Norte then, as now, was Don Yno- 
cente Ochoa, a wealthy young Mexican, who gave earnest sup- 
port and substantial aid to the cause of the republic. He fre- 
quently entertained Juarez and cabinet, and his residence, little 
changed, stands there today. He is a multi-millionaire, perhaps 
the richest man in Northern Mexico. Naturally he is proud 
of his intimate relations with the first president, and now, at 
the age of 63, he has abundant cause to rejoice at the humble 
but important part he played in the reivindacion. 

By an interesting coincidence, it was in this same residence 
that Mrs. McKinley and the ladies of the cabinet were break- 
fasted upon the occasion of President McKinley 's western tour 
in 1900. The president himself did not cross the border, nor 
did Juarez cross it in 1865 or 1866. The house is a typical 
Mexican home of the upper class. Outwardly it presents the 
appearance of a row of one-story adobe shops such as may 
be seen upon any street in any Mexican town. Indeed, the apart- 
ments facing the street are used for business — or were so 
used, for El Paso del Norte is now, on account of the local 
hardships of the "Free Zone/' a decadent town, and Don 
Ochoa's "stores" are not in great demand. But about mid- 
way of the front is an arched doorway which opens into a 
short hall leading to the living apartments built in a hollow 
square about a patco or open space. Wide, cool galleries on 
all four sides face the pateo, which is rank with tropical plants 
and fruits, where fountains play and birds sing, and where 
the guitar and the flute have doubtless kept time to the heart- 
beats of dark-eyed senoritas stirred by the words of hot-blooded 
gallants when the sun had sunk and twilight or moonlight 
silted softly through the amorous air — all now in striking con- 
trast with the squalor of the town and the drouth of the sur- 
rounding country where the uncertain Rio Grande, "Rio 
Bravo," great and brave only in name and history, affords 
but a precarious supply of water to the irrigated haciendas 
of this arid region. There Benito Juarez often went to find 
respite from the vexations of fugitive government without 
men or means, and there "the first lady" of this earlier and 
greater republic not long since enjoyed the hospitalities of 
this distinguished family. If Don Ochoa is proud of the friend- 
ship, the visits and mementoes of Juarez, the ladies of the 
household are not less sensible of the honor of entertaining 
Mrs. McKinley. They took care to point out the precise spot 

Continuity of Constitutional Govebnment in Mexico. 183 

where she breakfasted, and the rattan rocker in which she sat 
is now reckoned among the household treasures. 

Benito Pablo Juarez was born in the State of Oajaca, March 
21, 1S06, and died July 18, 1872. He was early orphaned and 
compelled to earn his own living. His intelligence attracted 
the attention of his employer, who assisted him to get an edu- 
cation. He entered a theological seminary, but soon abandoned 
theology for the law. He rose rapidly, served in the legisla- 
ture of his State and became chief justice of the republic, when 
by the constitution he became president by Zuloaga's deser- 
tion of the office. 

Don Ochoa describes him as quiet, Indian-like, taciturn, 
deliberate and resolute. He was sociable in the simple demo- 
cratic fashion. He frequently dined out or spent an hour with 
friends, but avoided social functions. Upon one occasion the 
American commander at Fort Bliss across the river invited him 
to an entertainment, but he felt compelled to decline, though 
he sent a deputation of officers. He said he would never cross 
the border alive, because his place was upon his own soil. 

In the latter part of February, 1866, General Luis Terrazos, 
with Juarez's body guard, recruited to five hundred, started 
south to attack the French force of 1,500 at Chihuahua, Ochoa 
contributed largely to this expedition and had personal charge 
of the baggage and supply train. Though the distance was 
only two hundred and twenty-five miles, the Mexicans were a 
full month on the way because they stopped here and there to 
provision and recruit. By the time they reached Chihuahua 
they numbered 2,000, and on March 26, they engaged and 
routed the French. This was the first opening in the way to 
the south, and Juarez was not long in following. 

The end was near. The United States government, at ease 
by reason of the collapse of the Confederacy, had opportunity 
to reread the Monroe doctrine and promptly gave warning to 
Napoleon. The Mexican patriots asked for soldiers : Mr. 
Seward answered that he could do more with the pen than 
trie sword. Napoleon had other troubles at this time and could 
not afford a war with the United States, so the French troops 
were withdrawn. Left to himself the archduke of Austria fell 
an easy prey, through the real weakness of his cause and his 
own dreamy vacillation, to the awakened hordes of the repub- 
lic; and in the sad field of Oueretero, with his two lieutenants, 
the brave and brilliant Miramon and the sturdy Mejia, con- 
demned for usurpation, he faced the guns of a squad of in- 
fantry, cried "Viva la Mexico! Viva la Independencia" and 
unflinchingly paid the penalty of a rash attempt to set up an 
empire in democratic America. 


By William Beer, Howard Memorial Library, New Orleans, La. 

It is little known how much history of Louisiana is contained 
in the volumes of state papers published by the United 
States Government. The affairs of Louisiana claim a 
very large place among these. In the second volume of the 
papers entitled "Public Lands," the first eighty-four pages 
are devoted to the suit styled "Claims of the Corporation and 
Inhabitants of the City of New Orleans To the Land Called 
the Batture." It was communicated to the House of Repre- 
sentatives December 7, 1809, and occupied the attention of the 
house in the first session of the nth Congress. Among other 
documents presented is the original address to the people of 
the United States on the measures pursued by the executive 
with respect to the Batture at New Orleans, by Edward Liv- 
ingston dated New Orleans, October 21, 1808. As notes to 
this there are many interesting articles. 

Number two is an appeal to the Emperor Napoleon to see 
that the treaty of cession be not violated. 

Number seven contains an account of the sale of the real prop- 
erty belonging to the order of the Jesuits, and whose estate 
was annexed to the royal domains, which consisted of "Twenty 
arpents of front, measured on the perpendicular of fifty-four 
degrees from north to west, by fifty in depth and which Bien- 
ville, the former Commandmant and Governor of the Province, 
sold on those conditions, and in allodium, {franc aleit) to the 
Jesuits, by an act passed on the nth of April, 1726, before 
Andrew Chavre, notary, at the Chatelet of Paris, viz. : 

"Five arpents in front, measured on a straight and ob- 
lique line, running along the river and shore, and bordering 
on the twenty arpents sold to them, with the same depth, with 
the same rights and privileges, by the late Mr. Noyau, lieu- 
tenant in the service of the King, attorney in fact for the said 
Mr. Bienville, by a private act, dated January 22, 1728. 

"Seven arpents of front, measured in above, and adjoining 
the five preceding arpents, with the same depth which the 
Jesuits had purchased from Mr. Breton, Comptroller of the 
Navy, and First Councillor of the Superior Council of this 
Province, by an act passed the 2d day of December, 1743, 

The Gulf States HiSToracAL Magazine. 385 

forming, together with the preceding purchases, a totality of 
thirty-two arpents of front, mentioned by the said Broutin, 
in his process verbal of the 30th December, 1728, 19th Janu- 
ary, 1736, and 1 8th and 23rd December, 1745. 

The certificate also states, that the Jesuits possessed a small 
tract adjoining these in the form of an irregular triangle, 
which had been grantd to them on condition that they should 
dig a canal to the Bayou St. Jean, which they had not done, 
and that, therefore, this portion had not been reunited to His 
Majesty's domain, and was not to be considered as part of the 
property to be divided and sold. The surveyor recommended 
that the plantation be divided for sale, into parts of which 
the first shall contain seven, the others each five, of these 
divisions or arpents in front, viz. : 

/'Seven arpents in front of fifty in depth, for the first lot, 
bordering on the glacis of the fortifications, adjudged on the 
day aforesaid to Mr. Pradelle, lieutenant in the navy, command- 
ing the King's ship Solomon. 

''Five arpents, No. 2, adjudged to Mr. Larrivee. 

"Five arpents, No. 3,, adjudged to Mr. Grenier. 

"Five arpents, No. 4, to Mr. Bonrepos. 

"Five arpents, No .5, to Mr. Saullet. 

"Five arpents, No. 6, to Messrs. Durand, brothers. 

"Done at New Orleans, the 22nd of the month of December, 
in the year 1763. 

Thomas Saulet, "Oliver Devezin, 

A. Faures, Amelot, 

Le Chevalier de Bonrepos, Pigeon, 

J. Lamothe, Villars, 

Durand Freres. 

The Superior Council of the Province of Louisiana signed 
themselves from D'Abbadie, Zuchel, De Kernion, Baucault, 
Marrenal, Murhuise, D'Amney. 

A deed from Alexandrina de la Chaise, widow of Jean Pra- 
delle, for a habitation outside the walls of the city, adjoining the 
gate of the Chapitoulas, consisting of twelve acres of front, 
in depth to the Bayou St. Jean. There is a note that a negro, 
Zamba, acquired some of this property. 

There is nothing to show when Madam Delon, who is men- 
tioned as an owner of this property in 1763, purchased her 

It is an interesting fact that the Spanish drew its supply of 
masts from Louisiana. 


188 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Laurent Segur, father-in-law of Laroche, brought down in 
the Spring of that year, 1795, such a large lot of masts that 
they encumbered the part of shore where they were usually 
placed. The original grant to the Jesuits was made by Louis 
XIV on the nth of April, 1726, and it was destroyed in the 
fire of 1794. The map on page 60 shows the "Faubourg St. 
Marie," from Lafon's Map, and the Beach, or Batture, from 
Pelletier's Survey. It gives the Gravier Plantation limited to- 
ward the river by the first street; it will be noticed that the 
quantity of land sold to Pradelle was seven arpents, and it is 
interesting that the became twelve in the sale of the widow 
Pradelle to Renard. In the inventory of Gravier, who married 
the widow Renard, they became thirten, and still. later in the 
division of the Faubourg by Gravier they became seventeen. 
Incidentally, there is a mention of a P. de la Bigarre, a brother 
emigrant of Mr .Livingston from New York. On page 64 
there is a graphic account of the struggle which took place Sep- 
tember 3rd, 1807, between the people of the city and Mr. 
Livingston's negro workmen. At page 82 there is an inter- 
esting discussion on the system of the chancery law ; the rest of 
this long article is taken up with discussions of the law of the 
accretions to the river bank from the time of the Romans. 

On page 377 of the same volume there is a discussion of Land 
Claims in Louisana of which the variety was so great that 
they were divided into forty-nine classes. Pages 616-735 give 
details for the second and third of these classes, of which the 
largest are those of the Marquis de Maison Rouge, 30 square 
leagues, or 172,800 acres, on the Washita river. Francois de 
Castro's claim is for 23,468 acres, and Baron de Bastrop for 
53,379 acres, but these two claims are pronounced defective. 

In the county of Rapides there is the claim of Joseph 
Gilliard for 16,000 acres, purchased from the Pascagoula In- 
dians. Miller and Fulton claimed 39,538 acres 011 Bayou Boeuf. 
and 9,487 acres purchased from the Appalachi and Tensaw 
Indians. In the rest of the claims to lands in the county of 
Concordia the names of the claims and original proprietors show 
rapid settlements from the northern states. Bryan Bruin, 
an Irish Catholic, obtained permission from Governor Miro to 
settle with other Catholic families, each one to have a grant of 
20 arpents front, or 40 arpents deep, in the neighborhood of 
Baton Rouge or Manchac. He was cast away on the bar of 
St. John. Fla., in the schooner Maria on the 5th of March, 
1790. On page 632, claim 208, there is a description from 
which can be recognized the first vear of the life of the earlv 

Louisiana History in Government Documents. . 187 

American settlers of Louisiana. On page 637 is a list of the 
claims to land in the county of Washita, with a map of the 
Bastrop claims ; at 642 is a map of the claims of the Marquis 
de Maison Rouge. In the list of the claims in the county of 
Rapides there is an account of a dispute over a ferry on the 
Mississippi near the mouth of the Red river. 

At 648 there is a map of the claims of Joseph Gilliard, from 
the documents connected with which is drawn an account of 
the Pascagoula and Appalachi Indians. Joseph de la Pena, 
commandant of the post of Natchitoches, gave permission on 
the 1 2th of September, 1787, to the Indian chief, named De 
Blanc, and the rest of his nation of the Pascagoula tribe, to 
settle on lands situated in the place Les Ecores du Rigolet 
du Bon Dieu on the river in descending. Instructions to this 
effect were sent to Etienne Layssard, commandant, to the dis- 
trict of Rapides on the 28th of September, 1792, who at a 
later date, the 7th of March, 1795, was conducted by Baron de 
Carondelet as follows: "You will engage the Pascagoula In- 
dians to assemble at your house to elect a chief, to whom, on 
my being notified, I shall forward the big medal and commis- 
sion. You shall, in order to induce them to assemble, promise 
them brandy and tobacco, and engage them to establish an 
only village on Catahoula. Inform them that they will receive 
annual presents more considerable than heretofore." 

On the 9th of April, 1795, Louis Charles De Blanc, then 
commandmant of the post of Natchitoches, purchased from the 
Indians, for the consideration of $250, sounding money, the 
settlement of the Indian village of Pascagoula, bounded by 
the Bayou de la Coeur, twenty leagues above, where the chief 
was settled. On the 22nd of November, 1796, Felix Trudeau 
was commandment of the post of Natchitoches. On the 7th 
of May, 1809, the Appalachi Indians were living on the south- 
west side of the Red river, and claimed that the division be- 
tween them and the Pascagoulas was a stout Bayou on the 
other side of the river, and further the boundary was made 
by a large pine tree on the Natchitoches road. The Bayou named 
above was first called Bayou Phillips after the first hunter 
who lived upon it, and later took the name of La Borne. There 
is a mention of two men named La Prerie who spoke the lan- 
guage of the Pascagoula Indians and had considerable inter- 
course w r ith them. They say that the Indians generally re- 
sided on the right bank of the river and cultivated on the 
opposite side. 

There are a few cases where the value of lands changing 
hands is given. 

188 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

In Claim 122 Asel White sold to John Sanders 640 acres 
for 5,000 good fence rails. This land was resold for $500. 

In connection with Claim 124 for 2,600 arpents on Bayou 
Boeuf there is a record that the Rev. John McGuire acquired 
land from Chief Chassam Camillio, and other Choctaw- In- 
dians, by deed dated 20th of October, 1797. At this time 
Thomas Thompson was the sydnic and Caesar Achi'nard alcalde 
of the post of Rapides. Five of the chiefs of the Indians be- 
ing dissatisfied, payment was enforced by the officials. The 
sum paid by McGuire seems to have been $100 in gold. The 
Indians complained that the cattle of the white people de- 
stroyed their corn. 

Claim 125 is illustrated by a map on page 656, which gives 
the location of four of the Indian villages, all similarly situ- 
ated on bluffs on the outer side of bends in the river ; the Be- 
luxy, the Pascagoula, the Old Youahny and the Chacto vil- 
lages. This claim of Fulton and Miller for 46,000 arpents on 
both sides of Bayou Boeuf, in the county of Rapides, was for 
land purchased from the Choctaw, Pascagoula and Beiuxy 
tribes of Indians. It is supported by the following deed :' 

"1902, this day, the 4th of the month of May, I, Nicholas 
Chatelin, and in the presence of witnesses, have the honor to 
represent to you, that the Indians of the Choctaw village 
have come to my house, saying that they have no property to 
give in payment of their debts except their lands, and that 
their wives and children were willing to sell their village. 
I beg of you, Mr. Valentine, to be so good as to do all that 
is necessary in this affair. They have all signed this, to sat- 
isfy you of their will to sell the land to pay their debts. The 
sum due to me is seven hundred and forty-four dollars. 

Names and marks of the Indians, with their free will: 

Legros Frize, x 
Cachounabe, Sen. x 
Lagrosselette, x 
The Son of Ocean, x 
Thomas Cachounabe, x 
Cachenot, x 
. Le Bon Casseur, x 
Peti Peti, x 

The Son of La Culotte, x 
The Son of the Grosse Feume, 
Halop Finaw, x 
Petoche Laine, x 
Atiape, x 

Louisiana History in Government Documents. 180 

Chapeau Cam ilia, x 

Dalsida, x 

La Filis de la Culotte le Jeune, x 

Mataha, Chief of Bcltixy, witness his mark, x 

Slopahibani, second chief, his mark, x. 

"I certify to you that this is true, and that it has been pro- 
posed by the Indians of their free will ; the chiefs of the 
Beluxy having offered them as much land near their village 
as they should wish. It is by their own propasal and request 
that I send this to you ; it being a business in which you are to 
represent them. I beg of you, Mr. Valentino, to bring this af- 
fair to a conclusion as soon as possible, as it is in your power 
to have it done if they do not change. 

"Messrs. Simon Saucier, Francois Marcot, Pierre Sumere, 
and Antoine Revoil, were present to all the above. 

"Witnesses present : Antoine Revoil, Francois Marcot, 
Simon Saucier, his x mark, Nicholas Chatelin, his x mark, 
N. C. Louis Blampin, his x mark. 

"The Pascagoulas are waiting your answer to decide them- 
selves to pay their debts. They wish to follow the examples of 
the Choctaws." 

This land had been granted to the Indians by the Baron 
de Carondelet, and was estimated to be worth $3,724, which 
was to be divided as follows : Miller and Fulton, $2,302 ; Nich- 
olas Chatelin, $785 ; Pierre Sumere, $185 ; Antoine Deshautel, 
$228; Antoine Revoil, $230. It is mentioned that the pur- 
chase is bounded above by a cotanier (sycamore) marked 
M. F., and below joining the land of the Pacsagoula nation, 
were two copelin (sweet gum) trees similarly marked. 

A further sale to Miller and Fulton was conducted before 
Don Valentine Layssard, commandant of the militia and judge 
sub-delegate of the Royal Haciendo, on the 14th of May, 
1802, before whom appeared the chiefs of the Pascagoula and 
Beluxy nations, Chicacha Puscuhs, and De Blanc, chief, 
brother of the grand chief Mingo and Melad, and son of the 
grand chief Tygre, the medal chief, who sold the land granted 
to them on Bayou Boeuf, beginning above at the Chataux 
village, and including all the land of the Beluxy to the do- 
main of His Majesty, for the sum of $1,500 in merchandise. 
It is rather interesting that the Indians claimed further time 
for the surrender of their property on account of their having 
begun a crop in the village, which they could not leave with- 
out great injury. It is signed by: 

l&O The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Mataha, great chief of Beluxy, x 

Mallhie, x 

B. Big Bread, chief of Pascagoula, x 

La Cullotte, x 

Ajadonah, x 

Casauh, x 

Ningo, x 

Big Head, x 

Connected with this claim is the following testimony re- 
specting the location of the Indian tribes : 

"ist. Valentine Layssard, examined before the Board of 
Commissioners, the ist of August, 1808, hath deposed as fol- 
lows : That about thirty years ago the Choctaw nation were 
settled upon Red river, and about that period some of their 
chiefs removed to the Bayou Boeuf, and settled at the place 
now occupied by Mr. Miller, upon its being represented to 
them by the commandant that it was improper that the chiefs 
should live on Bayou Boeuf, and the balance of the nation 
on Red river; the nation moved to the Bayou Boeuf, and set- 
tled themselves upon the said bayou from the first mentioned 
place, where Mr. Miller now resides, up to the Bapou Rob- 
ert; which last mentioned bayou was established as the boun- 
dary of the lands claimed by them, by Mr. Layssard, father 
of this deponent; that after residing upon the said lands for 
several years, they invited Nicholas Chatelin to settle upon 
the said land, and relinquished to him a part of the said land 
from the Bayou Soumaureaux upwards, but how far this de- 
ponent does not know; that the said Indians afterwards sold 
the land lying from the Bayou Soumaureaux to Bayou Clear, 
to John McGuire, but this deponent does not know the depth 
of the land parted with to the said Chatelin and McGuire, but 
before the last mentioned sale to McGuire, he made a repre- 
sentation to the Governor, recommending that the Indians set- 
tled upon Bayou Boeuf should be allowed a double depth, but 
to which representation he never received any answer; that 
some years ago, during the administration of the Baron de 
Carondelet, the Baron de Carondelet directed this deponent 
to establish the Beluxy, the Pascagoula and the Chictaw tribes 
of Indians on the Catahoula; but the said Indians being op- 
posed to settle at that place, this deponent demanded of them 
whether it would be agreeable to them to establish themselves 
on the Bayou Boeuf, and, on their consenting thereto, he as- 
signed them lands on the said bayou, below the lands claimed 
by the Choctaw Indians, with the approbation and consent of 

Louisiana History in Government Documents. 191 

the said Choctaw Indians ; that the limits of the said lands as- 
signed to the Pascagoula and Beluxy tribes of Indians above 
mentioned were from the lands claimed by the Choctaw In- 
dians down to the mouth of the Bayou Crocodile." Further 
"that about twenty years ago, being invited by the Choctaw 
tribe of Indians, who were then in possession of the lands on 
Bayou Boeuf, and had then villages at and in the neighbor- 
hood of the place where at present the plantation of William 
Miller is established, he came to the said Bayou Boeuf to re- 
side, and that the said Choctaw Indians informed him that their 
claim to land on the said bayou, at that time, commenced at 
the beginning of the high lands, some distance above the 
deponent's present residence ; that they extended on both sides 
(the width the deponent never understood), and continued 
with the course of the said Bayou Boeuf, and on each side 
thereof, to the upper boundary of the Alabama, viz., immedi- 
ately above their upper clearing." Then again "that the Be- 
luxy Indians came to the Bayou Boeuf about twelve years 
ago, and the Pascagoulas about ten years ago; and that the 
Choctaws assigned their lands to the Beluxies ; the lands where 
the Beluxies afterwards established their villages, and from 
thence downwards towards the upper clearing of the Alabamas 
and to the Pascagoulas the Choctaws assigned the lands where 
the Pascagoulas afterwards established their villages, and be- 
tween the Choctaw villages and the Beluxy villages." 

There is a record of two men, Trentham and Kirkland, set- 
tling on a small piece of land lent them by the Choctaws on 
condition of repairing and keeping their guns in o-rder. After 
twelve months Martin Trentham stole a horse from the Indians 
and escaped, and Kirkland abandoned the land. 

A Madame Melon and a Mr. Pepin settled themselves at 
the Bayou Castor, but were compelled to leave by order of the 
commandant of the post. 

Antoine Xepoint, alias Antoine Deshautel, deposed in 1808 
that eleven years previous the Choctaws, Pascagoula, and Be- 
luxy tribes of Indians were settled and living on the said bayou, 
to-wit, the Choctaw tribe had their villages at the place where 
the plantation of William Miller is at present established; 
the Pascagoulas had their villages a considerable distance (per- 
haps a league, or a league and a half) below the Choctaws ; 
and the villages of the Beluxies were situated (in the belief and 
opinion of this deponent) about an equal distance below those 
of the Pascagoula tribe; that, when he (this deponent) came 
to the Bayou Boeuf to reside, the tribes of Indians aforesaid 

192 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

claimed all the lands on both sides thereof, from the lower 
line of Captain Bruster, and from thence descending with the 
course of the said bayou, to the boundary of the Alabama tribe 
of Indians." 

Valentine Layssard, on the nth of November, 1812, tes- 
tified that the quantity of land generally assigned by the Span- 
ish government to Indian tribes depended on the local situation 
of the land, and the number of individuals composing tribes; 
that the deponent had never known a smaller quantity than a 
league square to be assigned to any one tribe, let their number 
be what it might ; and that, in one case, namely, the Appalachie 
tribe (a small tribe) a much larger quantity than a league 
square of lands of the first quality and situated on the Red 
river was assigned to them; that the number of individuals 
belonging to and incorporated with the Choctaw, Pascagoula, 
and Beluxy tribes, at the time of the allottment of land as 
aforesaid on the Bayou Boeuf, and of the sale to Miller and 
Fulton, as aforesaid, could not be less than five hundred souls ; 
that the father of this deponent was commissioned as eommand- 
mant of the post of Rapides, and came to the said post forty- 
five years ago, on whose death the deponent succeeded as 
commandant, Indian agent, and sub-delegate to the Intendant 
General of Louisiana." 

Peter Baillio was of the opinion that 25 cents per arpent 
would be a high price for wood lands on the Bayou Rapides, 
in the year 1802. 

Amongst other information given in the testimony of Michel 
Le Prerie is the following respecting grants of lands to Indians : 
"By an ordinance of Governor O'Reilly, it is understood the In- 
dians, during his administration, were restricted to one league 
square of land, about their villages. But of his regulations, 
and those of his successors, Mr. Trudeau, late Surveyor Gen- 
eral under the Spanish Government for the province of 
Louisana, in a letter to the Board of Commissioners, dated 
the 10th February, 1809, remarks, "the regulations of Count 
de O'Reilly, on Gayoso de Lemos, and Dan Ventura Morales, 
were never enforced but according to the caprice of those gen- 

The claim of the same William Miller and Alexander Fuller, 
merchants of Rapides Post, is illustrated by a map of Red 
river from Bayou Jean de Jean to Bayou D'Arrou. The sur- 
vey was made at the request and in the presence of the claim- 
ants, V. Layssard, Spanish agent for Indian affairs, and Don 
Louis, chief of the Tensaw tribe, and with the consent and in 

Louisiana History in Government Documents. 193 

the presence of Mr. Ennemond Meullion, acting command- 
ant of the post of Rapides. A letter from Manuel de Salcado 
authorizes Louis, chief of the Tensaws, and Etienne, chief of 
the Appalachies, to sell the land where their villages are situ- 
ated, also the lands which are this day occupied by the Indians 
of the Conchatte to the quantity of 11,230 arpents for the con- 
sideration of $2,200, of which $2,600 was to be in merchan- 
dise. The balance to be paid the February ensuing the sale 
at the house of Daniel Clark, in the city of New Orleans. 

There are in the State of Louisiana numerous vacheries. This 
is a survival of the name under which land was conceded, it 
being supposed to be unfit for cultivation. 

Among the documents in connection with claim 67 is one 
mentioning the three principal men of the Appalachie tribe of 
Indians, Fuletkee, Cyprien Vallery, and Louis Tootheeco. 

It will be noticed that in connection with the claim in 
Rapides Parish the number of French names has increased 
largely. The monthly return of certificates issued in the west- 
ern district of Orleans Territory for January, 181 1, shows a 
large number of French and Spanish claimants, with one very 
curious name, which is probably an error of the copyist, 
William In Ruftu. In April, 181 1, many names of families 
afterwards prominent in the State may be observed. 

On April 24th, 181 1, there was granted to Hannah, a free 
negress, twenty-nine acres on the river in Concordia Parish. 
Out of a total of 447 grants 16 women received certificates. 
Sarah Pepper of 633 acres, and Matilda Gillespie of 135 acres. 
Catharine Moreau ; Victoria, a free negress ; Madame Var- 
ranjue; Eliza Hays; Madame Flogny; Madame, Widow 
Laturneau; Madame McConee; Madame Zach. Champagne; 
Elizabeth Lovelace ; Marie Jean, Widow Castile ; Yrene, a free 
mulatto woman; Judith Chenal, widow of Gravenberg; and 
the Widow Dautriel all received grants of considerable tracts 
of land. There was also granted to George, a free mulatto, 
270 acres. 

In the list of grants up to November, 181 2, about 7-10 of 
the names were French. 

It is to be regretted that the transcription of these lists of 
names was made by thoroughly incompetent persons. 



By John W. Inzeb, Ashville, Ala. 
Late Lieut.-Col. 32nd-58th Ala. Inf. Regiment Consolidated. 

The morning after the killing of President Abraham Lin- 
coln, in April, 1865, by J. Wilkes Booth, the sun rose in its 
magnificent splendor, bright, beautiful and clear, spreading 
its rays on the clear sparkling waters of Sandusky Bay. Noth- 
ing strange or out of the usual order of things occurred until 
about one hour after sunrise when the little lake steamer. 
which ran between the city of Sandusky and the Island, left 
the wharf and at once commenced whistling and never ceased 
to blow until it reached the Island. About the time the boat 
left the city every bell in Sandusky commenced ringing and 
such a ringing of bells I scarcely, if ever, heard before or since 
that time. These things attracted the attention of all the 
yankee soldiers on the Island; they went in a great hurry to 
the boat landing. The Confederate prisoners within the prison 
walls were somewhat moved with excitement and every place 
that would enable them to see the little steamer was occu- 

The boat ran rapidly across the bay and was soon landed. 

In a few minutes a Federal sentinel on the prison walls, near 
the old commissar}'- building, cried out that Abraham Lincoln 
had been assassinated, that W. H. Seward was also killed and 
that Seward's son would die from the effect of an assault made 
on him, all of this having occurred the night before, in Wash- 
ington. This announcement was made within one hundred 
feet of a Confederate officer, who was, at the time, walking 
along a pathway in the prison, and near the wall. This officer, 
as quick as thought and with a bitter oath said that Lincoln 
was in hell and that he was glad of it, and that he had re- 
ceived his just deserts. This feeling was shared by more than 
one Confederate. The sentinel leveled his gun as if he would- 
shoot the officer, whereupon the Confederate cursed him for 
being a "home guard," a member of the 128th Ohio Regiment, 
and called him a coward and defied him to shoot. I would like 

Assassination of Pbesident Lincoln. 19s 

to know, now, who this Confederate was and to know if he 
is yet living. 

The hews at once spread like "wild fire" throughout the 
prison and cheer after cheer went up for awhile, but only for 
a short while, which seemed to very greatly incense the 
yankees. This cheering reminded us of what we had often 
heard on the field of battle. 

The thirty-five hundred Confederate officers who were there 
imprisoned were soon out of the barracks and on the ground, 
and still some of the prisoners continued to give vent to their 
feelings by an occasional shout and oath, while others had 
but little to say and rather appeared to regret the occurrence 
and denounced the act of the assassin as brutal and cowardly. 
However, the excitement was so intense that it seemed at times 
as if the prisoners would run over the prison walls. At this 
time the sound of the long roll was heard in the yankee quar- 
ters and all the federal soldiers on the Island were soon in 
line, with gun in hand and bayonet fixed; they were both 
scared and excited, but few of them ever having seen active 
service; the block houses where the artillery was kept were 
thrown open, guns ' charged and leveled on the great throng 
of prisoners. All this, however, seemed to -have no effect on 
the excited crowd. The Confederates felt that all that they 
had so often risked their lives for, and a cause which was so 
near and dear to every true Confederate, were now almost 
desperate and had but little, if anything, to lose, as life itself 
was not worth caring for and nothing was left them worth 
caring for. 

On this momentous occasion and on the impulse of the mo- 
ment, and when men's judgment thus formed never lead them 
(or scarcely ever) into error, then and there the conclusion 
and judgment of a large majority of the prisoners was 
that it was well for them and their cause and for the 
South that Lincoln was no more President of the United 
States ; notwithstanding, at the same time, their great horror 
of Andrew Johnson,. Still others thought that the killing of 
Lincoln and the promotion of Johnson to the Presidency would 
prove a calamity to the South. Some few Confederates went 
so far as to hang crepe over their doors and join the yankees 
in sympathy over the loss of their great leader. 

Some said it was not their funeral and that they were not 
called on to weep and that if the Federals expected them to 
mourn they would be disappointed in their expectations. The 
act of the assassin was pretty generally denounced by the pris- 

396 The Gulf States Histouical Magazine. 

oners as cowardly and villainous and an act for which they 
had no sympathy, yet many of these old scar-worn veterans 
had not forgotten the God whom they worshiped and said 
it seemed to have been Providential, and such is the opinion of 
the writer now. But for this act of Booth more than three 
hundred thousand men would have been perjured, as they 
had solemnly sworn they would never live under a govern- 
ment presided over by Abraham Lincoln ; and this most of 
them would have been compelled to do but for the act of Booth 
in the assassination of Mr. Lincoln. It may be that a merciful 
God, in suilering us, for some reason best known to Him, to 
be punished and suffer defeat, did not intend that we should 
bear all ; other households throughout the land were, also, 
to be filled with sorrow, mourning and gloom, even reaching 
the White House at Washington, and the President's official 

Then and there, on that never-to-be-forgotten morning, many 
prisoners expressed the opinion that Lincoln was a tyrant, a 
v/olf in sheep's clothing, and had he lived would have enslaved 
the white people of the South ; that his love for the negro 
was so great and fanatical that he would have done all that 
he could to have made the white people of this section ser- 
vants of the colored race. It is hard to realize how rapidly 
these opinions were expressed, and the thought of being re- 
leased from the tyrant's rule and so much vent was given to 
the feelings of the Confederates and so little good found to 
have existed in Mr. Lincoln, and so desperate were the prison- 
ers, wrought up and cheering so loud and frequently, that 
Col. C. W. Hill, the commandant of the prison, who, by the 
way, ' was a kind-hearted enemy, came into the prison and 
made a nice talk from his standpoint, lamenting the death of 
Lincoln and as to the great loss the nation had sustained in 
his death, denouncing the vile act of the assassin, and at the 
same time and in the same talk, paying a high compliment 
to the Confederate soldiers for their courage, bravery and 
chivalry on the field of battle, and begged them to restrain 
their rejoicings while the Union Government was in tears 
on account of the loss of their great chieftain, etc. And he 
went on to say that if the rejoicing and demonstrations were 
not stopped he could not and would not restrain his soldiers 
from opening fire on the prisoners. This, we thought, rather 
harsh, coming, even, from a yankee. 

This address from Col. Hill seemed to have the desired effect 
and at the close of the same the Confederates slowly retired to 

Assassination of Peesident Lincoln. 197 

their quarters. I suppose no one has a note of this address 
of Col. Hill, and, if not, it is a pity, for it was one of the 
finest talks the writer has ever heard, under the circum- 
stances, save as above indicated, and it showed that the speaker 
was possessed of a high order of intelligence and of noble dis- 

In this prison some two hundred Confederate officers had 
applied, or asked, to be allowed to take the oath of allegiance 
to the United States government prior to this time, and had 
been gathered by the Federal authorities into block two of the 
prison barracks, as said at the time, so they would be secure 
from violence at the hands of their late comrades, Confed- 
erates being considered as dangerous in prison. 

And some few days after the killing of Lincoln these "Brass- 
legs," as they were called at the time, on the yankees having 
a jubilee over the success of their forces, asked for a United 
States flag to be sent into prison so that they could rejoice 
with the enemy under the folds of a flag the true Confederates 
had learned to hate. The flag was sent in and while being 
hoisted over the barracks then occupied by the "Brass-legs'' 
the Confederate prisoners were greatly incensed ; such groans, 
curses and insults were, perhaps, never before or since, offered 
to any flag. The greatest excitement and indignation pre- 
vailed and it looked to me as if the prisoners would surge over 
and tear down the prison walls and, unarmed, move on the 
bayonets and cannon of the enemy. At this juncture, be it said 
to the credit of Col. Hill, he came into the prison and ad- 
dressed the Confederates in a gentlemanly way; assuring them 
that he knew nothing of the flag having been sent into the 
prison, and stated that had he known of the request made by 
the oath applicants, the request should have been refused. At 
the close of his address the Confederates returned in a quiet 
and orderly manner to their quarters. 

Some week or so after the death of Lincoln reports came 
from the outside to the effect that the citizens in that por- 
tion of Ohio and in the vicinity of the prison were organiz- 
ing to mob the Confederates. These reports were of such 
nature and so frequent that some of our people became alarmed 
and finally sent a committee to confer with Col. Hill in re- 
gard to the matter. Hill said that such reports had reached 
him but that he hardly thought that such an effort would be 
made and should such be made he thought that he could suc- 
cessfully defend the prison. He said, however, that in the 
event he found he could not do so, he had at his command an 

193 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

abundance of arms and ammunition on the Island, and that in 
case of necessity he would arm the prisoners and let them de- 
fend themselves. The committee returned and made their 
report, and it really appeared as if the prisoners desired to see 
the citizens attack the prison : if only they could be armed to 
meet them. They were, at that time, a body of reckless men, 
without home or country, and they cared but little what they 
did or what became of them. 

Citizens and home-guards, who had never seen a rebel with a 
gun in his hand, were the bitterest and severest on the Confed- 
erates. Many O'f this sort of people were anxious and de- 
sired to see the rebels, as they called them, hung by the thou- 
sand. Old soldiers from the front, however, were ever kind 
to the prisoners. 

It might be well to add in this connection, that the 
Federal soldiers on the Island readily charged the death 
of Mr. Lincoln to Jefferson Davis and his associates. 
These charges were bitterly denied, however, by the Confed- 
erates and were hurled back at those making the statements 
as a vile slander against Jefferson Davis, one of the purest and 
best men who ever lived and died. The prisoners said that 
they knew Mr. Davis had nothing to do with the assassination 
of Mr. Lincoln. They thought, however, and so stated, that 
corruption had reached such a stage in Washington that it 
might be, in the hour of rejoicing, that the Ruler of the Uni- 
verse suffered them to slay and devour each other, and this 
might be in the interest of a down-trodden people. But as to 
Mr. Davis having anything to do in bringing about the death 
of Mr. Lincoln, not one now remembered by me, thought this 
for one moment. 


Contributed by Prof. Edwin L. Green, Columbia, S. C. 

I. Tallahassee Selected as the Seat op Government of 


In an old book containing copies of letters and other papers 
of the governors of the Territory of Florida is to be found 
the following proclamation of Governor Wm. P. Duval. Duval 
was the first governor of the Territory of Florida and served 
four terms of three years each — from 1822 to 1834. He was 
careful to preserve copies of his letters and papers, so that the 
old book just referred to contains more from him than from the 
other territorial governors together. 

At first the Legislative Council met at Pensacola in 1822, 
and at St. Augustine in 1823. In 1824 the Council sat in 
Tallahassee, which was thereafter to be the permanent capital 
of the Territory and the State. The proclamation refers to the 
first session of the Legislative Council at the permanent capital. 


W. P. Duval, 
Governor of the Territory of Florida. 

Whereas in pursuance of an act of the Legislative Council 
of the Territory of Florida, approved the 24th day of June, 
1823, Commissioners were appointed to select the most eligible 
and convenient situation for the Seat of Government of the Ter- 
ritory of Florida, and the said commissioners have reported to 
me that they have selected a Scite in the county of Gadsden 
situated about a mile from the deserted fields of Tallahassee 
about a half mile south of the Okelockony and Tallahassee 
trail at a point where the old Spanish road is intersected by a 
small trail running southwardly — In the exercise of the dis- 
cretion in me vested by Said Act, and for the information of the 
good people of this Territory, I have thought proper to issue 
this my Proclamation requiring the members of the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territorv of Florida to assemble at the 

200 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Scite above described on the day appointed by Law for the 
next session thereof. 

Given under my hand and seal of Said Ter- 
ritory at Pensacola this 4th day of March in the 
year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and twenty-four, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the forty-eighth. 
By the Governor William P. Duval. 

Geo. Walton 
Secy of Florida. 

II. Letter to Lafayette. 

The letter and the accompanying resolution were sent by 
Governor Duval to President Adams to be forwarded to Gen- 
eral Lafayette. 

Middle Florida, 

Tallahassee, January 10th, 1826. 

Dear General : 

In discharging the pleasant duty assigned me by the en- 
closed resolution of the Legislative Council of Florida, it is 
peculiarly gratifying to be thus afforded an opportunity of ex- 
pressing my own feelings, so fully and so sincerely in unison 
with theirs. 

Where is the American who has been instructed in the his- 
tory of his country who has been taught to venerate those who 
acquired for us the greatest blessings which ever fell to the 
lot of any people, and has not at the same time learned to 
cherish the name of LaFayette? Where is the American to 
whom that name is not familiar, and to whom it is not dear? 

As the Chief Executive of a new and rapidly growing com- 
munity, whose fruitful soil, and delightful climate and whose 
picturesque beauty may bear a comparison with Italy or 
Greece, an additional gratification arises to me, from the iden- 
tification of its history and its fortunes, with those of La- 
Fayette and his amiable family. 

Should any circumstance arise in the country of your An- 
cestors (and which we should with difficulty be persuaded to 
call unhappy) to induce you to seek another home and another 
destiny, remain assured that we should receive you with open 
arms, as our fellow citizen, our neighbor, and our friend. 
Accept Sir the assurance of the 
highest consideration and respect 
of your devoted friend. 

Wm. P. Duval. 

Florida Historical Documents. 201 

The following is the resolution of the Legislative Council 
referred to at the beginning of the letter: 
Resolved unanimously 

That the Governor be requested to communicate to 
General LaFayette the expressions of reverence and affection 
of the Legislative Council, and of the people of this Territory, 
as well for his high and venerable character, as for his inesti- 
mable services, rendered to the United States during their 
revolutionary struggle; to invite him to visit the Territory; 
and if it should be consonant with his inclination, and not in- 
consistent with his interests, to establish his permanent resi- 
dence in the United States, and that Florida may be honored 
as such residence.* 

' Adopted December nth, 1825. 
A. Bellamy, 
President of the Legislative Council. 
Saml Fry, Clerk. 

III. Confederate Flag Adopted by the State of Florida 

IN l86l. 

The following description of the flag adopted by Florida 
in 1861 was copied from certain old "Letter Books" of the 
Governors of Florida, now preserved in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State at Tallahassee. The flag itself was not seen. 

Executive Department, 
Tallahassee, Sept. 13th, 1861. 

In conformity with the fourth section of an act entitled "An 
Act providing for a State Uniform and Flag, Approved Feb- 
ruary 8th, 1861," the following has been adopted as the Flag 
of the State of Florida, viz. : 

The one half the flag next the staff is blue; the other 
half has alternately one red, one white, one red stripe, each 
stripe (three in all) of equal width and perpendicular to the 
staff, (the stripes are the same as the Confederate Stripes, 
only they form one half the flag.) On the blue ground, and 
occupying somewhat more than half of it, is an elliptical 
band (the axes of the ellipse in the proportion of fifteen to 

♦Congress, in 1824, voted Lafayette the sum of two hundred 
thousand dollars and a township of land from the public domain. 
The township selected for him lay not far from Tallahassee, in the 
county of Jefferson. He did not visit Florida. 


The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

thirteen, the longitudinal axis parallel with the staff) bearing 
"In God is Our Trust" — inferiorly — "Florida" — making as 
it were a frame for the Shield. In the centre of the ellipse is 
a single strong Live Oak Tree. Beyond it is seen the Gulf 
of Mexico, with vessels in the distance. In the front of and 
near the foot of the Oak is seen a stand of six colors — the 
Confederate and State Flags to the front. To the left of the 
Field piece are Four Muskets stacked. To the right and 
near, balls piled, and a drum. The Flag has been deposited 
in the Executive Chamber. 

M. S. Perry, 
Governor of Florida. 




Raphael Semmes entered the service of the Confederate 
States Navy after a long career of thirty-five years in the 
Navy of the United States. The record of that service from 
his appointment as a midshipman in 1826, to his resignation 
as commander in 1861, with a copy of his letter of resigna- 
tion, have been prepared by the Bureau of Navigation, Navy 
Department, and are presented below. 

Letter of Resignation. 

Washington, D. C, 

February 15, 1861. 
Sir: — I respectfully tender, through you, to the President of 
the United States, this, my resignation of the commission, 
which I have the honor to hold, as a Commander in the Navy 
of the United States. 

In severing my connection with the government of the 
United States, and with the Department over which you pre- 
side, I pray you to accept my thanks for the kindness which 
has characterized your official deportment towards me. 

I have the honor to be, 
Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
Raphael Semmes, 

Hon. Isaac Toucey, 

Secretary of the Navy, 
Washington, D. C. 

Commander, U. S. Navy. 

Record of Service. 

1826, Apr. 1, Appointed a midshipman, from April 1, 1826. 

Appointed from Maryland. Accepted ap- 
pointment April 8, 1826. 

1826, Aug. 29, Leave unlimited. 

1826, Sept. 8, From Georgetown to New York for duty on 

board the Lexington. 

1827, Apr. 24, Warranted. 

1828, Sept. 11, Leave unlimited. 

204 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

1828, Oct. 15, To the Erie. 

1829, Aug. 7, Leave unlimited. 

1830, Jan. 7, To the Brandy wine. 
1830, July 12, Leave unlimited. 

1830, Sep. 29, To the West Indies. 

183 1, Sep. 6, Leave three months. 

183 1, Nov. 7, To the Norfolk Yard and School. 

1832, Jan. 31, To examination. 

1832, June 1, Warranted as a Passed Midshipman to bear 

date of April 28, 1832. 

1833, Mar. 22, Appointed assistant in charge of chronom- 

eters, etc. 

1834, Apr. 21, Leave three months. 

1835, July 25, To the Constellation as Acting Master. 
1837, Jan. 28, Leave three months. 

1837, Mar. 6, Appointed to be a Lieutenant from February 

9> 1837. 

1838, July 30, To Navy Yard, Norfolk. 

1839, May 30, To steamer Poinsett. 

1839, June 8, Previous order revoked and to remain in Re- 

ceiving Ship. 

1840, Sept. 24, To the Consort. 

1841, May 17, Detached from survey under Lieutenant Pow- 

ell, and to the Navy Yard at Pensacola. 

1843, J u b r 5> Detached and to the Warren. 

1843, Aug. 10, Detached and to command of Steamer Poin- 
sett to be employed on surveying duty. 

1845, Apr. 2^, Detached and three months leave. 

1845, Sept. 9, To home squadron. To the Porpoise. 

1847, ^ ec - 8> Having returned from home squadron, wait 


1848, Jan. 28, To command the Electric. 

1848, June 28, Detached on arrival at Pensacola and report 

as Inspector, etc., there. Arrived 9th July. 

1849, F e b- 20 > On board the schooner Flirt from February 

20,. 1849, to April 6, 1849. 
1849, Oct. 12, Detached and wait orders. 
1855, Sep. 14, Promoted to Commander. 

1855, Oct. 8, Commissioned a Commander. 

1856, Aug. 29, Recommissioned. 

1856, Nov. 26, Light-House Inspector, 8th District. 
1858, Sep. 24, Detached and to duty as Secretary of Light- 
House Board. 
1861, Feb. 8, Detached and to duty as member of the Board. 
1 86 1, Feb. 15, Resignation accepted. 




Contributed by A. L. Hull, Athens. 

At hens , Ga. 

Georgia Express, 180S-1813. 1 vol. ■ ' 

Athens Gazette, 1814-1817. 1 vol. 

The Athenian, 1828-1832, 1 vol. 

Athens Banner, 1833-1846. 7 vols. _„ 

Augusta, Ga. 

Augusta Chronicle, 1786- 1836. 16 vols. 

Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, 1 837-1 84 1. 5 vols. 

The Constitutionalist, 1 827-1841. 3 vols. 

Chariest on t S. C. 

Charleston Courier, 183 2- 1837. 3 vols. 

The Charleston Mercury, 1 839-1841. 2 vols. 

The Southern Patriot, 1835. 1 vol. 

Columbus, Ga. 

The Columbus Enquirer, 1 832-1 841. 3 vols. 
The Sentinel and Herald, 1838. 1 vol. 

Macon, Ga. 

Georgia Messenger, 1832- 1841. 3 vols. 
The Macon Telegraph, 1832-1835. 1 vol. 

Milledgeville, Ga. 

Georgia Journal, 1810-1837. 10 vols. 

The Southern Recorder, 1832-1842. 10 vols. 

Richmond, Va. 

Richmond Enquirer, 1804, 181 1, 1812, 1814 ,and 1815-1841. 
32 vols. 

206 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Georgia Gazette, 1796- 1802. 1 vol. 
Savannah Republican, 1802-1833. 30 vols. 
The Georgian, 1829, 1832-1841. 10 vols. 

Sparta, Ga. 

The Missionary, 1 821- 1826. 1 vol. 

Washington, D. C. 

National Intelligencer, 1805- 1838. 36 vols. 




Jack Ferrill Ross,, 


From a silhouette in the possession of William H. Ross, Mobile. 

N0VEM8EB. 1902. 





By Thomas McAdoby Owen. 

I. The Ross family is first known in the old North State 
in the person of John 1 Ross. He was born October 3, 1754, 
where has not been ascertained, but most probably in Vir- 
ginia, as the settlers in that part of North Carolina in which 
he lived came principally from the former State. He lived 
in Martin county, N. C, in 1784, in which year he was its 
representative in the House of Commonsf. In 1791 he prob- 
ably lived in Franklin county, as his son, Jack Ferrill 2 Ross, 
was born there in that year. His wife was Temperance Fer- 
rill, born October 15, 1760, the names of her parents being 
unknown. He died August 14, 1815; and she died August 
30, 1823. Where they died or where they are buried is not 
known. Only six of their children ever came to Alabama : 
Isaac, Martha, Jack F., Ruth, John S., and John Blount Ross, 

Children of John 1 and Temperance (Ferrill) Ross : 

1. Jolm2 Ross, b. Aug. 17, 1779. 

2. Isaacs, b. Feb. 17, 1781, d. Oct. 4, 1835; removed to Mis- 

sissippi Territory!, and was a justice of the peace in 
Monroe county (now Alabama) in 1815; and later re- 
moved to Florida. 

3. Marthas, b Oct. 25, 1783; m. Eli Denson, and had three 

sons, Simmers, Jack F.3, and Joseph2 Denson. Sum- 
ner3 Denson was at one time an editor in Butler, Choc- 
taw county, Ala. 

4. Mary2, b Aug. 16, 1785; m. a Bryant of Nash county, N. C. 

5. Nancy2, b. Aug. 8, 1789; d. Nov. 1, 1791. 

II. 6. Jack Ferrill2, b. Oct. 29, 1791; m. Anne Amelia Fisher. 
7. Green2, b. Feb. 21, 1794; d. March 13, 1838. 
8. Elizabeth^, b. Jan. 25, 1796; d. Oct. 15, 1815. 
III. 9. Ruth2, b. Nov. 30, 1797; m. Burwell Pitman Brantley. 

10. John Sumner2, b. Aug. 23, 1800; m. Amanda Purnell, of 

Greene county, Ala., but no issue; he was a lawyer ;and 
after his death his widow removed to Columbus, Miss. 

11. John BlountS, b. April 13, 1803; m. Louisa Strong, of 

Washington county, Ala.; he was a practicing physician ; 

*The genealogical detail here presented is derived from old family 
Bible records, preserved in the hands of William H. Ross, Mobile, 
and J. S. Brantley, St. Stephens, Ala. Other references are con- 
tained in the notes. 

tWheeler's North Carolina, Vol. ii, p. 252. 

%Trans. Ala. Hist, society, 1898-99, Vol. iii, p. 161. 

208 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

had only one child, Pauline3 Ross, who did not long 
survive him; he died Aug. 30, 1826; and his widow m. 
Arnett Harrell, of Washington county. 

II. Jack Ferrill 2 Ross (John 1 ), son of John 1 and Tem- 
perance (Ferrill) Ross, was born in Franklin county, N. C, 
October 29, 1791. His early education was received in the 
local schools of the period, but later he attended the University 
at Chapel Hill.* Attaining his majority during the stormy 
times of the War of 181 2, he enlisted as an officer in the army 
of the United States. The following is his military record :% 

"Th. It. 3 infy, 20 May '13: Sec. It. Feb. and Fst. It. July '14; re- 
tained, Dec. '15 as Sec. It. Lht. arty with brt.; resigned 15 Apr. '17.*' 

During these four years he saw active service with Gen. 
Andrew Jackson, and shortly prior to his resignation went 
to Mobile to pay off the troops. § Quitting the service, he fore- 
saw the splendid future for Alabama, then about to become a 
separate Territory, and located as a merchant at the then 
nourishing town of St. Stephens. f He at once took a high 
stand in business circles. On the organization of the Terri- 
torial government of Alabama, he was appointed first Terri- 
torial Treasurer, an office he held with credit. When the 
State was admitted to the Union, he was chosen by the first 
State Legislature in 1819 as his own successor. In 1822 he 
was succeeded by John C. Perry, of Dallas county. It was 
during his first term as Treasurer that he lost his dwelling 
and store house at St. Stephens, in which some government 
or Territory moneys were destroyed. The Legislature, De- 
cember 18, 1820, passed an act for his relief, the preamble 
to which recites : 

"Whereas, it appears to the satisfaction of this General Assembly, 
that in December, eighteen hundred and eighteen, the dwelling and 
store house of Jack B. Ross was consumed by fire, together with 
six hundred and six dollars and thirty-five cents belonging to the 
treasury of this State, by which calamity the said Ross sustained 
a damage in property to a very large amount, and which loss could 
not have been prevented by any human prudence, therefore" he is 
exonorated, etc.** 

The first bank established in the limits of Alabama was lo- 
cated at Huntsville, having been incorporated by act dated 
December 11, 1S16. The second was located at St. Stephens, 

♦Brewer's Alabama, p. 392. 

^Gardner's Dictionary of the Army of the U. 8., p. 388. 
§Hamilton's Colonial Mooile, p. 387. 

fBall's Clarke County and Surroundings, pp. 441, 443, 449. 
**Acts of Alabama, 1820-21, p. 77. 

The Ross Family. 209 

and chartered by act of the Territorial Assembly, February 
13, 1818. Mr. Ross was appointed in the act one of the in- 
corporators, and among his associates were David Files, great 
uncle of Hon. Huriosco Austill, of Mobile; Israel Pickens, 
third Governor of Alabama, William Crawford, second 
United States District Judge for Alabama; Abner Smith 
Lipscomb, afterwards so long Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Alabama; and James Gaines Lyon, a prominent 
business man. His continued prominence was now assured — 
he was a prosperous merchant, territorial treasurer, and one 
of the financial heads of the community. When on Decem- 
ber 21, 1820, the General Assembly prepared a State banking 
act, among others he was appointed one of the superintend- 
ents for taking stock subscriptions at St. Stephens. f 

The town of Mobile, soon after the admission of the State 
began to grow in importance. In 1824 he removed there. At 
once taking a front rank in commercial and business circles, he 
continued prominent and conspicuous until his death. With 
business he occasionally mingled politics. He served one 
term as sheriff of Mobile county ; and represented this county 
in the State Senate in 1828, and in the House of Representa- 
tives, 1826, 1827 and 1835. He owned and operated large 
plantations in Greene and Clarke counties. It is said of him 
that he "was wealthy, and exceedingly hospitable, and popu- 
lar. In appearance he was very stalwart and handsome. "Q 
He died of yellow fever October 12, 1837. 

The following brief obituary appears in the Huntsville 
Democrat, Oct. 24, 1837, copied from the Mobile Register'. 

"The painful duty devolves upon us, to announce the death of 
our highly esteemed and much respected fellow citizen, Jack P. 
Ross, Esq. He died yesterday, after a short illness, at the residence 
of Gen'l. Everitt. Mr. Ross was a native of N. Carolina, and some 
two years after the termination of the late war with Great Britain, 
he resigned his commission in the army, and settled in this State. 
In 1824 he removed to this city, where he engaged extensively in 
the mercantile business, and continued in it until his death." 

His wife was Anne Amelia Fisher, daughter of Col. George 
Fisher, an early and influential settler in South Alabama from 
Rowan county, N. C* They were married Feb. n, 1817. 
She was born about 1796, and died Aug. 26, 1826, of yellow 

tToulmin's Digest of Alabama, pp. 40, 54. 
^Brewer's Alabama, pp. 392, 432. 

•For genealogy of the Fisher family, see the Sept., 1902, Issue of 
this Magazine, pp. 134-138. 

210 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Children of Jack Ferrill 2 and Anne Amelia (Fisher) Ross: 

1. Sarah Bee3 Ross, rn. Win. B. Lightfoot; resides at No. 
10 West Preston St., Baltimore, Md. 
IV. 2. William Henry 3 , b. Dec. 8, 1819; m. Mary A. Lyon. 

3. Frank Armstrongs, m. Helen Hunter, a grand-daughter 

of Judge Harry Toulmin; Miss Martha4 M. Ross, of 
Mobile, is a daughter. 

4. Alfred Green'3, d. unmarried. 

III. Ruth 2 Ross (John 1 ), daughter of John 1 and Tem- 
perance (Ferrill) Ross, was born Nov. 30, 1797, in Louis- 
burg, N. C. In 1822 she came out to old St. Stephens, Ala., 
and on Feb. 2, 1832, she married Burwell Pitman Brantley. 
He was the son of Robert and Ann (Wilkins) Brantley, and 
was born in Halifax county, N. C. He came to old St. Ste- 
phens about 1824, removed to Gainesville, Sumter county, 
Ala., 1833, where he remained until 1870. Returning to 
Washington county, he died in June, 1870. Mrs. Brantley 
died Aug. 2j y 1879. 

Children of Burwell and Ruth 3 (Ross) Brantley: 

1. Blount3 Brantley, b. Nov. 26, 1832; d. unm. April 19, 1883. 

2. J. Sumner3, b. April 10, 1834; m. Sallie Brantley; resides at 

St. Stephens; tour children: (1) Ludie4; (2) Anna4; (3) 
Essie4, m. Milton McDowell, April 6, 1898; and (4) Sum- 
ner Ross4. 

3. Robert3, b. Aug. 4, 1835; d. unm. April 6, 1867.. 

4. Temperances, b. July 19, 1838; d. Aug. 9, 1838. 

IV. William Henry 3 Ross (Jack Ferrill 2 , John 1 ), son 
of Jack Ferrill 2 and Anne Amelia (Fisher) Ross, was born at 
old St. Stephens, Ala., Dec. 8, 1819. He "was reared in Mo- 
bile, and was educated at Spring Hill college. Leaving that 
school in 1836, he began life for himself as a clerk in Mobile, 
and, "in 1842, he established himself in the grocery business, 
which he continued until the outbreak of the Civil War. In 
1861 he entered the Confederate Army, as commissary of Gen. 
Withers' division, and subsequently he was ordered to duty 
as assistant commissary on Gen. Bragg's staff. At the close 
of the war he returned to Mobile, and became engaged in the 
cotton factorage business, and he has ever since been thus 
engaged. Maj. Ross has many and diversified business in- 
terests, He is a stockholder in the Magnolia Cotton Press, 
the Mobile Brewing Company, and in several of the banks, 
insurance companies and railroads." 

The Ross Family. 211 

In 1845 he married Mary A. Lyon, daughter of Hon. 
Francis Strother and Sarah Serena (Glover) Lyon.* Mr. 
Lyon (b. in Stokes county, N. C, Feb. 25, 1800; d. Dec. 29, 
1882), was the son of James Lyon and Behethland Gaines 
(sister of Gen. Edmund P. and Col. George S. Gaines), and 
married March 4, 1824, Sarah S. Glover (b. in Goose Creek 
Parish, S. C, Oct. 17, 1806; d. April 15, 1890), who was the 
daughter of Allen Glover (b. 1770), and his wife Sarah Nor- 
wood (b. 1775, married April 17, 1794). 

Children of William H. 3 and Mary A. (Lyon) Ross : 

1. Sarah Lyon Ross4, b. Nov. 24, 1847; m. Nov. 28, 1871, John 

R., son of Wm. S. and Nannie (Jenifer) Triplett, of Va.; 
four daughters; her husband is dead, and she resides at 

2. Frank Lyon4, b. Dec. 25, 1849; unm.; resides at Mobile. 

3. Jack FerrilH, b. Dec. 3, 1851; m. Dec. 18, 1883, Emma 
Elizabeth, daughter of Col. Wm. A. and Margaret (Lang- 
don) Buckt; four children; reside at Mobile. 

4. Amelia Lyon4, b. April 27, 1854; m. March 10, 1882, James 

L., son of James Lloyd and Anna Lewis (Blake) Abbott, of 
Boston; two children. Mr. Abbott is a cotton merchant, 
and with his family resides at Little Rock, Ark. 

5. Alfred Green4, b. Dec. 2, 1856; d. Aug. z3, 1865. 

6. Helen Deas4, b. April 9, 1858; m. June 1, 1886, James H. 

son of Z. M. P. and Virginia (Ashlin), Maury, of Tenn. 
and Va., respec.-vely; two children; resides at Pass Chris- 
tian, Miss. 

7. Eugenia Lyon4, b. Oct. 12, 1859; unm.; resides at Mobile. 

8. Wm. Lightfoot4, b. May 3, 1861; m. Dec. 1, 1884, Kathleen, 

daughter of Thomas J. and Clara (Stevenson) Hughes, of 
N. C; four children; reside at Mobile. 

9. Norwood Prince4, b. Dec. 20, 1864; d. Aug. 11, 1865. 

*Memorial Record of Alabama, Vol. ii, p. 58^; Publications of the 
Southern History Association, April, 1898, Vol. ii, pp. 168-172; 
Brewer's Alabama, p. 375. 

tCol. Buck was the gallant commander of the 24th Alabama 
Regt. of Inf., C. S. A., aud was wounded at Murfreesboro. Mrs. 
Buck was a sister of Col. Charles Carter Langdon, veteran journal- 
ist, and Secretary of State of Alabama. 



I. John C. Calhoun on the Division of the Methodist 
Church in 1844. 

Dr. Henry B. Bascom's Methodism and Slavery, a Review of 
the Manifesto of the Majority, etc. (1845) in which he "fully vindi- 
cates the course of the Southern portion of the Methodist [Church], 
in separating from the Northern portion," on its appearance met 
the highest commendation of Mr. Calhoun. Later he quite wholly 
changed his opinion, and came to regard the book as dangerous. 
See pages 665-667, 669, and 1045-1049, of the Annual Report of the 
American Historical Association, 1899, Vol. ii, Calhoun Correspond- 
ence. The following letter is not embraced in the correspondence. 
It is found in the Huntsville Democrat, Sept. 10, 1845. 

Fort Hiix [S. C.,] July 7th, 1845, 

Dear Sir : I am under much obligation to you for the copy 
of the Rev. Dr. Bascom's Review of the manifesto of the Ma- 
jority, which you were so kind as to send me through the Rev. 
Mr. Wightman, of Charleston. 

I have read it with much attention and a great deal of 
pleasure. It is in every respect very ably executed, both as to 
matter and manner; and is a full and triumphant vindication 
of the course adopted by the Southern portion of the Metho- 
dist Church. Their conduct throughout the whole affair was 
such as became Patriots and Christians. 

Dr. Bascom has displayed the talent and information, not 
only of an able Divine and Logician, but also of an able 
Statesman and profound Philosopher. I regard it, taken as a 
whole, the ablest production, which has yet appeared against 
that fanatical agitation of the subject of abolition, which ex- 
ists at the North and North- West, and which threatens both 
Church and State with so much mischief. The whole Union, 
but more especially the South, is indebted to him for his clear 
and full exposition of its character, tendency and object. 

With great respect, I am, etc., etc. 

John C. Calhoun. 
Mr. Tho. B. Stevenson. 

Documents. 213 

II. Hon. John A. Campbell to Prof. Henry Tutwiler. 

The following letter is presented through the courtesy of Dr. 
Tutwiler's son-in-law, Col. Thomas C. McCorvey, Professor of His- 
tory in the University of Alabama. 

Washington City 2 Jan'y 1861. 

My Dear Sir: Your letter of the 28th ult. has just been 
rec'd. You can imagine what a cordial it was, when I say to 
you that I have rec'd some with the most opprobrious epithets, 
applied to me, for expressing opinions, in which I feel the 
more confirmed by the fact of your approval. 

I came to Alabama while you were a professor in the Uni- 
versity & though I have never met with you, I have been in- 
timately acquainted with some of your friends & am inti- 
mately acquainted with your career of usefulness & honor 
in our State. 

In reference to your observation concerning my return to 
the service of the State I can say to you, that I authorized Mr. 
Chandler to say if the county of Mobile would elect me to the 
convention I would serve. He thought, & I suppose truly, 
that my letters were so far removed from the popular senti- 
ment there then, that he did not publish them for several weeks 
after they were sent to him. 

I suppose I could not have been elected, had my name been 
proposed in Mobile. 

I am quite willing to serve the State in any capacity in this 
period of danger & if elected for Mobile (I am not eligible 
in any other county) would serve. I am quite at the service 
of the State in any place in which my services may be needed 
to secure all her rights in the Union & being willing to leave 
when the bulk of the Southern States are. I think that many 
serious evils are preferable to being the member of a San 
Marino, or even a separate Alabama republic. 

I desire peace security and a wide field, for my children to 
develop in, & much real evil & much serious grievance I would 
bear, rather than give them up. 

Very respectfully & 
Turly Yours, 

J. A. Campbell. 
Rev. H. Tutwiler. 

Address: Rev'd. H. Tutwiler, Havana, Greene Co., Ala. 

214 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

III. James G. Birney and the Phii^omathic Society of 
the University ov Alabama. 

This paper, showing in a minor way, the temper and feeling of 
the time, is taken from the Huntsville Democrat, Nov. 7, 1837, re- 
printed from the Tuscaloosa Flag of the Union. 

At a meeting of the Philomathic Society of the University 
of Alabama, held Saturday, October 14, 1837. 

On motion of Mr. Weissinger, it was unanimously resolved : 

"Since it appeared from a certain number of the Philan- 
thropist, edited by the Abolitionist, Jas. G. Birney, that he 
has not been apprised of his expulsion from this Society, 
(which as directed privately to him, through the correspond- 
ing secretary, previous to that expulsion mentioned by him of 
the Erosophic Society), in consequence of his espousal and en- 
deavors to propogate opinions which militate and are at di- 
rect variance with the rights of the South, the peace of society, 
and the perpetuity of our government, and which, if persisted 
in, must bathe our nation in blood — bring on that wretched- 
ness and horrible warfare never before witnessed. 

"Be it therefore resolved, That the said J. G. Birney be in- 
formed that he has long since been expelled from this so- 
ciety, and that its members now take great pleasure in rectify- 
ing his misapprehensions, and informing him that he has for 
more than twenty months, been excluded the privilege of hon- 
orary membership; and that we never have and never will 
knowingly, confer that honor upon one of his dark fraternity, 
who are embarked in a cause we believe more through base 
and clandestine motives and views of distinguishment, than 
through philanthropic and generous intentions. 

And further, be it resolved, That as the said J. G. Birney 
has expressed publicly his persuasion of still being an honor- 
ary member of our society, that this proceeding of our society 
be made public, and the papers of this and those throughout 
the State be requested to publish the above resolutions, with 
the names of the President and Secretary of the society. 

J. C. Foster, Pres't. 

L. S. Thomas, Secretary, 

Of the Philomathic Society. 




Winthrop Sargent, of Massachusetts, commissioned Sec- 
retary of Territory Northwest of the Ohio river, Sept. I, 
1789; re-commissioned Dec. 10, 1794; commissioned as Gov- 
ernor of the Mississippi Territory May 7, 1798. 

William Blount, of North Carolina, commissioned Gover- 
nor of the Territory South of the Ohio river, June 8, 1790; 
recommissioned Dec. 10, 1794. 

Daniel Smith, of the Territory South of the Ohio river, com- 
missioned Secretary of the Territory South of the Ohio river, 
June 8, 1790; re-commissioned Dec. 10, 1794. 

Thomas Freeman, of Ireland, on May 24, 1796, was ap- 
pointed Surveyor under the 3rd Article of Treaty of Oct. 27, 
1795, with Spain. 

William Charles Cole Claiborne, of the Mississippi Terri- 
tory, appointed Dec. 12, 1804, one of the Commissioners to 
receive the Territory of Louisiana ceded by France, under 
the treaty of Oct. 31, 1803. Appointed Governor of Orleans, 
temporary commission, June 8, 1805 ; permanent commission, 
Jan. 17, 1806; re-commissioned Nov. 14, 1808, and Nov. 26, 

Thomas Boiling Robertson, of Virginia, appointed Secre- 
tary of the Orleans Territory, temporary commission Aug. 
12, 1807; permanent commission, Nov. 18, 1807; re-commis- 
sioned Dec. 5, 181 1. 

George Walton, of Georgia, appointed Secretary of the 
West Florida Territory, temporary commission, May 18, 182 1 ; 
permanent commission, April 25, 1822; re-commissioned, 
Dec. 22, 1825. 


During the battle of Manassas General Beauregard had ob- 
served the difficulty of distinguishing our own from the ene- 
my's colors, and in order to prevent all error in the future, 

♦This memoranda is taken from the official records in the Bureau 
of Appointments and Commissions, office of the Secretary of State 
of the United States. 

216 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

had determined to adopt in his army a battle flag distinct in 
color and design. He at first sought to procure a change in 
the Confederate flag itself, and Col. W. P. Miles, then chair- 
man of the House Military Committee, had caused, at his re- 
quest, a report to be presented to that effect, but with no re- 
sult. In a conference between the (then) three senior offi- 
ers, at Fairfax Court House, in September, out of four de- 
signs for a battle flag one, presented by General Beauregard, 
was adopted. It was a red field with a diagonal blue cross, 
the latter edged with white and bearing white stars. To ren- 
der it more portable it was made square instead of oblong, by 
order of General Johnston. 

This beautiful design, by a strange coincidence, had been 
previously devised by Colonel Miles and recommended for the 
Confederate flag to Congress then in session at Montgomery, 
in March, 1861. It had also been proposed by Mr. Edward C. 
Hancock, at the request of Col. James B. Walton, at New Or- 
leans in the month of April. It had been offered by Colonel 
Miles to General Beauregard in substitution for one nearly 
similar in emblem and pattern, but different in the distribution 
of colors, suggested to him by General Beauregard when the 
latter was seeking to procure a change in the Confederate flag. 
And it was now proposed anew to the General by Colonel Wal- 
ton, who had Mr. Hancock's design. 

Thus it will be seen that the design of the Confederate flag 
was conceived and drawn long before a Union soldier had 
tried his skill in water colors on an original which was not 
and could never have reached the hands of the General's la- 
mented daughter. For she was a little girl who was in Louis- 
iana during the whole of our unfortunate war and was seen 
by her father only at its close. 


New Orleans, La. 


"The Boundaries of Louisiana in 1803," is the title of a 
12 page pamphlet printed by the "Colorado Transcript," at 
Golden, Col., in 1897. The author is Edward L. Berthoud, 
C. E., A. M., Corresponding Member Philadelphia Academy 
and New York Lyceum, Member of the National Geographical 
Society, etc. It was written to controvert the suggestion of 

Minor Topics. 217 

the late Col. James O. Broadhea.d, of Missouri, that the ces- 
sion of Louisiana conveyed to the United States no claim to 
land west of the Rocky Mountains, and that our right to the 
Oregon region rested upon the discoveries of Lewis and 
Clark in 1805-6. Mr. Berthoud reviews the conflicting dis- 
covery claims of Great Britain and Spain to the Pacific coast 
between the forty-second parallel and the Russian possessions, 
and shows that Spain's were the stronger, and that our claim 
to the entire Columbia River basin, based upon Captain Gray's 
discovery of the mouth, and his partial exploration of that 
river in 1792, was stronger still. He then contends that Spain 
transferred her claims to France in ceding Louisiana to the 
latter in 1800, and that by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 
the United States acquired all the rights of both Spain and 
France to that part of the Pacific coast. Before ceding her 
American possessions to Great Britain east of the Mississ- 
ippi, and to Spain west of that river, by the treaties of 1762-3, 
France had claimed to the Pacific by virtue of various treat- 
ies with Indian tribes, and various alleged explorations and 
discoveries to the Rocky Mountains and beyond to the head- 
waters of the Columbia, so as to include the entire watershed 
of that river also. On June 14, 1671, Daumont de Lusson, 
as the respresentative of Louis XIV, had met fourteen North- 
western tribes at Sault Ste. Marie, and with their consent, in 
public assembly, took formal possession for Louis XIV of 
all the countries, rivers, and lakes, discovered or to be discov- 
ered between the "North Sea, the Sea of the West, and the 
South Sea." This is what France pretended to cede to Spain 
west of the Mississippi in 1762; and to have recovered from 
Spain by the treaty of San Ildefonso. The treaty with the 
United States in 1803 transferred Louisiana as Spain had re- 
ceived it from France in 1762, together with all the rights 
Spain had acquired therein during 37 years o<f occupation. 
There is abundant documentary evidence to show that this 
was our government's view of the transfer. To show T that 
the Lewis and Clark expedition was sent to explore our new 
possessions and not to establish a discovery claim, Mr. Berth- 
oud quotes from a report made by Dr. Mitchell, Chairman of 
the House Committee on Commerce, February 17, 1804, in 
which our new acquisition is referred to as extending beyond 
the Rocky Mountains, "between the territories claimed by 
Great Britain on the one side and by Spain on the other, 
quite to the South Sea." — World's Fair Bulletin, St. Louis, 
Mo., August, 1902, p. 12. 

. - - 


(This Department is intended for practical purposes. General invitation is ex- 
tended ail readers to use it. Communientions in reply to queries, or ou other 
subjects should be addressed to the Editor. No answers to queries will be 
given by private correspondence.) 


Georgia. — You say in your Magazine (Sept., 1902, p. 92), that Charles 
Tait was a member of the Georgia Supreme Court. This is a mis- 
take, as our Supreme Court was not regularly organized until De- 
cember, 1845. The only Judicial position Mr. Tait held in Georgia 
was that of presiding Judge of the Western Circuit from 1803 to 
1809, he being then advanced to U. S. Senate. 

Charles Edgeworth Jones. 
Augusta, Ga. 

Indian Trade and Indian Traders. — The history of the south- 
west is largely a history of the rivalry of the English and French 
for the Indian trade. Adair, Galphin, Mordecai, and others are in- 
stances in point. Is there any connected study of this commercial 
war and its agents; if not, can some one indicate its principal lines, 
events and dates? There is a field here for valuable work to be 
done, particularly by students of northern and eastern Alabama 
and north Georgia, where were the principal battlefields of this con- 

Peter J. Hamilton. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Prayer of Rev. Frederick A. Ross. — Referring to the mention of 
Rev. Frederick A. Ross in my paper on the "Churches of Alabama," 
etc., p. 110, of the previous number of this Magazine, the Boston 
Journal, 1864, says that Mr. Ross offered the following prayer: "Oh, 
Lord! We pray Thee to bless our enemies, and to remove them from 
our midst as soon as seemeth good in Thy sight." 

W. L. Fleming. 
Columbia University in the 
City of New York. 

Revolutionary War Record of Moses Phillips Wanted. — I have 
been making diligent research for the record of the Revolutionary 
War service of Moses Phillips, but have failed to find the facts. 
There is a Moses Phillips from New York on the lists in the Pension 
Department, Washington City, that is, he enlisted in that colony. 
The Moses Phillips in whom I am interested migrated from Virginia 
to Kentucky at an unknown date, and was living with his family 

Notes and Queries. 219 

near or in Danville, Ky., in 1776. His son John, who was captain in 
the War with Mexico, was horn at Danville, Ky., and removed to 
Middle Tennessee after the Mexican War. This is about all the data I 
have that is authentic. Moses Phillips, of Kentucky, had several 
sons and two daughters, among them Capt. John Phillips, above 
mentioned, whose wife was Theresa James of Tennessee. 

Mes. Aurora Pryor McClellan. 
Athens, Ala. 

Fort Crawford. — In reply to the query of Peter J. Hamilton, of 
Mobile, in the September issue of your Magazine (p. 150), as to 
Fort Crawford, Ala., I have a copy of an official list (published by 
the War Department) of all the military posts ever established in 
the United States. It gives the following Forts Crawford that 
have been in the Gulf States, viz.: Fort Crawford, in Russell 
Co., Ala. ; Fort Crawford, on the Manatee River, Fla., and Fort Craw- 
ford, on the Chattahoochee River, Ga. No other information is 
given about the forts in the list I speak of, but if Mr. Hamilton 
will write to the Secretary of War about the matter, I think he 
will be furnished as full information as the records of the War 
Department can supply; and .there will be, of course, no fee for 
supplying it. 

A. C. Qttisenberry, 

Hyattsville, Md. 

Cherokee Towns and Villages in Alabama. — Referring to the 
chapter by 0. D. Street on "Cherokee Towns and Villages in Ala- 
bama," in Vol. i of the Miscellaneous Collections of the Alabama 
Historical Society, could you ascertain and inform me and the in- 
terested public, through your journal, which of these settlements at 
any time had town houses. As the Cherokee settlements were not 
compact, the houses being scattered along the creeks wherever 
there was available bottom land for cultivation, I have found it 
necessary in my classification of their towns to consider the town 
house as the settlement nucleus to which the outlying cabins were 
adjunct, all those Indians who habitually gathered at a certain 
town house for their public ceremonials being considered as inhabi- 
tants of the town in which the town house was situated. 

James Mooney. 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

DuBois, Paschal, and Monroe Families. — I am anxious to secure 
all possible facts in reference to these families, and of all of their 
intermarriages. Correspondence is desired with all interested per- 
sons. The following is a summary of the material I have: 

220 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

1. William Paschal, brother of George Paschal (whose wife, 
Agnes Paschal was the last living Revolutionary War pensioner) ; 

m , j lived in S. C.; removed to Greene county, Ala., in the 

early days of its settlement, and is supposed to have died there: 
Among other children, he had (1) William Paschal, who lived and 
died in Greene county; and (2) Emily, who married John Monroe, 
a native of Abbeville district, S. C., but who early came to Greeen 
county. To them was born William Oliver Monroe (long time edi- 
tor of the Eutaw Whig and Observer), who m. Janie duBois, of 
Greensboro, Ala., a daughter of 

II. John du Bois, of Greensboro (originally from Charleston, 
S. C), and his wife, Louisa Williams, of Greene county, (but born 
in Buckingham county, Va.) He was the son of Pierre du Bois, of 
S. C, (supposed to have been in the Revolutionary War), and his 
wife Anne Clarkson Carne, daughter of Thomas or David Came. 

Mrs. Oliver (Monroe) Rutherford. 

Eutaw, Ala. 

Additional Notes on the Fisher Family. — In the last number 
of the Gulf States Historical Magazine (Sept., 1902, p. 134), you 
give a genealogy of the Fisher family. I was much interested in 
it, because my mother's father, George Doroty Fisher, spent his boy- 
hood days in Wilcox county, Alabama, near Camden, I have been 
told, where his father had moved from North Carolina. George D. 
Fisher studied medicine at the Transylvania University, Lexington, 
Ky., where he married Lauretta Grimes (about 1835.) He moved 
first to Pensacola, and from there to Walton county, Fla., which 
he represented in the State Senate. From there he moved to Mil- 
ton, Santa Rosa county, which he also represented in the Senate. 
He was killed by deserters in Middle West Florida near Geneva, 
Ala., in 1865. He was then 5G years old. George P. Fisher, who 
moved to Tallahassee not long after it was founded, and there 
opened the Eagle Inn, was a cousin, I am informed, of George D. 
Fisher. His son was Capt. Allen Fisher, who commanded in the 
Seminole War. George D. Fisher had two brothers, Green and 
James Fisher, who went to Texas. To the same family belonged 
Charles Fisher, a Methodist minister, who moved to Georgia, dying 
at Jamestown. If you know anything of the ancestors of George D. 
Fisher, I should be very glad to find out what you might be willing 
to tell me. My great-grandfather, John Green, lived in Conecuh 
county, Ala., and you will find an account of him in Riley's History 
of Conecuh County, pp. 114 and 115. 

Edwin L. Green. 

University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 

Notes and Queries. 221 

Data Desired Concerning the War and Reconstruction in Ala- 
bama. — I have in preparation an elaborate "History of Reconstruc- 
tion in Alabama," which is to be published by the Columbia Univer- 
sity in the city of New York. It is very desirable that this work 
should be thoroughly done, and I have spared nether time nor ex- 
pense in securing material. There has been a generous response 
from many quarters to my appeals for information, but much yet 
remains to be explored. 

If possible, I would like to secure data on all points indicated 
Delow. Correspondence is invited. The loan of old letters, docu- 
ments, reports and papers on the subjects and period under review 
will be appreciated. 

1. Social and economic conditions in Alabama, 1861-1875. 

2. "Unionists," their conduct during and after the war; names, 
character and numbers. 

3. Conduct of the negro, 1864-1875; negro officials, negro mili- 
tia and Federal troops, 1865-1875. 

4. Details concerning the Ku-Klux Klan, Loyal League, Freed- 
men's Bureau. 

5. "Carpetbaggers," "scalawags," character and numbers; names 
of prominent ones. 

6. Churches and public questions, 1861-1875. Attempts of 
Northern churches to enter the South after the war. 

7. Northern preachers and Northern teachers of negro schools, 
how received and treated by native whites. 

8. Social ostracism of "carpet baggers" and "scalawags" as a 
political influence. 

9. Details of misgovernment under carpet-bag regime, in State, 
county, and city affairs. 

10. Permanent results of the reconstruction policy of the U. S.: 
(a) on the future of the negro; (b) on political parties in Alabama; 
and (c) on the temper and character of the whites. 

11. How did political parties divide in 1865-1866? 

12. Details of campaigns and elections of 1867-1868, 1870-1874. 
Why did the "Radicals" come into power in 1872? 

13. Growth of peace party in the State from 1863-1865. 

14. Secret organization in 1S64 and 1865, if any, for the purpose 
of bringing the war to an end. To what extent did it exist among 
civilians and among soldiers, and in what regiments particularly, if 

Walter L. Fleming. 
Columbia University in the 
City of New York. 


Removal of Miss Maey Johnston from Alabama to Virginia. — 
Miss Mary Johnston, the distinguished novelist, has removed from 
Birmingham, Ala., to Richmond, Va. Her home was in the former 
city at the time of the composition of her now famous novels, Pris- 
oners of Hope, To Have and to Hold, and Audrey. She was born 
in Botetourt county, Va., Nov. 21, 1870, and is the daughter of 
John William and Elizabeth (Alexander} Johnston. 

Monument to Gen. Hugh Mercer at Fredericksburg, Va. — Con- 
gress has made an appropriation of $25,000, by act of June 28, 1902, 
for the erection at Fredericksburg, Virginia, of a monument to the 
memory of General Hugh Mercer. Upon it are to be inscribed the 

Sacred to the memory of 


Brigadier-general in the army of 

The United States; 

He died on the 12th of January, 1777, of the 

Wounds he received on the 3d of the same month, 

Near Princetown, in New Jersey, 

Bravely defending the 

Liberties of America. 

The Congress of the United States 

In testimony of his virtues, and their gratitude, 

Have caused this monument to be erected. 

The sum is to be expended under the direction of the Secretary 
of War, or such officer as he may designate, and in such sums as the 
work may require from time to time, but the city of Fredericksburg, 
or the citizens thereof, are to cede and convey to the United States 
Buch suitable site as may, in the judgment of the Secretary of War, 
be required for the monument. 

Confederate Monument at Courtland, Va. — Amid the salutes 
of infantry, the roar of cannon, a wealth of eloquence, and the 
plaudits of four thousand people, a Confederate monument was un- 
veiled at Courtland, Va., Sept. 17, 1902. In the parade," headed by 
the Seventy-first Virginia Regiment, were the Urquhart Gillet Camp, 
of Franklin; the Tom Smith Camp, of Suffolk; a line of school 

Histobical News. 223 

children, Company I, of Franklin, of the Seventy-first Regiment, and 
some civic organizations. Col. L. R. Edwards, president of the 
Monument Association, presided. 

The monument was presented in a speech by State Senator Wil- 
liam Shands, and was accepted by Hon. William J. Sebrell, State's 
Attorney of Southampton county. Senator Daniel was introduced 
by Mayor Joseph B. Prince, Jr., of Courtiand, and made an address. 
Six young women pulled the strings that unveiled the shaft. On 
the shaft are inscribed the names and numbers of the Confeder- 
ate companies in whose honor the monument was erected. A din- 
ner was served to more than three thousand people after the cere- 

James Mooney's Ethnological Work and Studies— The Kiowas 
of Western Oklahoma. — James Mooney, of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, has returned to Washington city after a year's absence 
with the Kiowas of Western Oklahoma. The primitive characteris- 
tics of these Indians having attracted his attention while studying 
the Ghost Dance, and later while making collections for the World's 
Fair, he selected them for study as a typical plains tribe, and for 
twelve years past has made annual visits, spending at least one- 
half of his time with the tribe. For the first few years he lived in 
the tepes, sleeping upon the ground and eating the Indian fare, but 
with the advance of the white man and the passing of the tepe, 
such working methods are no longer necessary or feasible. His 
"Ghost Dance Religion" appeared as a volume of the Fourteenth 
Annual Report of the Bureau in 1896, and the "Calendar History of 
the Kiowa Indians" was published in the Seventeenth in 1901. The 
past year has been given to a study of their heraldic system, as ex- 
emplified in their shields and tepes. A full series of models of these 
shields and tepes is being prepared by Indian artists under his 
supervision, every model being made from the dictation of the for- 
mer owner of the original. After attending to some office routine 
matters, Mr. Mooney will return to the field to complete the series 
and to proceed with the execution of a similar commission among 
the Cheyennes for the Field Columbian Museum of Chicago. 

Myths of the Cherokee. — Mr. Mooney, whose current work 
has just been mentioned, and who for a number of years has 
been devoting a large share of his attention to an investigation of 
the important tribe of the Cherokees, has now in press a paper, 
"Myths of the Cherokee," to constitute a volume of nearly 600 octavo 
pages in the Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 
soon to be ready for distribution. Being intended as the first of a 
regular series covering the whole ethnology of the tribe, about one- 

224 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

third of the paper is devoted to a historical sketch, which is prac- 
tically a summary of the exploration and colonization of the Eastern 
Gulf States from 1540 to the removal of the Cherokees in 1838. De 
Soto's route is traced from original sources of information. The 
fortunes of the Arkansas, Texas and Mexican bands are followed, 
as well as those of the present Cherokee Nation in the Indian Ter- 
ritory, and the Eastern Band in North Carolina, the history being 
brought down to the end of 1900. There are also extended notes 
upon Robertson, Sevier, McGillivray, Worcester, Houston, Ross, 
Thomas, the Creek war, the Southern gold fields, and other sub- 
jects of interest to the Southern historian. The myths number 126, 
classified as cosmogonic, animal, wonder stories, historical tradi- 
tions, and local legends, with notes and parallels, and a glossary of 
nearly 2,000 Cherokee words .together with 18 plate illustrations and 
2 maps. 

Mr. Mooney has also succeeded in obtaining the whole sacred 
ritual of the tribe, consisting of hundreds of prayers to the animal 
gods and the nature powers, for every occasion in life, these prayers 
being contained in original manuscripts written in the Cherokee 
language and characters. This material is intended to constitute 
the body of another volume dealing with the primitive religion of 
the tribe. Some specimen formulas were published by Mr. Mooney 
in the Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau in 1891. • 

This miscellaneous Cherokee material consists of notes upon the 
tribal botany, geographic nomenclature, archaeology, ceremonies, 
customs, arts, and home life, including over 1,000 local names with 
their translations, and a descriptive list of every mound or other 
ancient remain known within the old Cherokee country. He hopes 
to prepare this matter for publication as time can be spared from 
field work in the West. 

Ethnology of the South Atlantic Tribes. — Mr. Mooney has 
also in hand the gathering of material relating to the ethnology of 
the tribes formerly occupying the South Atlantic region, from 
Delaware river to the Savannah. Some preliminary results have 
already appeared in his Siouan Tribes of the East, published as a 
bulletin by the Bureau of Ethnology in 1894. His two search trips 
in tidewater Virginia have brought to light four bands of the old 
Powhatan Confederacy still keeping up tribal organizations, and 
numbering in all about 600 mixed-blood individuals. Of these only 
the Pamunkeys have hitherto been noted in print. The last old 
man who remembered any of the language died near Norfolk within 
a year. 

Historical News. 225 

Second Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees of the De- 
partment of Archives and History of Alabama. — The second an- 
nual meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Department of Ar- 
chives and History of Alabama was held on Oct. 7, 1902, in the office 
of the Director, Thomas M. Owen, at the State Capitol, in Montgom- 
ery. Hon. William Dorsey Jelks, the Governor, presided. After the 
routine business of organization, the Director presented an elabor- 
ate annual report, showing the work and operations of the Depart- 
ment from Oct. 1, 1901, to Sept. 30, 1902. It pointed out the method 
of work, and indicated the character of the collections made during 
the year. These consisted of rare books and pamphlets, old news- 
paper files and single issues, portraits and pictures, manuscripts, 
relics, war records, etc., etc. Mr. Owen exhibited the manuscripts 
of several of his projected official publications and State papers. 
The report contained several recommendations, the principal of 
which were the necessity for larger and safer quarters, and for in- 
creased appropriations for publication and maintenance. The Board 
concurred in the recommendation, and the executive committee 
was directed to take all necessary steps looking to their adoption by 
the Legislature. Reports were made by the several committees. The 
terms of several of the Trustees expiring by limitation on Dec. 31, 
ly02, and Dec. ol, 1904, they were all respectively chosen as their 
own successors, after which the session adjourned sine die. 

Pensions to Survivors, etc, of Indian Wars. — On July 27, 1S92, 
Congress provided by act for pensions to survivors of the Indian 
Wars of 1832 to 1842 inclusive, known as the Black Hawk war, Creek 
war, Cherokee disturbances, and the Seminole war. The provisions, 
limitations, and benefits of this act have now, by act of Congress, 
June 27, 1902, been extended to the surviving officers and enlisted 
men, including marines, militia, and volunteers of the military and 
naval service of the United States who served for thirty days or 
more and were honorably discharged under the United States mili- 
tary, State, Territorial, or provisional authorities in the Florida and 
Georgia Seminole Indian war of eighteen hundred and seventeen and 
eighteen hundred and eighteen; the Fevre River Indian war of 
Illinois of eighteen hundred and twenty-seven; the Sac and Fox In- 
dian war of eighteen hundred and thirty-one; the Sabine Indian dis- 
turbances of eighteen hundred and thirty-six and eighteen hundred 
and thirty-seven; the Cayuse Indian war of eighteen hundred and 
forty-seven and eighteen hundred and forty-eight, oh the Pacific 
coast; the Florida wars with the Seminole Indians, from eighteen 
hundred and forty-two to eighteen hundred and fifty-eight, inclus- 
ive; the Texas and New Mexico Indian war of eighteen hundred and 
forty-nine to eighteen hundred and fixty-six; the California Indian 

226 The Gulf States Historical Magazine, 

disturbances of eighteen hundred and fifty-one and eighteen hundred 
and fifty-two; the Utah Indian disturbances of eighteen hundred and 
fifty to eighteen hundred and fifty-three, inclusive; and the Oregon 
and Washington Territory Indian wars from eighteen hundred and 
fifty-one to eighteen hundred and fifty-six, inclusive; and also to in- 
clude the surviving widows of such officers and enlisted men, if they 
have not remarried. 

The act very properly provides that where there Is no record of 
enlistment or muster into the service of the United States In any of 
the wars mentioned in this act the record of pay by the United 
States shall be accepted as full and satisfactory proof of such en- 
listment and service. The Senate Report (No. 241, 1st sess. 57th 
Cong.) on the measure is a valuable historical document. 

Organization of the Tennessee Valley Historical Society. — On 
Wednesday, Sept. 3, 1902, in the city of Huntsville, Ala., "The 
Tennessee Valley Historical Society" was organized by an enthusias- 
tic gathering of historical students. The meeting was held in the 
city hall, and convened at 10 a. m. Under the program previously 
arranged Judge Richard W. Walker presided. In calling the body 
to order Judge Walker commented on the importance of associated 
etfort for preserving historical facts. He also referred to the rich 
field embraced within the area to be studied in the society's future 
work. Oliver D. Street, of Guntersville, was designated as tem- 
porary secretary; Wm. B. Bankhead, Esq., was then introduced and 
delivered an introductory or welcome address, followed by a re- 
sponse from Hon. John L. Burnett, of Gadsden. 

A resolution was introduced by Thomas M. Owen, Director of 
the Department of Archives and History, of Montgomery, declaring 
the organization of the society, and providing for the appointment 
of a committee of three to report a constitution, and to nominate a 
body of officers for the ensuing year. The following committee was 
named: Thomas M. Owen, chairman; Wm. Richardson, John H. 

While the committee was out, the secretary enrolled those pres- 
ent who desired membership, and also announced the names of those 
who had written him requesting enrollment. The list showed thirty- 
eight names of persons in various portions of the Tennessee Val- 
ley and elsewhere. 

The committee then reported a constitution, which was adopted. 
Its principal features relate to name .objects, officers, meetings, and 
dues. Annual meetings are to be held. The general management of 
the society is committed to an executive committee, consisting of 
the President, the two Vice-Presidents from Madison county, and the 
Secretary and Treasurer. The names of officials for the ensuing 
year, which were reported, are given in full below. 

Historical News. 227 

The following papers were then read: 

"The Functions and Obligations of Local Historical Societies," by- 
Thomas M. Owen, Esq., of Montgomery. 

"The Press of the Tennessee Valley," by W. L. Clay, Esq., of 

"The Formation of the Counties of the Tennessee Valley, with 
Notes on Their Early Settlement," by O. D. Street ,Esq., of Gunters- 

The paper of Hon. Thomas R. Roulhac, of Sheffield, on "Lauder- 
dale County Mounds," was presented by title. 

Resolutions of thanks were extended Messrs. Owen and Street 
for their papers. Thanks were also extended the mayor and 
council for the use of the city ball, and a standing vote of thanks 
was extended the President, Mr. Walker, and the Secretary, Mr. 

Capt. Daniel Coleman called attention to the importance of the 
Soldiers' Home at Mountain Creek, near Montgomery, and requested 
the members and others to assist in having rooms in the home fur- 
nished by donations. 

The following honorary members were elected: Dr. John A. 
Wyeth, of New York City; Senator J. H. Berry, of Arkansas; Col. 
Josiah Patterson, of Memphis; Senator E. W. Pettus, of Alabama; 
Gen. John B. Gordon, of Georgia; and Gen. G. P. Thruston, of Nash- 
ville. All of the foregoing except the two last are natives of the 
Tennessee Valley. 

On motion of Wm, B. Bankhead, Esq., the executive committee 
was directed to provide for the holding of the next meeting of the 
society in the city of Huntsville. The meeting was full of enthusi- 
asm and gave evidence of an intelligent appreciation of the work 
undertaken. It is the intention of the Secretary to publish the pro- 
ceedings and papers of this meeting in book form, together with 
other historical material which may be contributed. 

Officers for the ensuing year: 

President, Judge Richard W. Walker, of Huntsville. 

Vice-Presidents, Madisor; County, Col. R. B. Rhett and Wm. L. 

Jackson, Hon. Jesse E. Brown. 

Marshall, W. C. Rayburn. 

Colbert, Thomas R. Roulhac. 

Lauderdale, Edwin C. Crow. 

Limestone, W. T. Sanders. 

Morgan, W. E. Skeggs. 

Lawrence, Judge J. C. Kumpe. 

Franklin, W. I. Bullock. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Oliver D. Street, Guntersville. 


The American Monthly Magazine, Washington, D. C, for April, 
May and June, 1902, contains the proceedings, papers and reports of 
the Eleventh Continental Congress of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Feb. 17-22, 1902. 

A Gazetteer of Texas has been prepared by Henry Gannett, and 
published by the U. S. Geological Survey as Bulletin No. 190, and as 
House document No. 472 (1902, 8 vo. pp. 162, 8 maps.) 

Bulletin No. 194 of the Survey (House document No. 635) con- 
tains an account of the Northwest boundary of Texas, by Marcus 
Baker (1902; 8 vo. pp. 51, iU. and maps.) 

Rabbi A. J. Messing, Jr., of Montgomery, has published a small 
memorial volume In Memoriam, to William Ullman, late of Selma, 
Ala. It contains a good likeness of Mr. Ullman, an account of the 
obsequies, tributes of the press, a biographical sketch, and letters of 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Aabama State Bar Asso- 
ciation was held at Huntsville, July 4-5, 1902. The Proceedings con- 
tains a stenographic report of the meeting, several addresses, and 
the committee reports (8 vo. pp. 160, xxx.) 

Those who are interested in the work of the patriotic societies 
of the United States will find pleasure in a paper by Mary E. Card- 
will on "The Growth and Value of Patriotic Societies" in The Cri- 
terion, New York, for Oct., 1902. 

The same issue contains "Recollections of Admiral Porter," by 
Gen. James Grant Wilson. 

The Errand Boy of Andrew Jackson is the title of an historical 
story from the press of The I.athrop Publishing Co. It is written 
by W. O. Stoddard, and deals with events in the famous campaign 
of New Orleans in cue War of 1S12. 

The story of The Old Nineteenth Tennessee Regiment, C. 8. A., 
June, 1861 to April, 1865, is narrated by Dr. W. J. Worsham in a 
volume of 235 pages. The work contains 7 maps of battlefields, 
and 15 half-tone cuts of officers. Col. C. W. Heiskell contributes a 
supplementary chapter. 

Book Notes and Reviews. 229 

The results of the investigation made by E. H. Crowder, at the 
instance of the War Department, of the alleged supply camp in 
Louisiana for shipments of horses, mules and supplies from that 
State for use of the British Army, in South Africa, are contained 
in a Report made by him in June last (1902; 8 vo. pp. 15, House 
doc, 649.) 

"The South and Her History" is the title of a paper by Dr. 
David Y. Thomas, of Hendrix College, Ark., in the October, 1902, 
Review of Reviews. The writer briefly summarizes the more im- 
portant work which has been done in behalf of its history, and calls 
attention to the present historical activities of the State govern- 
ments, societies and individuals in the South. 

The Robert Clarke Company, Cincinnati, have published Colonel 
John Gunoy of the Maryland Line, written by A. A. Gunby, a 
lawyer of Louisiana (12 mo.; $1.00 net.) While the volume gives 
an account of Col. Gunby's contributions to American liberty, only 
a small part is devoted to his personal history- The book goes be- 
yond a mere biographical sketch, and recites the stirring events 
of the War of the Revolution in which he was a part. 

The Bulletin of the University of Virginia, July, 1902, pp. 22-30, 
contains several short articles of a reminiscent character on Dr. 
Wm. LeRoy Broun, an alumnus of that institution. There is also 
a brief sketch in the Experiment Station Record of the U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, vol. xiii, No. 6. Dr. Broun was in the service of 
the Confederate Ordnance Department. In the Journal of the U. 
S. Artillery, Fort Monroe, Va., Jan.-Feb., 1898, he has an excellent 
article respecting Confederate ordnance. This article is reprinted 
in the Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. xxvi, p. 368 et seq. 

The Bookworm, as a monthly review and chronicle of new books 
and musical matters, begun publication at Birmingham, Ala., in 
December, 1900, vol. i, No. 1; subscription price $1.00 per annum. 
It has now reached vol. ii, No. 8, Sept., 1902, and has been much 
enlarged. The publishers Messrs. Loveman, Joseph & Loeb, have 
recently had an edition of twenty-five copies of the first volume 
substantially bound in half morocco. The enterprise is to be com- 
mended, but the value of the book would have been greatly en- 
hanced by a title page, table of contents and an index. The pagina- 
tion should have been continuous from the first page to the end 
of the volume instead of by numbers. The editor is Mr. G. C. 
Earle, and his list of contributors and reviewers contain many 
well known names. 

The Proceedings of the regular Triennial Meeting of the Gen- 
eral Society, Sons of the Revolution, held in Washington, D. C, 

230 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

April 18, 1902, have been published (8 vo. pp. 121.) The Society 
had the honor of being permitted to hold its session in the banquet 
hall at Mt. Vernon. After the business exercises Dr. Thomas Ed- 
ward Green delivered an oration before the Society at the tomb of 
Washington. On the evening of April 19th there was a banquet at 
the New Willard hotel. On the next day the delegates attended 
religious services in a body at the Church of the Epiphany, where 
the rector, Dr. Randolph H. McKim, delivered an appropriate ser- 

Mrs. Perry has published an In Memoriam (12 mo. pp. 26, 
portrait) of her late husband, Col. William Hayne Perry, who was 
born June 9, 1839, in Greenville, S. C, where he died July 7, 
1902. He was the son of Gov. Benjamin F. Perry, of South Caro- 
lina, and his wife, Elizabeth Frances McCall, a niece of Senator 
Robert Y .Hayne. He was educated at Harvard University, and 
after graduation became a member of the bar. On the secession 
of South Carolina in 1861, ne entered the Confederate service in 
Hampton's Legion, with which he served during the whole of the 
war. Resuming the practice of the law he was salicitor of the 
Western circuit, in South Carolina, 1868-1872. He served as State 
senator, 1880-1884, and in 1884 was elected to Congress, where he 
remained three terms. His wife was Louise, daughter of Hon. John 
Hollis Bankhead, of Alabama. 

The American Historical Magazine for Oct., 1902, has an innova- 
tion in two full page half-tone likenesses of Gov. William Trous- 
dale and Gov. William Carroll. The contents of this number are: 
"Governor William Trousdale," by B. F. Allen; "The Earliest Rec- 
ords of Davidson County;" "Campbell Papers;" "Madison County;" 
"Roberts Papers;" "The Family of Brown;" "Jedediah Morse to 
Moses Fisk;" "Select Documents;" "Governor William Carroll;" and 

The West Virginia Historical Magazine ior Oct., 1902 (8 vo. pp. 
89), has the following papers: "Birthplace of President Jackson," 
by W. S. Laidley; "General Charles Lee," by John D. Sutton; 
"Kentuckians at Point Pleasant Battle," by Miss L. K. Poage; 
"Thomas Shepherd of Shepherdstown," by Mrs. F. J. Allen; "Dr. 
W. H. Ruffner," by Mrs. A. H. R. Barclay;" "Genealogy of Mr. V. 
H. Patrick," by Rev. R. D. Roller; "The Camerons of Virginia," 
by Rev. W. T. Price; "Rev. Alexander Campbell," by G. L. Cran- 
mer, with errata, index, etc. This periodical is the official organ 
or the West Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Society, Charles- 
ton, and vol. i, No. 1, came from the press Jan., 1901. 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine is 
published by the South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston. Its 

Book Notes and Reviews. 231 

editor is the accomplished bibliographer, genealogist and historian, 
A. S. Salley, Jr., secretary and treasurer of the Society. The first 
number was issued in January, 1900, and with the Oct. number, 
1902, it will complete its third volume. They contain numbers of 
genealogies, historical and genealogical notes, hitherto unpublished 
documents, and much miscellaneous material on South Carolina 
history. Contents of the July number: "Papers of the First Coun- 
cil of Safety" and "Letters of Hon. Henry Laurens to his son 
John," both continued from the April number; "The Harlestons," 
by Theodore D. Jervey; "Notes and Queries," etc. 

The contents of the Quarterly of the Texas State Historical Asso- 
ciation for October, 1902, (vol. vi, No. 2, Austin), comprise the fol- 
lowing: "The Souhtwest Boundary of Texas," by I. J. Cox; "Some 
Materials for Southwestern History in the Archivo General de 
Mexico," by Herbert Eugene Bolton; "Reminiscences of C. C. Cox," 
"An Account of the Battle of San Jacinto,' by James Washington 
Winters; and "The African Slave Trade in Texas," by Eugene 
C. Barker. Mr. Bolton's paper is of special importance as extending 
the information now at hand concerning unused manuscript material 
of value in Mexican archives. In "Notes and Fragments," E. W. 
W T inkIer has an account of the Texas Republican, the first news- 
paper in that State, the initial number of which appeared at 
Nacogdoches, Aug. 14, 1819. 

The September, 1902, number of the Publications of the South- 
ern History Association, Washington, D. C, opens with the first 
installment of a paper on "General Sumter and his Neighbors," 
compiled by Kate Furman from the papers of William Murrell 
and John Blount Miller. The "Diary of a Texas March," and the 
"Journal of Charles Porterfield," are concluded, while there is a 
continuation of the "Early Quaker Records in Virginia." Under 
the titles "Calhoun and Secession" and "The Hero of the Alamo" 
are given several documents; and a letter of John H. Reagan, dated 
Nov. 8, 1865, to George W. White sets forth the reasons why, in 
the opinion of its author, Jefferson Davis should not be tried. 

In the course of a fourteen line notice of the first number of thi3 
Magazine, in which the mistake is made in saying that it is pub- 
lished from Birmingham instead of Montgomery, Ala., and that its 
yearly rate is two instead of three dollars, The Book and News 
Dealer, New York, for Oct.. 1902, p. 42, makes this gratuitous ob- 
servation: "It is strange that there is no magazine doing for the 
whole United States what the Gulf States Magazine is doing for 
the section indicated by the title." 

It is very gratifying by way of reply to the foregoing to call 
attention to the Oct., 1902, issue of the American Historical Re- 
view (vol. viii, No. 1, 8 vo. pp. 204.) This excellent publication now 

232 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

entering upon its eighth year has done a service, which can hardly 
be estimated, in stimulating a higher standard of historical scholar- 
ship, and in pointing to ideals in review work whch had not 
hitherto been essayed. It is now the official organ of mat great 
body of students, the American Historical Association, and is doing 
more "for the whole of the United States" than this Magazine can 
yet hope to do for its section. With rare exception its pages have 
been filled with carefully executed studies, documents of import- 
ance, and specially preparea book reviews. Its managing editor is 
Prof. Andrew C. McLaughlin, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

The Oct. issue contains "The Financial Relations of the Knights 
Templars to the English Crown," by Eleanor Ferris; "Habeas Cor- 
pus in the Colonies," by A. H. Carpenter; the second part of his 
paper on "John Quincy Adams and the Monroe Doctrine," by Worth- 
ington C. Ford; "Lincoln and the Patronage,' by Carl R. Fib;>. 
The department of documents comprises the second installment of 
copies from the Chatham MSS on the "English Policy toward 
America in 1790-1791," and copies of unpublished letters of Richard 
Cromwell, the Marquis de Lafayette, and Alexander H. Stephens. 


Letter of the Secretary of War in Response to a Senate Reso- 
lution, etc. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902; 
(8 vo. pp. 336. Senate Doc, No. 412, 57th Cong., 1st Sess.) 

The publication of this volume, coming as it does from official 
sources, places Missouri in the enviable position of leading all the 
States in having an exact and circumstantial statement as to her 
troops during the War between the States. It was compiled un- 
der the direction of the Chief of the Record and Pension Office of 
the War Department in response to a Senate resolution, and sets 
forth a full account of the various classes of Missouri volunteers, 
militia and home guards that were in the service, the designations 
of the organizations composing them, and the laws, orders and regu- 
lations under which they were raised, as well as what organizations 
or classes of these troops are recognized by the War Department 
as having been in the military service of the United States and 
what organizations or classes are not so recognized. The Confed- 
erate organizations are also given. It may be interesting to recall 
the exceptional conditions existing in Missouri during the War, two 
governments being in existence, one maintaining its allegiance to the 
Federal Union, while the other united with the Confederate States. 
Not less than seventeen different classes of troops were organ- 
ized in the State on the Union side, not counting the several varie- 
ties of those classified as home or citizen guards, while there were 
only three classes of troops on the Confederate side. 

This volume has, however, more than a local value. To the 
student of military history it is filled with important suggestions. 
Its publication in lull of all pertinent documents, such as orders, 

Book Notes and Reviews. 233 

proclamations, letters, reports, and acts of the legislature and Con- 
gress, with a designation of sources, is in the greatest degree help- 
ful. And here it is respectfully suggested that since the series 
of War Records has been completed no better continuation can be 
projected by Congress than the preparation of a volume for each 
State similar to the one here noted. With the experience already 
gained, the work would not be difficult. Doubtless co-operation from 
States could be secured. 

By W. D. Wood. (1902; 8 vo. pp. 58.) 

It is not every attempt at setting down one's reminiscences that 
forms a successful or valuable historical contribution. Too often 
recollections are wanting in accuracy, and go no farther than 
mere local or personal mention. When, however, a writer has been 
an active participant in larger passing events, political, social or 
professional, and. after careful preparation in refreshing his recol- 
lection and verifying all important details, undertakes to embody 
in a graphic personal story the events of a long life time, the 
result must be of high value. The foregoing pamphlet is of this 
class, and is a substantial contribution to Texas historical mate- 

Judge Wood came to Texas in 1857, and at once entered upon a 
busy career. His reminiscences of Texas fifty years ago are illustra- 
tive of the customs, feelings and sentiments of the times, and pre- 
sent a graphic picture of conditions in the early years of the State. 
Anecdotes and personal incidents lend to the charm of the narra- 
tive. Added to these are a number of short sketches of judges and 
lawyers, and also early settlers, clerical and lay. 

But the most valuable part of these reminiscences is that de- 
voted to reconstruction, that awful period which lasted from the 
enactments of Congress to the inauguration of Governor Coke. The 
author very properly observes that "it is from the scenes and 
incidents, occurring during the troublesome period of the State's 
history, which only had record and place in the memories of the 
men of that day, that a proper understanding of the difficulties, 
troubles, trials, persecutions and deprivations that environed the 
people of Texas, can be appreciated and realized." Some of these 
scenes and incidents are recounted here, and are thrilling evidence 
of the patience, conservatism, manliness, determination and cour- 
age of the people under conditions which cannot now be reviewed 
without a shudder. 

ACTER. By William Ordway Partridge. New York: Funk & 
Wagnalls Company, 1902. (12 mo. pp. 134; 14 illustrations.) 

Mr. Partridge, the author, made a study of the "character, the 
purposes and the personality" of Nathan Hale, the Revolutionary 
hero for Art's sake. He says: "There are some men to embody 
whose spirit word-language seems inadequate and only enduring 

234 . The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

bronze is fit. So the historian and the socialist turn to the artist 
and say, 'Art is a safeguard.' " After he produced in bronze the 
Idealized statue, representing the martyr on his way to execution 

"His thoughts far away, poised and at rest," 

Mr. Partridge wrote the book under review. It is a biographical 
sketch, with a resume of the history of that period of the Revolution 
in which the subject was an actor. 

The scope of the book really admits of but little more than 
a brief narrative of the chief events in Hale's life leading up to his 
sacrifice and death. With this much, however, it is believed the 
casual reader will be satisfied, and will catch the inspiration and 
lesson of the life of the young hero quite as fully as from a more 
elaborate study. Indeed, it is not to be supposed that this is in- 
tended so much for a biography, as a study in patriotic purpose. 
Nevertheless, the author ought to have used the new material made 
available by recent research, and to have carefully avoided error of 
fact. He would then have avoided the scathing criticism which 
his work has met in certain quarters. (See Am. Hist. Review, Oct., 
1902, p. 175.) 

But apart from the merits of his "study," a debt of gratitude is 
due the sculptor-author for his statue, which stands upon the 
college green of Yale, Hale's alma mater, which perpetuates the mem- 
ory of this "ideal patriot," whose only regret was that he had "but 
one life to give for his country." 

OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. Edited and compiled by 
Thomas W. Herringshaw. Chicago, 1902. (4to. pp. 1046; por- 

This work is put forth with much laudation by its publishers as 
a series of "accurate and succinct biographies." Elsewhere it is 
referred to as "accurate, concise and complete." In addition to 
these claims, the further claim is made that through the biographies 
presented "important lessons" are conveyed. Notwithstanding these 
pretentions, however, the slightest examination of the volume 
shows its utter unreliability and worthlessneSs. Filled with errors, 
it will do incalculable harm. And it teaches no "important lessons." 
The biographies are of the briefest character, and are confined to 
only a few lines for each individual. An average of twenty to 
twenty-five sketches appear on each page. 

After a cursory examination as to Alabama characters, with 
which the writer is particularly familiar, the errors below are 
noted. Doubtless an exhaustive examination would show many 
more, while special students would discover many as to the States 
with which they are especially acquainted. 

On p. 76, John H. Bankhead is said to have been born in Lamar, 
Ala., when the. Congressional Directory from which his sketch is 
taken, saj r s that he was born in Moscow, in Marion (now Lamar) 
County, Ala., etc* On p. 266, it is stated that John Crowell was 
born in Halifax County, Ala., and was elected territorial delegate 
in Congress from Alabama in 1817, the true facts being that he 
was born in Halifax county, N. C. (no such county in Alabama) ; 
and was elected delegate in 1818. No mention is made of his ini- 

Book Notes and Reviews. 235 

portant service as Creek Indian agent. On p. 547 William Kelly 
is referred to as born in Tennessee in 1770, as a member of Con- 
gress from Louisiana, 1821 and 1S22, and a Senator from Louisiana 
1822 to 1825, and as dying about 1832. The facts are that he was 
born in Greenville district, S. C, Sept. 22, 1786, and died Aug. 24, 
1834, and that he was a member of Congress from Alabama 1821-2, 
and U. S. Senator from the same State, 1822-5. In the sketch of 
William K. King, p. 557, no reference is given to his resignation or' 
his seat in the LJ. S. Senate to accept the mission to France; and 
he did not die in Cahaba, as there stated, but at his plantation, 
or country seat, near Selma. On p. 584 the statement is erroneously 
made that Gov. David P. Lev/is "heid most of the public offices 
in the gift of his State." John McKee was not a member of Con- 
gress from Virginia, but from Alabama, 1823-1829, see p. 641. In the 
sketch of Gov. Israel Pickens, it is to be noted that he died in the 
island of Cuba, and not in Cabarrus, N. C, as there stated. In 
the sketch of William Lowndes Yancey, p. 1041, there is no hint 
as to his advanced position as a Southern leader, nor of his mem- 
bership in the Alabama secession convention, nor of his European 
mission, nor of his service in the Confederate States Senate from 

As an example of confusion the sketches of the two Robert Wil- 
liams are cited, p. 1016. The first Robert Williams was Governor 
of the Mississippi Territory, but was born in Prince Edward County, 
Va., and not Caswell County, N. C. Every fact stated as to the 
second Robert Williams except as to the date and place of his birth 
and his service as adjutant-general of N. C, refer to Governor 
Robert Williams, who was in Congress, was Land Commissioner, 
etc. The second, or Gen. Robert Williams, died in Tennessee, and 
not in Louisiana. They were first cousins. 

Capers, A. M. Richmond, Va., Everett Waddey Co., 1893. (8 
vo. pp. 604, illustrations.) 

Although nearly ten years have passed since this work appeared, 
the importance of the subject and the tragic events in which he 
was a conspicuous actor, will justify further special review and 
notice. The motif apparent in this highly valuable contribution 
to the history of Southern men of the middle third of the nine- 
teenth century, is to place on record that part of the career of 
Christopher Gustavus Memminger, embraced within his service as 
Secretary of the Treasury of the Confederate States. The author 
was his Chief Clerk for one year, from February, 1861, as long as 
the Provisional government of the Confederacy existed, and his 
personal attachment to his chief was ardent and tireless. Mr. 
Memminger was the son of a German officer in Wurtemburg, where 
he was born in 1803. His father died while he was yet an infant, 
and his mother brought him to Charleston, S. C. Here she died, 
and at four years of age he was admitted to the Orphans' Home, 
where he spent his early years. Later he entered South Carolina 
College, where he graduated. 

Completing a course in the law he rose rapidly at the bar. He 
soon entered the Legislature of South Carolina. A single instance 
will illustrate his general position of conflict with the school of 
politics that controlled in his life time in South Carolina, as re- 

236 Tee Guxf States Historical Magazine. 

gards federal relations. For cause the Legislature of that State 
passed an act denying to free negro sailors from other States the 
rights of the shore from their ships in any South Carolina ports. 
This law was enforced at Charleston, in 1844, by the incarceration of 
certain offenders of the proscribed class from a Boston ship in the 
harbor. The Legislature of Massachusetts dispatched a noted law- 
yer, Samuel Hoar, to argue before a federal court in South Caro- 
lina the constitutionality of the State law. The Legislature of 
South Carolina, then in session, passed a resolution requiring the 
Governor to expel Mr. Hoar from the State "after notice." Repre- 
sentative Memrninger was the only member of his branch of the 
Legislature voting nay on the resolution. 

Mr. Memminger's early sympathies were with the Unionists 
of South Carolina. He was a delegate to the secession convention 
of South Carolina of 1860 and voted as all the delegates voted, for 
secession. Ere that time, throughout his life, he had been an 
uncompromising opponent of separate State secession, basing his ar- 
gument upon the ground that a State, e. g., the State of South 
Carolina, with only 30,000 square miles, was not large and popu- 
lous enough to avoid centralization of the powers of government, 
destructive of liberty. He had not lost his life-long antipathy to 
secession, in 1860, but he found then the peril of conquest from the 
North confronting him. Thus even as his father in Germany sixty 
years before, had resisted Napoleon's entry into the land, he con- 
sented to the only then available measure of resistance to John 
Brown and Brown's successor. 

Whether the antecedents of Mr. Memminger were qualifications for 
his appointment to the determining powers of the office of Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, is a question in the field of speculation. There 
is an indubitable sphere of instinct in the maintenance of govern- 
ment among men by men. Shakespeare alone seems to have pos- 
sessed a soul which could comprehend all kinds of men, adapting 
them to things wide and things narrow. It is not apparent from 
Colonel Capers' account of Secretary Memminger that he was the 
man who could fashion a result from his opportunities in his 
office. Unlike Secretary Chase, he had at his disposal millions of 
bales of cotton, the most powerful agent of commerce known to 
man. Chase had nothing to place in comparison with cotton as 
a basis of paper money. Chase issued paper money and gained 
results in war; Memminger issued paper money and lost an empire, 
the richest under the sun, dependent on war and its results. In the 
light of the contemporary conditions, it seems that Secretary Mem- 
minger in office was confused, yet earnest. He was apprehensive of 
catastrophe at the outset and his apprehension may well have dis- 
inclined him to the necessary desperation of successful endeavor. 
Had the Confederate finances succeeded, the Confederate government 
must have lived. Chase proved the proposition in his own once 
forlorn situation. Secretary Memminger had spent his life argu- 
ing against secession and its inevitable consequences, which was 

In the supreme moment he was doctrinaire, forgetting that 
safety and life had broken adrift from decent regulations, sucn 
as Napoleon, and stonewall Jackson and Bedford Forrest learned 
early to violate and to become useful and great in their acts of vio- 

Mr. Memminger was not superficial. He was German. The South- 
ern movement of 1861 was radically Southern. There was moral and 
physical test of capacity in the leader and the test was instinctive 
sympathy with the necessity at the foundation of the Southern 

Book Notes and Reviews. $37 

As a citizen of South Carolina, active, brave, intelligent, honest 
without guile, Mr. Meniminger was a light upon the hill top. His 
activity permeated every field of thought — his energy was memor- 
able in high places. He did invaluable work in reform of educa- 
tion in the free schools, for a period longer than the life of one 
generation. His work in the Legislature on State finances was that 
of a financier in skill and a statesman in breadth of apprehension. 
He elevated his profession at the bar by his presence there. 
He was a pillar of his church in the humbleness of his religion and 
the absolute purity of his life. He promoted commerce and manu- 
facture. He was clear in his view of every social element that 
gave .strength to an advancing civilization. 

J. W. D. 

^77 c^, 'fir- ^^ *" *~J- 

Gutr States Historical Magazine, 
January, 1903. 



Gulf States Historical 

Vol. 1. No. 4. Montgomery, Ala., Jan., 1903. Whole No. 4. 

By John Witherspoon DuBose, of Montgomery. 

It is of an earnest man I write, a deep-believing man, his 
thought in his life time articulate of high energies in the sphere 
of truth and liberty; his fame, "the peak above a submerged 

The United States had conquered a rich and vast domain 
from a feeble neighbor, Mexico. Should the people of fifteen 
slave States and their institutions and the people of sixteen 
free States and their institutions be equal in rights of inhab- 
itancy of the conquest? That was the problem of the Amer- 
ican theory when Mr. Yancey appeared first as organizer of 
political forces. The serious nature of the problem may be 
well appreciated at this distance when it is recalled that con- 
fronting it in the closing months of their lives, Calhoun, Web- 
ster and Clay, indifferent alike to conflict of surviving creeds 
and ancient quarrels among themselves had united in common 
protest against the conquest of Mexico.* 

In the one month of March, 1850, three speeches were pro- 
nounced in the Senate, each with an argument radically differ- 
ent from the others, each arguing from a different premise a 
policy of government to settle the dispute of the joint owners, 
the South and the North, over their respective rights of occu- 
pany of the Mexican conquest. The three arguments then go 
down the ages, along the line of demarcation of the constitu- 
tional system, separated by it from another system, even as the 
arguments of Brutus, and Caesar and Pompey go. 

On March 4 Calhoun spoke, coming first in order of delivery, 
his closing argument after forty years of historic legislative 
activity. He was ambitious to leave to posterity this teaching, 

♦When the call for volunteers for the war with Mexico was made, 
45,640 men responded from the slave States, and 23,084 from the 
free States. There were two armies of invasion, each of which was 
commanded by a Southern man. 

240 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

that the constitutional equilibrium of the two sections of the 
country could not be overthrown by legislation of Congress 
with safety to the American idea. The South and the North 
were equally involved in the fatal effects of disturbance of the 
constitutional equilibrium. He said : "Had this destruction 
been the operation of time the South would have had no room 
to complain, but such was not the fact. It was caused by the 
legislation of this government which was appointed as the 
common agent of all and charged with the interests and secur- 
ity of all. * * * * * A single section governed by the 
will of the numerical majority has now in fact the control of 
the government and the entire powers of the system. What 
was once a constitutional federal Republic is now in reality 
converted into one as absolute as the autocrat of Russia and 
as despotic in its tendencies as that of any absolute govern- 
ment that ever existed."* 

The substance of the Carolinian's argument was that the 
Constitution followed the flag. Calhoun died before the debate 
closed. Three days later, March 7, Webster spoke. He de- 
nied Calhoun's proposition that the Constitution followed the 
flag. His argument was burdened with an appeal of alarm 
and a confession of revolutionary conditions in the free States. 
He deplored their "Liberty Laws," which made it a felony in 
a citizen to serve on the posse comitatus of a United States 
marshal charged by a United States court to execute the fugi- 
tive slave law. He had denounced nullification in South Car- 
olina, in 1833, and he denounced nullification now in Massa- 
chusetts, in 1850. He said: "And I desire to call the atten- 
tion of all sober-minded men at the North, of all conscientious 
men, of all men not carried away with some fanatical idea or 
by some false impression, to their constitutional obligations. 
I put it to all sober and sound minds at the North as a question 
of morals and a question of conscience. What right have they 
in their legislative capacity, or any other capacity, to endeavor 
to get around this Constitution or to embarrass the free exer- 
cise of the rights secured by the Constitution," to the slave 
master? "None, none at all. Neither in the forum of consci- 
ence nor before the face of the Constitution are they, in my 
opinion, justified," etc.j 

Mr. Webster had made a tour of some of the slave States 
four years before, for the first time. He returned from it pro- 
foundly impressed. At Columbia, South Carolina, he was 
taken by the Hamptons over their plantations nearby. He left 
his carriage and walked among the negroes in gangs at work 

*Works of Calhoun, vol. iv, pp. 546, 551. 
jWorks of Webster, vol. v, p. 355. 

Yancey: A Study. 241 

in the fields, and talked freely with them. He went into their 
houses, examined the plantation nursery, the plantation kitchen 
and the general provisions for the discipline and care of the 
negro population. That night, at dinner, he rose to speak. 
Throwing out his hand, he exclaimed : ''Gentlemen, I feel 
Calhounish!" In course of his free remarks he said: "No 
change could be made which would benefit the slave," referring 
to the plantation system.* The speech of March 7 was the 
last important political utterance of Webster. The sentiments 
were resented in his own State by his defeat in the election of 
Charles Sumner to his seat. The Massachusetts historians all 
condemn the "speech of March 7." 

On March 11, William H. Seward, a Senator from New 
York, made from his seat an -elaborate reply to both Calhoun 
and Webster. He laid deep the foundation of revolution. His 
careful utterance revealed the wanton nature of the fast form- 
ing revolutionary party. He said: "I think all legislative 
compromises radically wrong and essentially vicious. * * 
* * . They involve a relinquishment of the right to recon- 
sider in future the decision of the present on questions prema- 
turely anticipated. And they are an usurpation — as to future 
questions — of the providence of future legislators. There is 
a higher law than the Constitution to regulate our course in 
the domain and dedicate it to the same noble purposes. "f 

Mr. Seward forgot that the sword may be separated from the 
law only by the "compromises" of the law. Ten years passed, 
and Abraham Lincoln, taking up Seward's doctrine, took up 
the sword of conquest of half the States by the other half. 

It is unnecessary to the purpose here to reproduce the record 
of evidence that the historic "Alabama Platform" of 1848, was 
prepared in advance of the meeting of the State Democratic 
Convention of February 11 in the same year, at Montgomery, 
by Mr. Yancey, a delegate from Montgomery county. The 
resolutions sought to commit the national Democratic party, 
soon to assemble in quadrennial convention at Baltimore, to 
the constitutional principle, that "the treaty of cession (of 
Mexican territory) should contain a clause securing an entry 
into those Territories to ail citizens of the United States, to- 
gether with their property of every description and that the 
same should remain protected by the United States while the 
Territories are under its authority." 

The Alabama resolutions were rejected by the National Dem- 
ocratic Convention at Baltimore in May, 1848, by a vote of 216 

*B. F. Perry's Reminiscences of Public Men (1883), p. 65. 
■^Congressional Globe, March 12, 1850. 

242 The Gulf States Histokical Magazine. 

to 36. Thereupon Messrs. W. U. Yancey and P. A. Wray, del- 
egates from Alabama, in compliance with their instructions, 
declined to participate farther in the proceedings of the body. 

No issue was raised by the Democrats of Alabama or any 
State on the principle of these resolutions in the national elec- 
tion of 1852. General Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, 
and William R. King of Alabama were the Democratic nomi- 
nees for President and Vice-President, and were elected with 
practical unanimity on the basis of the Clay compromise of 
1850. Mr. Yancey had not accepted the compromise. The 
following correspondence* expresses his position at that time: 

' "Kingston, Oct. 15, 1852. 
"Dear Sir: Since I have been at this place, representing 
in part the Troup and Quitman interest for the Presidency 
and Vice-Presidency of the United States, I have been told 
frequently that you intend voting for General Pierce and not 
for Governor Troup. 

"Allow me to say that I am satisfied, even from conversation 
with yourself that great injustice is done you & the Southern 
Rights party of which you have been the soul and spirit for sev- 
eral years ; but I feel that injustice will continue to be done 
unless you permit your views, in some distinct public form or 
manner, to become known. 

"Hoping that you will appreciate the motive that prompts me 
to address you & give me an immediate reply, 
"I am very respectfully, 

"Your ob't s'v't 
"G. W. Gaylx 
"Hon. W. L. Yancey, Kingston, Ala." 

"Kingston, Autauga Co., 
"Court House, Oct. 15, 1852. 

"Dear Sir: Your note of 15th inst. has just been handed 
to me. I reply in great haste. 

"I have taken no active part in the present campaign because, 
in my opinion, the excitement and partisan feeling usually at- 
tendant upon a Presidential election, is highly unfavorable to 
the formation of a just judgment upon the great questions of 
policy & principle involved in these contests. * * * If 
my vote were at all necessary to give the vote of this State to 
General Pierce or to elect him, in order to prevent the election 
of General Scott, I should feel it to be my duty to vote for Gen- 
eral Pierce. As matters now stand, however, I conceive that 
no such necessity exists, & I shall cheerfully give my vote for 

♦Mr. Gayle's letter and Yancey's reply are found in the Mont- 
gomery Advertiser, Oct., 1852. 

Yancey: A Study. 243 

that ticket which in every respect represents my views, namely, 
Troup & Quitman. No purer men, no sounder statesmen, no 
more devoted friends of the South and the Constitution can be 
found than Troup & Quitman. I would to God they could be 
elected ! The event would be the bright dawn of a new era 
in the history of the government — the renewal of the better 
days of the Republic. But such an event no man looks to & 
probably no man so little expects it as the venerable Troup. 
Voting that ticket, therefore, I conceive to be merely an effort to 
organize & keep together the Southern Rights party, with a 
view to ulterior usefulness. If my views can have any influ- 
ence upon those who take an active part in this canvass, my 
advice would be, to avoid all efforts to irritate the feelings & 
excite the opposition of members of the two great national 
parties in the South. These are the ranks from which we ex- 
pect to draw recruits hereafter to the standard of the South 
when occasion shall arise for rearing it. It would certainly 
contribute to the success of that cause if, at the close of this 
canvass the friends of Troup and Quitman shall be looked upon 
by the partisans of Pierce, and of Scott, more as friends of the 
South than as partisan opponents of those two distinguished 
candidates for the Presidency. 

"Very respectfully yours, etc., 

"W. L. Yancey." 

Mr. Yancey looked ahead from the standpoint of Senator 
Seward's speech, of March 1 1, 1850. "Organize and keep to- 
gether" was his cry to the Southern people. "Avoid all efforts 
to irritate the feelings and excite the opposition of the two 
old parties," yet contending on Southern soil, in vain, for the 
better days of the Republic. 

The Clay compromise failed; it appeared no more after 
1852; Yancey's prophecy prevailed. Riot and murder fol- 
lowed in every free State the efforts of the Federal Courts to 
enforce that provision of the compromise which was, in fact, no 
more than a repetition of the clause of the Constitution, copied 
from early New England laws, requiring fugitive slaves to be 
restored to their masters. Fourteen free States were in de- 
fiant nullification. Their "Personal Liberty Laws" imposed a 
fine of thousands of dollars and long imprisonment in the pen- 
itentiary upon any citizen who should serve on the posse comi- 
tatus of a United States marshal charged with the duty of ar- 
rest of a fugitive slave. President Pierce, elected on the com- 
promise, was reduced to the humiliation of official confession 
of the shameful failure of the expedient. The measure had 
been well tested. In this President's fourth and last annual 
message he said: 

244 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

"The minds of many otherwise good citizens have been so 
inflamed into the passionate condemnation of the domestic in- 
stitutions of the Southern States as at length to pass insensibly 
to almost equally passionate hostility toward their fellow-cit- 
izens of those States, and thus finally to fall into temporary fel- 
lowship with the avowed and active enemies of the Consti- 

A little while later Caleb Cushing, of Boston, introducing 
Jefferson Davis to an audience at Faneuil Hall said: 

"I would imagine when I listen to a Republican speech here 
in the State of Massachusetts, I would imagine fifteen States of 
this Union, our fellow-citizens or fellow-sufferers, our fellow- 
heroes of the revolution; I would imagine not that they are 
our countrymen, endeared to us by ties of consanguinity, but 
that they are from some foreign country, that they belong to 
some French or British or Mexican enemies. There never 
was a day in which the forces of war were marshalled against 
the most flagrant abuses toward the United States — there never 
was a war in which these United States have been engaged — 
never even in the death-struggle of the Revolution — never in 
our war for maritime independence — never in our war with 
France and Mexico — never was there a time when any party 
in these United States expressed, avowed, proclaimed — osten- 
tatiously proclaimed — more intense hostility to the British, 
French, Mexican enemy, than I have heard uttered or pro- 
claimed concerning our fellow-citizens — our brothers in fifteen 
States of this Union. "f 

Yancey studied law, read history and science and bided his 
time. He had been of no party since 1848; no party wanted 

On November 19, 1855, the ball was set in motion that passed 
up to Yancey; a seemingly simple movement, that was des- 
tined to end in awful events. On that day Governor John 
Anthony Winston, an unrelenting enemy of Yancey, led in a 
call for a convention of the people of Alabama to meet in the 
capitol at Montgomery, January 8, 1856. Winston and sev- 
enty others, all men of eminence, signed the call. It invited 
"our fellow-citizens of Alabama who concur in the views and 
objects of this Address, whether formerly belonging to the 
W r hig or Democratic parties of the State, to convene by dele- 
gations from their respective counties at the capitol at Mont- 
gomery on the 8th day of January, 1856." 

Yancey had not signed the call; he was not wanted. The 
people of Montgomery county sent him to a seat in the Con- 

♦Richardson's Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. v, p. 399. 
fMrs. Jefferson Davis's Memoir, vol. i, p. 595, cited from the Bos- 
ton Morning Post, Oct. 12, 1858. 

Yancey: A Study. 245 

vention. There he delivered a speech, on the night of the first 
of three days' meeting. He spoke for two hours, an example 
of decisive oratory in the world's history. 

Thus the Southern movement of 1 860-61 began its organiza- 
tion in the House of Representatives of Alabama on the night 
of January 8, 1856. Yancey then and there entered upon his 
career of leadership of that movement. The beginning was 
not formal but informal; not within party lines, but without 
party lines. The leader was not a party leader but a party 
outcast. It was a movement free from sin in its conception. 
It passed onward to the most faithful struggle, with the most 
steadfast purposes amidst the firmest walk in fear of God, to 
stand finally an emblem of wrecked endeavor exhausted of the 
vital spark. Governor Winston was a true man of high ambi- 
tion. He had not put his name down at the head of the call 
for the Convention, he had not taken his seat (an unprece- 
dented thing for a Governor in office to do) on the floor to 
uiscuss questions without a purpose to lead and a just expecta- 
tion of leadership. But Yancey, never in his life, sat as a par- 
ticipant in a popular or party convention to be second to any 
man who had a seat there. He was born to lead. It was not 
his ambition but his fate. 

The new party, the "Democratic and Anti-Knownothing" 
party, selected at that January meeting a full delegation to the 
forthcoming quadrennial Democratic National Convention to 
meet at Cincinnati, and sent with the delegation the Alabama 
Platform of 1848 and the Alabama instructions revived from 
that date. The Buchanan . and Breckenridge platform incor- 
porated the Alabama demand. The new party put Yancey at 
the head of its electoral ticket and, for the first time in his life, 
he canvassed the State, speaking for his cause from Mobile to 
Huntsville. His canvass bore permanent fruit. 

The Democracy of Alabama, now the people of Alabama, 
assembled in regular Convention, January 11, i860, to appoint 
delegates to the forthcoming National Democratic Convention 
at Charleston, S. C. For the third time the Alabama Platform 
of 1848 was re-enacted. Yancey was there and spoke. There 
was no note of disharmony. He said: "Gentlemen, we have 
no need of dispute among ourselves. I care nothing for in- 

At the Charleston Convention Yancey was the admitted rep- 
resentative of the South. His speech rose to the full measure 
of his opportunity and surpassed his reputation. He said : 

"We come here, then, with the two-fold purpose of saving 
the country and of saving the Democracy. * * * * We 
are in the numerical minority but we do not murmur at this ; 

•Personal recollections. 

246 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

we cheerfully accept the result, but, as firmly, we claim the right 
of the minority, — and what is that? We claim the benefit of 
the Constitution, made for the protection of minorities. • In the 
march of events, conscious of your numerical power, you have 
aggressed against us. We hold up between ourselves and your 
advancing column of numbers that written instrument which 
your fathers and ours made, and by the compact of which you 
with your power were to respect us and our rights. * * * * 
Constitutions are made solely for the protection of minorities 
and the guidance of majorities. **■*.* We come with 
the Constitution in our hand and say to you, if we have been 
wrong, let us reason together and see if we cannot be set right ; 
if we have been right, let us re-endorse that right in plainer and 
less equivocal language. And why? If I had come here, my 
countrymen, as a disunionist, if I had come here as a disrnp- 
tionist, if I had come as a factionist, I should come to you now 
with the Alabama platform in my hand and present it for adop- 
tion without the dotting of an i or the crossing of a t, but I say 
to you frankly, while the majority report is not all that Alabama 
wants, not even all that Alabama asks ; that while it falls short 
of what I believe the true policy of statesmanship requires to 
arrest this cancer which is not only eating into your body but 
into the body of the country at large, from our desire to har- 
monize, from our desire to confer with brothers, knowing that 
you represent all sections of this vast country, we are willing 
to come together on some such platform as you may make and 
which will afford us protection in the South. * * * * 
But our friends at the North say they cannot give up this doc- 
trine with safety. Why ? Why can you not give it up ? What 
right of yours is at stake? What property of yours is men- 
aced? What social relation of yours is endangered by your 
accepting our views ? None whatever !" 

Mr. Yancey spoke more than two hours and the night was 
well on. It was expected the question on the two reports from 
the committees, the minority refusing the principle contended 
for by Alabama and the majority accepting and endorsing the 
principle, would be put to the Convention the next day. Rich- 
ard Taylor, a delegate, a young sugar planter, the only son of 
Zachary Taylor, gives the following account of an invaluable 
historical incident which followed the delivery of the speech : 
''Filled with anxious forebodings, I sought, after nightfall, the 
lodgings of Messrs. Slidell, Bayard and Bright, United States 
Senators, who had come to Charleston, not as delegates, but 
under the impulse of hostility to the principles and candidacy of 
Mr. Douglas. * * * * ^r r Yancey was sent for, came 
into our views, after some discussion, and undertook to call his 
people together, at that late hour, and secure their consent to 

Yancey: A Study. 247 

disregard instructions. We waited until near dawn for 
Yancey's return but his efforts failed of success."* 

The minority resolutions of the Committee were adopted by 
the Convention and the Alabama delegation withdrew, followed 
by others, until finally at Baltimore, whither the disrupted Con- 
vention adjourned, all the slave States withdrew to form a 
Convention of their own, over which Caleb Cushing, of Mas- 
sachusetts, President of the Charleston full Convention, pre- 

Mr. Yancey, the leader of the Alabama Convention, the un- 
contested leader of the South, was willing, at Montgomery, to 
go to Charleston uninstructed. Bearing with him to Charles- 
ton instructions, the most exacting, he was willing there to dis- 
regard them without fear of the responsibility. He had a wide 
view of the duties of his leadership. Would the unity of the 
National Democratic party promise anything for the party in 
the pending contest ? or would the disruption of the party, on 
his instructions, promise relief to the South? The free States 
controlled, beyond peradventure, the election. The free States 
had already, and for long, passed upon the question. They 
already had, each for itself, a Republican State government, 
in all departments. Having Republican State governments, 
it was improbable that they would" choose Democratic electoral 

Much is written to establish the unbelievable, to obscure the 
light, to make loathsome as an infirmity and to sink out of mem- 
ory the example so matchless as the conduct of the South. The 
question of i860 was not new. In a letter to John Holmes, 
Representative in Congress from Massachusetts, dated Monti- 
cello, June 22, 1820, Mr. Jefferson wrote of the Missouri com- 
promise, "the men of '76 have lived in vain." Charles Tait, 
ten years a Senator from Georgia, later a cotton planter of 
Wilcox county in the new State of Alabama, was of concurrent 
opinion with Jefferson. Under date July 20, 1820, he wrote a 
letter to his personal friend, John C. Calhoun, Secretary of 
War, abounding in apprehensions. Calhoun sought to re-as- 
sure his correspondent, writing that he had made a recent tour 
of the North, describing his pleasure in what he saw and heard. 
Interpreting it all to his friend in Alabama, he wrote, under 
date, "War Dept., Oct. 26, 1820: Judging from such facts 
as came to my knowledge I cannot but think that the impres- 
sion, which exists in the minds of many of your virtuous and 
well informed citizens of the South, and among others are your 
own, that there has commenced between the North and the 

*Taylor's Destruction and Reconstruction, p. 12. 

248 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

South a premeditated struggle for superiority, is not correct. 
That there are some individuals to the North, who for private 
objects, wish to create such a struggle, I do not doubt. It 
suits their ambition, and gives them hopes of success, as the 
majority of votes both in Congress and the electoral college is 
from the North ; or rather from nonslave holding States. * * 
I by no means identify the advocates for restriction [of slave 
territory] and Missouri, with them. The advocates for restric- 
tion are actuated by a variety of motives. The great body 
of them are actuated by motives perfectly honest. Very few 
indeed look to emancipation. I state the case, as I am well as- 
sured that it exists. We to the South ought not to assent easily 
to the belief that there is a conspiracy either against our prop- 
erty, or just weight in the Union/'* 

The Southern People, "Saxon, Norman and Dane," French, 
Scotch, Irish, and Welsh, for more than a century home bred, 
land proprietors, prosperous and happy, individual in habit and 
of uncertain combinations, free alike from isms and paupers, 
had easily preserved the instinct of their ancestry that the sole 
office of government was the administration of justice. All 
honest white men were qualified voters with both leisure and 
inclination to learn from statesmen and leaders of thought, the 
principles of liberty as no other people had opportunity. On 
the other hand, government was needed at the North to pro- 
tect "Captains of Industry" in their arduous, ingenious and 
necessarily selfish struggle for accumulation of wealth and 
conquest of trade. Conquest of trade dictated the tariff of 
1828, supported by the Act of March 3, 1833, creating a virtual 
dictator of the President for the avowed purpose of enforcing 
the tariff. We come to a very brief review of what followed. 
The South was the victim. The Abolition party, from its ori- 
gin in the prurient sentiment of William Lloyd Garrison, to 
its completed work in the sword of Abraham Lincoln was the 

President Jackson demanded the Act of March 3, 1833, an d 
Daniel Webster was of the Committee that reported it unani- 
mously ; Calhoun protested and warned in vain. Two years 
later, December 7, 1835, President Jackson said in his annual 
message to Congress: "I must also invite your attention to 
the painful excitement produced in the South by attempts to 
circulate through the mails inflammatory appeals addressed to 
the passions of the slaves, in prints and in various sorts of pub- 
lications, calculated to stimulate them to insurrection and to 
produce all the horrors of a servile war."f 

*Ghilf States Historical Magazine, 1902, vol. i, p. 99. 
f Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. iii, p. 175. 

Yancey: A Study. 249 

President Buchanan in his last annual Message, Dec. 3, 
i860, wrote: "The long-continued and intemperate interfer- 
ence of the Northern people with the question of slavery in the 
Southern States has at length produced its natural effects. 

* * * * The immediate peril arises not so much from these 
[political] causes as from the fact that incessant and violent 
agitation of the slavery question throughout the North for the 
last quarter of a century has at length produced its malign in- 
fluence on the slaves. * * * * Hence a sense of security no 
longer exists around the family altar. * * * * Self-preserva- 
tion is the first law of nature, and has been implanted in the 
heart of man by his Creator for the wisest purpose; and no 
political union, however fraught with blessings and benefits 
in all other respects, can long continue if the necessary conse- 
quence be to render the homes and the firesides of nearly half 
the parties to it habitually and hopelessly insecure/ 5 * 

On February 24, i860, the Governor of Alabama approved a 
Joint Resolution, passed by the Senate of the General Assembly 
unanimously and by the House with only two dissenting votes. 
The preamble reads as follows : "Whereas, anti-slavery agita- 
tion, persistently continued in the non-slaveholding States of 
this Union, for more than a third of a century, marked at every 
stage of its progress by contempt for the obligations of law and 
the sanctity of compacts, evincing a deadly hostility to the 
rights and institutions of the Southern people, and a settled 
purpose to effect their overthrow even by the subversion of the 
Constitution, and at the hazard of violence and bloodshed ; and 
whereas, a sectional party calling itself Republican, committed 
alike by its own acts and antecedents, and the public avowals 
and secret machinations of its leaders to the execution of these 
atrocious designs, has acquired the ascendency in every North- 
ern State, and hopes by success in the approaching Presidential 
election to seize the government itself; and whereas, to per- 
mit such seizure by those whose unmistakable aim is to pervert 
its whole machinery to the destruction of a portion of its mem- 
bers would be an act of suicidal folly and madness, almost 
without a parallel in history; and whereas, the General As- 
sembly of Alabama, representing a people loyally devoted to 
the Union of the Constitution, but scorning the Union which 
fanaticism would erect upon its ruins, deem it their solemn 
duty to provide in advance the means by which they may es- 
cape such peril and dishonor, and devise new securities for per- 
petuating the blessings of liberty to themselves and their pos- 
terity," etc. 

_ The resolution commanded the governor, under the con- 
tingencies named, to call a sovereign Convention, the Seces- 
sion Convention. 

^Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. v. pp. 626-27. 

250 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

"Mr. Yancey could have saved the Union by the wave of his 
hand," exclaimed a distinguished delegate many years later. 
But the leadership of Mr. Yancey was in defense of the prin- 
ciples of existing government and not in the fabricating of a 
new one. The "Union" of the Constitution was already gone. 
There was a question of risk, risk in defense and risk in sub- 
mission. Yancey as a preserver of the American idea is to be 
tested by the physical and moral status of the Confederate 
States in the family of nations. We enter with confidence 
upon that line of enquiry. 

Omitting Kentucky and Missouri, notwithstanding that 
Kentuckians and Missourians assisted the Confederates, the 
States represented in the Confederate Congress comprised 
823,315 square miles, an area greater than the combined areas 
of Great Britain and Ireland, France, Germany and Italy. The 
population, in whites, was 8,479,707, and in slaves 4,285,437. 
Besides these two elements there were approximately 1,000,000 
free negroes, half of whom were found in the one State of Vir- 
ginia. The capacity of the whites for war was without par- 
allel in modern times. A Confederate soldier who had not 
been taught in infancy the management of a horse and the use 
of a shot gun was hardly known; and equally unknown was 
the Confederate soldier who had not gone forth from a fixed 
home. The material resources of the land were largely de- 
pendent on slave labor, thoroughly organized so that, as the 
custom held, every age and both sexes had practical assign- 
ment in the plantation economy. It is hardly more than truth, 
that every 100 plantation negroes produced more of market 
values than a corresponding number of agricultural laborers 
in any part of America. 

The effect of federal legislation upon the slave States is 
demonstrated in the two methods of tariff. The Clay American 
System was finally overthrown in the slave era by the Walker 
tariff of 1846. The Walker tariff gave to the slave States their 
first fair trial in rivalry of development with the free States. 
The following partial statistics are sufficient to indicate the 
result : 1 

Assessed Values. 

States 1850. i860. 

Georgia, $335,425,714 $645,895,237 

Florida, 22,862,270 73,101,500 

Alabama, 228,304,232 495,237,078 

Mississippi, 228,951,130 607,324,911 

Louisiana, 233,998764 602,118,568 

Texas, 52,740,437 365,200,614 

Arkansas, 39,841,025 219,256,473 

Tennessee, 201,246,686 493,903,892 

Yancey: A Study. 251 

The prosperity was not only phenomenal but universal. The 
increase in Texas, more than 600 per cent., was essentially 
characteristic. If there was in 1860-61 a presence of jeopardy 
to Southern institutions and civil liberty, the proof of valid 
foundation for national life was sufficient to a brave people 
to rise to its assertion. Nor are there wanting other and sus- 
taining evidences of strength in the structure of Southern 
slave society. We shall compare three typical original States 
from each section, slave and free. In the last census decade of 
slavery the accrement of general wealth in Virginia was 84 
per cent. ; in Massachusetts 42 per cent. ; it was 90 per cent, 
in South Carolina to 70 per cent in New York ; it was 92 per 
cent, in Georgia and 94 per cent, in Pennsylvania. 

Taking the main industries in Alabama and in Massachu- 
setts, where steady development began in each about the same 
time, say in the thirties, it is seen that Cotton production in 
Alabama from 1850 to i860 increased j6 per cent., while the 
average increase of cotton and shoe manufactures in Massa- 
chusetts in the same period was 80 per cent. Passing on to try 
the principal southwestern slave States and the northwestern 
free States by the same test of relative prosperity in the last 
decade of slavery, it is seen that the cash value of farms in 
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Texas, cotton States, rose 
more than 300 per cent., from $150,878,113 in 1850 to $536,- 
688,174 in i860, while the cash value of farms in the free agri- 
cultural States, Ohio, Ilinois, Indiana and Iowa, rose from 
$600,934,633 to $1,645,664,638, somewhat in excess of 200 
per cent.* 

In the arena of contesting capacity to construct and maintain 
the civil institutions of a Republic, the slave States of i860 
take immortal pre-eminence. A file of the New York Herald 
is not at the moment available, but it is safe to say here that 
upon the publication of the permanent Constitution of the Con- 
federate States, prepared by a Committee of the Provisional 
Congress, of which Robert Barnwell Rhett was chairman and 
on which Robert Toombs, Alexander H. Stephens, Louis 
T. Wigfall served as principal members, that newspaper 
urged a re-organization or the Union by the adoption in com- 
mon of the Southern organic law by the two sections. George 
N. Saunders appeared in Montgomery in the time the Consti- 
tution was being considered. Thomas R. R. Cobb, a delegate 
to the Congress, wrote to his wife in Georgia, under date March 
6, 1861 : "I found out yesterday why George N. Saunders was 
here. He is an agent from Douglas [Stephen A] and is work- 

*A11 statistics here used are from the Eighth Census. 

252 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ing to keep out of the Constitution any clause which would 
exclude 'Free States.' The game now is to reconstruct under 
our Constitution. There will be a hard fight on this question 
when we reach it."* 

(To be concluded.) 

*Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. xxviii, p. 285. 





AMERICA, i86i-i865. a 



Jefferson Davis, February 18, 
1861, and February 22, 1862. 


Alexander H. Stephens, Febru- 
ary 18, 1861, and February 22, 


Robert Toombs, February 21, 

Robert M. T. Hunter, July 25, 
1861, to February 17, 1862. 

William M. Browne (ad inter- 

Judah P. Benjamin, March 18, 


Judah P. Benjamin, February 
25, 1861. 

Thomas Bragg, November 21, 

1861. b 

Thomas H. Watts, March 18, 

1862. 6 

Wade Keyes (ad interim). 
George Davis, January 2, 1864. 


Christopher G. Memminger, 
February 21, 1861. 



George A. Trenholm, July 18, 


Stephen R. Mallory, March 4, 


Henry T. Ellet, February 25, 
1861 (declined appointment). 
John H. Reagan, March 6, 1861. 


Leroy P. Walker, February 21, 

1861, to September 16, 1861. 
Judah P. Benjamin, November 

21, 1861. (Was also acting from 
September 17, 1861, to Novem- 
ber 21, 1861, and from March 18, 

1862, to March 23, 1862.) 

Brig. Gen. George W. Ran- 
dolph, March 18, 1862. 

Maj. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith 
(assigned temporarily), Novem- 
ber 17, 1862. 

James A. Seddon, November 
21, 1862. 

Maj. Gen. John C. Brecken- 
ridge, February 6, 1865. 



First session. 
Assembled at Montgomery. Ala., February 4, 1861. Adjourned 
March 16, 1861, to meet second Monday in May. 

Second session (called). 
Met at Montgomery, Ala., April 29, 1861. Adjourned May 21, 1861. 

oCompiled from official records by the Record and Pension Office, 
War Department, and reprinted here by permission. 

b The date when Watts ceased to perform duty as Attorney-Gen- 
eral is not definitely fixed by the records. He was inaugurated as 
Governor of Alabama December 2, 1863. 

254 The Gulf States Histokical Magazine. 

Third session. 
Met at Richmond, Va., July 20, 1861. Adjourned August 31, 1861. 

Fourth session (called). 
Met at Richmond, Va., September 3, 1861. Adjourned same day. 

Fifth session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., November 18, 1861. Adjourned February 
17, 1862. 

FIRST congress. 

First session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., February 18, 1862. Adjourned April 21, 1862. 

Second session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., August 18, 1862. Adjourned October 13, 

Third session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., January 12, 1863. Adjourned May 1, 1863. 

Fourth session 

Met at Richmond, Va., December 7, 1863. Adjourned February 17, 

SECOND congress. 

First session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., May 2, 1864. Adjourned June 14, 1864. 

Second session. 

Met at Richmond, Va., November 7, 1864. Adjourned March 18, 

Members of the Provisional Congress, February 4, 1861, to February 

17, 1862. 

Colin J. McRae. 


Richard W. Walker. 
Robert H. Smith. 
Jabez L. M. Curry. 
William P. Chilton. 
Stephen F. Hale. 

John Gill Shorter. 
Thomas Fearn. a 
David P. Lewis, a 
Nicholas Davis, b. 
H. C. Jones, b. 
Cornelius Robinson, c 

a Admitted Feb. 8, 1861; re- c Admitted Nov. 30, 1861; re- 

signed April 29, 1861. signed Jan. 24, 1862. 

6 Admitted April 29, 1861. 

Directory of the Confederate States of America. 



Robert W. Johnson, d 
Albert Rust, d 
Hugh F. Thomason. d 
W. W. Watkins. d 
Augustus H. Garland, d 

J. Patton Anderson, e 
James B. Owens. 
Jackson Morton, f 
George T. Ward, g 
John P. Sanderson, h 


Robert Toombs. 
Howell Cobb. 
Francis S. Bartow, i 
Martin J. Crawford. 
Eugenius A. Nisbet. 
Benjamin H. Hill. 
Augustus R. Wright. 
Thomas R. R. Cobb. 
Augustus H. Kenan. 
Alexander H. Stephens. 
Thomas M. Foreman, j 
Nathan Bass, k 


Thomas B. Monroe, a 
Henry C. Burnett, a 
Thomas Johnson. & 
John J. Thomas, c 
Theodore L. Burnett, c 
Daniel P. White, d 
L. H. Ford, e 
George B. Hodge, f 
John M. Elliott, g 
George W. Ewing. h 


John Perkins, jr. 
Alexander De Clouet. 
Duncan F. Kenner. 
Edward Sparrow. 
Henry Marshall. 
Charles M. Conrad, i 


Wiley P. Harris. 
Walker Brooke. 
William S. Wilson. j 
William S. Barry. 
James T. Harrison. 
Alexander M. Clayton. k 
J. A. P. Campbell. 
Jehu A. Orr. I 
Alexander B. Bradford, m. 


George G. Vest, n 
Casper W. Bell, n 
Aaron H. Conrow. n 
Thomas A. Harris, o 
John B. Clark, o 
Robert L. Y. Peyton, p 


George Davis, q 
W. W. Avery, q 
W. N. H. Smith, q 
Thomas D. McDowell, r 
A. W. Venable. q 
John M. Morehead. q 
R. C. Puryear. q 
A. T. Davidson, q 
Burton Craige. s 
Thomas Ruffin. t 

d Admitted May 18, 1861. 

e Resigned May 2, 1861. 

f Admitted Feb. 6, 1861. 

fir Admitted May 2, 1861; re- 
signed Feb. 5, 1862. 

h Admitted Feb. 5, 1862. 

i Killed at Manassas, Va., July 
21, 1861. 

; Admitted Aug. 7, 1861. 

k Admitted Jan. 14, 1862. 

a Admitted Dec. 16, 1861. 

& Admitted Dec. 18, 1861. 

c Admitted Dec. 30, 1861. 

d Admitted Jan. 2, 1862. 

e Admitted Jan. 4, 1862. 

t Admitted Jan. 11, 1862. 

fir Admitted Jan. 15, 1862. 
h Admitted Feb. 14, 1862. 
i Admitted Feb. 7, 1861. 
;' Resigned April 29, 1861. 
k Admitted Feb. 8, 1861; 
signed May 11, 1861. 

I Admitted April 29, 1861. 
m Admitted Dec. 5, 1861. 
n Admitted Dec. 2, 1861. 
o Admitted Dec. 6, 1861. 
p Admitted Jan. 22, 1862. 
q Admitted July 20, 1861. 
r Admitted July 22, 1861. 
s Admitted July 23, 1861. 
t Admitted July 25, 1861. 



The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 


R. Barnwell Rhett, sr. 
Robert W. Barnwell. 
Lawrence M. Keitt. 
James Chestnut, jr. 
Christopher G. Memminger. 
W. Porcher Miles. 
Thomas J. Withers. 
William W. Boyce. 
James L. Orr. u 


Robert L. Caruthers. v 
Thomas M. Jones, v 
J. H. Thomas, v. 
John F. House, v 
John D. C. Atkins, w 
David M. Currin. x 
W. H. De Witt, x 


John Gregg, y 
Thomas N. Waul, z 

William B. Ochiltree, z 
John H. Reagan, aa. 
Williamson S. Oldham, aa 
John Hemphill. bb 
Louis T. Wigfall. I 


John W. Brockenbrough. a 
Waller R. Staples, a 
Robert M. T. Hunter. b 
William C. Rives, c 
James A. Seddon. d 
William B. Preston, d 
W. H. Macfarland. d 
Charles W. Russell, d 
Robert Johnston, d 
Robert E. Scott, e 
Walter Preston, e 
Thomas S. Bocock. f 
James M. Mason, g 
Roger A. Pryor. g 
Alexander R. Boteler. h 
John Tyler, i 

(Granville H. Oury was recognized as the delegate from Arizona 
Territory, from January 18, 1862.) 

Senators of the First Congress, February 18, 1862, to February 17, 



Clement C. Clay, jr. I 
William L. Yancey. 7c 
Robert Jemison, jr. I 


Robert W. Johnson. 
Charles B. Mitchel. 


Augustus E. Maxwell. 
James M. Baker. 

Benjamin H. Hill. 
John W. Lewis, m 
HersChel V. Johnson. 


William E. Simms. 
Henry C. Burnett, o 


Edward Sparrow. 
Thomas J. Semmes. 

u Admitted Feb. 17, 1862. 
v Admitted Aug. 12, 1861. 
w Admitted Aug. 13, 1861. 
x Admitted Aug. 16, 1861. 
y Admitted Feb. 15, 1861. 
z Admitted February 19, 1861. 
aa Admitted March 2, 1861. 
bb Admitted March 2, 1861: 
died January 4, 1862. 

I Admitted April 29, 1861. 
a Admitted May 7, 1861. 
b Admitted May 10, 1861. 
c Admitted May 13, 1861. 
d Admitted July 20, 1861. 

e Admitted July 22, 1861. 

f Admitted July 23, 1861. 

g Admitted July 24, 1861. 

h Admitted Nov. 27, 1861. 

■i Admitted Aug. 1, 1861; died 
January 18, 1862. 

; Admitted Feb. 19, 1862. 

Jc Admitted March 27, 1862; 
died July 28, 1863. 

I Admitted Dec. 28, 1863. 

m Admitted April 7, 1862. Ap- 
pointed by the Governor. 

71 Admitted Jan. 19, 1863. 

o Admitted Feb. 26, 1862. 

Directory of the Confederate States of America. 



Albert G. Brown. 
James Plielan. j 


John B. Clark. 
Robert L. Y. Peyton, p 
Waldo P. Johnson, q 


George Davis, r 
William T. Dorteh. 
Edwin G. Reade. s 


Robert W. Barnwell. 
James L. Orr. 


Landon C. Haynes. 
Gustavus A. Henry. 


Williamson S. Oldham. 
Louis T. Wigfall. 


Robert M. T. Hunter. 
William B. Preston, t 
Allen T. Caperton. u 

Members of the House of Representatives of the First Congress, 
February 18, 1862, to February 17, 186^. 


E. S. Dargan. 
William P. Chilton. 
James L. Pugh. 
Jabez L. M. Curry. 
John P. Ralls. 
David Clopton. 
Francis S. Lyon. 
Thomas J. Foster, a 
William R. Smith, b 


Felix I. Batson. 
Grandison D. Royston. 
Augustus H. Garland. 
Thomas B. Hanly. 


James B. Dawkins. c 
Robert B. Hilton. 
John M. Martin, d 


Augustus H. Kenan. 
Hines Holt, e 
Augustus R. Wright. 
Lucius J. Gartrell. 
William W. Clark. 
Robert P. Trippe. 
David W. Lewis. 
Hardy Strickland. 
Charles J. Munnerlyn. f 
Julian Hartridge. g 
Porter Ingram, h 

p Admitted Dec. 19, 1863. 

q Admitted Dec. 24, 1863. 
pointed by the Governor. 

r Resigned Jan. 22, 1864. 

s Admitted Jan. 22, 1864. 
pointed by the Governor. 

t Died Jan. 15, 1863. 

u Admitted Jan. 26, 1863. 

a Admitted Feb. 19, 1862. 

b Admitted Feb. 21, 1862. 

c Resigned Dec. 8, 1862. 
Ap- a Admitted March 25, 1863. 

e Resigned prior to Jan. 12, 
Ap- /Admitted Feb. 22, 1862. 

g Admitted March 14, 1862. 
h Admitted Jan. 12, 1864. Suc- 
ceeded Hines Holt. 

j Admitted Feb. 19, 1862. 


The Gulf States Historical Magazine: 


Willis B. Machen. 
John W. Crockett. 
Henry E. Read. 
George W. Ewing. 
Horatio W. Bruce. 
James W. Moore. 
Robert J. Breckinridge, jr. 
John M. Elliott. 
Theodore L. Burnett, a 
James S. Chrisman. i 
Ely M. Bruce. ; 
George B. Hodge, k 


Duncan F. Kenner. 
Charles J. Villere. 
John Perkins, jr. 
Charles M. Conrad. 
Henry Marshall. 
Lucius J. Dupre. 


Ethelbert Barksdale. 
John J. McRae. 
J. W. Clapp. 
Israel Welsh. 
Otho R. Singleton. 
Reuben Davis. 
Henry C. Chambers, a 
William D. Holder. I 


Casper W. Bell. 
George G. Vest. 
Aaron H. Conrow. 
William M. Cook. 
Thomas W. Freeman. 
Thomas A. Harris. 


Robert R. Bridgers. 
Owen R. Kenan. 
Thomas D. McDowell. 
Thomas S. Ashe. 
J. R. McLean. 
William Lander. 
Burgess S. Gaither. 

A. T. Davidson. 
W. N. H. Smith, a 
Archibald H. Arrington. m 


William W. Boyce. 
William Porcher Miles 
Miiledge L. Bonham. n 
John McQueen. 
James Farrow. 
Lewis M. Ayer. o 
William D. Simpson, p 


David M. Currin. 
Henry S. Foote. 
Thomas Menees. 


George W. Jones. 
William G. Swan. 
William H. Tibbs. 
E. L. Gardenhire. 
John V. Wright. 
Joseph B. Heiskell. 
John D. C. Atkins, a 
Meredith P. Gentry, b 


John A. Wilcox, c 
Peter W. Gray. 
Caleb C. Herbert. 
William B. Wright. 
M. D. Graham. 
Frank B. Sexton. 


John R. Chambliss. 
James Lyons. 
Roger A. Pryor. d 
Thomas S. Bocock. 
John Goode, jr. 
Daniel C. De Jarnette. 
William Smith, e 

i Admitted March 3, 1862. 
; Admitted March 20, 1862. 
k Admitted Aug. 18, 1862. 
I Admitted Jan. 21, 1864, vice 
Reuben Davis, resigned, 
m Admitted Feb. 20, 1862. 
n Resigned Jan. 17, 1863. 

o Admitted March 6, 1862. 
p Admitted Feb. 5, 1863. 
a Admitted March 8, 1862. 
b Admitted March 17, 1862. 
c Died Feb. 7, 1864. 
d Resigned April 5, 1862. 
e Resigned April 6, 1863. 

Directory of the Confederate States of America. 


Virginia — continued. 

Alexander R. Boteler. 
Waller R. Staples. 
Walter Preston. 
Albert G. Jenkins, f 
Robert Johnston. 
Charles W. Russell 
James P. Holcombe. g 
John B. Baldwin, h 
Charles F. Collier, i 
Samuel A. Miller. ; 
David Funsten. k 
Muscoe R. H. Garnett. I 



Marcus H. Macwillie. m 


Robert M. Jones, n 


Elias C. Boudinot. o 

Senators of the Second Congress, May 
of adjournment of the 


Robert Jemison, jr. 
Richard W. Walker. 


Charles B. Mitchel. p 
Robert W. Johnson. 
Augustus H. Garland, q 


Augustus E. Maxwell. 
James M. Baker. 


Benjamin H. Hill. 
Herschel V. Johnson, r 


Henry C. Burnett. 
William E. Simms. 


Thomas J. Semmes. 
Edward Sparrow. 


Albert G. Brown. 
John W. C. Watson. 

2, 1864, to March IS, 1865, date 
second session. 


Waldo P. Johnson. 
George G. Vest, s 


William T. Dortch. 
William A. Graham. 


James L. Orr. 
Robert W. Barnwell. 


Landon C. Haynes. 
Gustavus A. Henry. 


Williamson S. Oldham. 
Louis T. Wigfall. 


Robert M. T. Hunter. 
Allen T. Caperton. 

f Resigned Aug. 5, 1862. 
fir Admitted Feb. 20, 1862. 
h Admitted Feb. 27, 1862. 
i Admitted Aug. 18, 1862. 
j Admitted Feb. 24, 1863. 
k Admitted Dec. 7, 1863. 
I Admitted Feb. 21, 1862. 
m Admitted March 11, 1862. 
n Admitted Jan. 17, 1863. 

o First appears on roll Jan. X, 

p Died previous to Nov. 8, 1864. 

q Admitted Nov. 8, 1864. Suc- 
ceeded Senator Mitchel. 

r Admitted May 24, 1864. 

s Admitted Jan. 12, 1865. Ap- 
pointed by the Governor. 


The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Members of the House of Representatives of the Second Congress, 
May 2, 1864, to March 18, 1S65, date of adjournment of the second 



M. H. Cruikshank. 
William P. Chilton. 
David Clopton. 
James L. Pugh. 
James S. Dickinson. 
Francis S. Lyon, a 
Thomas J. Foster, b 
William R. Smith, c. 


Augustus H. Garland, d 
Thomas B. Hanly. 
Rufus K. Garland, c 
Felix I. Batson. e 
David W. Carroll, f 


Robert B. Hilton. 

S. St. George Rogers, g 


Julian Hartridge. 
William E. Smith. 
Mark H. Blandford. 
Clifford Anderson. 
John T. Shewmake. 
Joseph H. Echols. 
James M. Smith. 
George N. Lester. 
Hiram P. Bell. 
Warren Akin. 


Willis B. Machen. 
Henry E. Read. 
James S. Chrisman. 

a Admitted May 4, 1864. 
b Admitted May 6, 1864. 
c Admitted May 21, 1864. 
d Elected to Senate Nov. 

e Admitted Nov. 8, 1864. 
/Admitted Jan. 11, 1865. 
g Admitted May 3, 1864. 
7i Admitted May 24, 1864. 
i Admitted May 25, 1864. 

Theodore L. Burnett. 
Horatio W. Bruce. 
Humphrey Marshall. 
Ely M. Bruce. 
James W. Moore. 
Benjamin F. Bradley. 
George W. Triplett. 
George W. Ewing. h 
John M. Elliott, h 


Charles J. Villere. 
Charles M. Conrad. 
Lucius J. Dupre. 
John Perkins, jr. 
Benjamin L. Hodge, i 
Duncan F. Kenner. i 
Henry Gray, j 


Jehu A. Orr. 
Israel Welsh. 
Henry C. Chambers. 
Ethelbert Barksdale. 
John T Lampkin. 
William D. Holder, a 
Otho R. Singleton. & 


John B. Clark. I 
Thomas L. Snead. m 
Aaron H. Conrow. a 
George G. Vest, b 
Robert A. Hatcher, a 
Peter S. Wilkes, c 
N. L. Norton, d 

j Admitted Dec. 28, 1864, vice 
Hodge, deceased. 

7c Admitted May 9, 1864. 

I Admitted June 10, 1864. 
• m Admitted Nov. 7, 1864. 

a Admitted Nov. 7, 1864. 

b Admitted Nov. 7, 1864. Ap- 
pointed Senator Jan. 12, 1865. 

c Admitted Nov. 8, 1864. 

d Admitted Nov. 21, 1864. 




W. N. H. Smith. 
James T. Leach. 
Josiah Turner, jr. 
John A. Gilmer. 
James M. Leaeh. 
Burgess S. Gaither. 
George W. Logan. 
James" G. Ramsay. 
Thomas C. Fuller. 
Robert R. Bridges, e 


William Porcher Miles. 
William D. Simpson. 
James Farrow. 
William W. Boyce. 
Lewis M. Ayer. 
James H. Witherspoon. f 


Joseph B. Heiskell. 
William G. Swan. 
Arthur S. Colyar. 
John P. Murray. 
Henry S. Foote. 
Edwin A. Keeble. 
Thomas Menees. 
John D. C. Atkins. 
John V. Wright. / 
James McCallum. g 
Michael W. Cluskey. a 
David M. Currin. h 


A. M. Branch. 
Frank B. Sexton. 
Simpson H. Morgan, i 

John R. Baylor. ; 
Stephen H. Darden. d 
Caleb C. Herbert, d 


Robert L. Montague. 
Robert H. Whitfield. 
Thomas S. Gholson. 
Thomas S. Bocock. 
John Goode, jr. 
William C. Rives, k 
Daniel C. De Jarnette. 
John B. Baldwin. 
Waller R. Staples. 
Fayette McMullen . 
Robert Johnston. 
Charles W. Russell. 
David Funsten g 
Samuel A Miller, g 
Frederick W. M. Holliday. I 
William C. Wickham. a 



Marcus H. Macwillie. 


Elias C Boudinot. 


Robert M. Jones. 


S. B. Callahan, m 

e Admitted May 24, 1864. 
f Admitted May 5, 1864. 
Admitted May 3, 1864. 
h Died May 21, 1864. 
i Admitted May 21, 1864. 
Jan. 16, 1865. 


/Admitted May 25, 1864. 
k Resigned March 1, 1865. 
I Admitted May 4, IS 64. 
m Admitted May 30, 1864. 



By Edmund Kemper Broadus, Prof, of English, University of South. 
Dakota, and late Prof, of English, Stetson University, De Land, Fla. 

In the dreary winter of 1894-5 Florida seemed Paradise 
Lost. In the bright promise of its fruit-'laden groves, the 
thoughtful observer of to-day can see a Paradise Regained. 
How this Eden became a desert, and what efforts are now be- 
ing made to restore it to its original beauty and prosperity, it 
is the purpose of this article to tell. 

Before the great freeze, orange-growing was confined al- 
most exclusively between 28 and 30 N. latitude. From 1836 
to the last decade of the century, nothing had occurred to in- 
terrupt the steady and profitable growth of the industry. Now 
and then slight frosts had been experienced, and occasionally 
tender young trees were killed; but the old groves, some of 
which had seen more than half a century of bearing, had never 
been impaired. 

Nowhere in the world was orange-growing carried to such 
a high state of cultivation, and nowhere was such an enormous 
capital invested as in this section. Before the Civil War, 
groves had been but little cultivated, but with the introduction 
of Northern capital, cultivation began in earnest. The trees 
were set out in the open fields wherever an eligible site could 
be found, with preference, whenever it was practicable, for a 
site near water. Orange-growers did nothing usually but look 
after their groves ; oranges were their only source of revenue. 

The finest and most successful groves paid their owners a 
large profit. The old Dummit grove, the father of many a 
thrifty offspring on Indian river ; the Spear grove, a little south 
of Sanford in Orange county ; the Rembert grove on Drayton 
Island, in Lake George, planted by a son of John C. Calhoun ; 
the Mandarin grove, once the property of Mrs. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, and the groves of General Henry Sanford, who spent 
his life studying orange-culture in the Old World, and to 
whose groves Spain, Italy, Africa, Sicily, and even the Euphra- 
tes contributed their best — these were some of the most famous 
plantations in the old days. Under the skilful management of 
such men as General Sanford, the industry in the decade be- 
fore the freeze rapidly developed. 

An idea of the extent of this development can be gained from 
the following table, compiled by the State Agricultural De- 
partment at Tallahassee: 

The Reclamation of an Industry. 2G3 

1884 — Number of boxes produced, 625,000 

1885— " " " A w 900,000 

1886— " " " " 1,250,000 

1887— " " w " 1,450,000 
!888 — " " " " 1,900,000 
l8 8o— " * " " 2,664,791 

1890— " " " " 3,023,044 

1891— " * " " 3^85,564 
1892-- " - " " 3,657,075 

1893- u * " " 4,163,849 

1894— " " " " 5,000,000 

Then came the freeze. On December 2y, 1894, the first bliz- 
zard began to be felt. From this date till December 29, oc- 
curred a series of killing frosts, accompanied by a wind of 
from 25 to 30 miles an hour, culminating on December 29 in a 
temperature of 14 at Jacksonville. By the last named date at 
least 3,000,000 boxes of oranges, still hanging on the trees, 
were frozen solid, the pulp when exposed having the appear- 
ance of watery snow. The sap had not begun to flow freely in 
the trees, however, and the wood was not materially injured. 
The orange-growers, after the first moment of panic, con- 
cluded that this was just a temporary setback, only a little more 
severe than the frosts of the past, and awaited with some con- 
fidence the usual second harvest. 

This severe freeze was followed by several weeks of excep- 
tionally high temperature. The sap, repressed by the cold, 
now began to flow. The buds began to push, and by the end 
of January numerous sprouts were growing vigorously. The 
growers everywhere were elated that the groves showed such 
power of prompt recuperation. 

Such were the conditions when on February 7, 8, and 9 the 
second blizzard came. The first freeze had destroyed the 
wealth of a year. The second wiped out the accumulations of 
a lifetime. The trees, young and old alike, soft with sap, froze 
to the center. Splendid groves, averaging 25 to 30 feet in 
height, stood for a few weeks like serried phalanxes of skele- 
tons, and then came crashing to the ground, the brittle limbs 
'and trunks breaking before every wind. The growers, who 
in the heyday of their prosperity had put every cent of their 
large profit back into the land, found themselves penniless and 
resourceless. The moral effect of the losses was heightened by 
the grewsome aspect of the dead trees. A wave of panic 
swept over the State. Waterworks were left unfinished; the 
plough stopped midway in the furrow; houses, half-built, 
lifted their gaunt rafters to the sky; the very kitchen utensils 
were left on the shelves ; and the people, pauperized in a night, 
got North as best they could. Twelve months after the freeze, 

264 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

something like fifty per cent, of the homes through the north- 
ern section of the State had been left untenanted, a prey to the 
depredations of animals and the encroachments of nature. 

But in the general panic, many stuck to their guns — some, 
it is true, because they were too poor to go; but others, be- 
cause, in spite of everything, they still believed that the industry 
could be saved. They remembered that in 1886 the thermom- 
eter had gone almost as low as in 1895, but that in that year the 
growers had been spared a second freeze following on the heels 
of the first. They learned that back in 1835 had occurred a 
freeze so severe that a temperature of 8° was recorded at 
Jacksonville, and orange trees forty or fifty years old had been 
killed at St. Augustine. A country that had recovered its 
prosperity under primitive conditions, they reasoned, could 
surely recover it again under modern agricultural methods. 
And so they stayed. 

There was need of infinite courage. To regain the lost 
ground, money had to be spent and laborers hired. But there 
was no money to be had, and the negro would not work for 
promises. Nor did the growers understand at once how to 
meet the conditions. At first the denuded trees began to put 
forth a few leaves, and hopes were entertained that some might 
be saved. But by the first of May, it became clear that the 
leafage was only a delusive aftermath, and that even the thick- 
est trunks were frozen to the center. By this tiine^, it was too 
late to bud, and so a whole year was lost, with nothing done 
except the melancholy carting away of tons of dead orange 

A few wealthy men, however, had sent to California for bud- 
wood and grafts, and by February and March, '96, the majority 
of those who preferred root-grafting had followed their ex- 
ample. The West was laid under tribute to save the East, and 
thousands of packages of delicate twigs were hurried across 
the continent. Meanwhile the old stumps, cut level with the 
ground, had begun to send out sprouts, and in these stumps, 
those who preferred budding to grafting, had budded the Cali- 
fornia importations. 

Others again, through judgment or necessity, applied the 
principle of laissez-faire. The sprouts sent up by the old 
trunks were allowed to grow unmodified, and in cases where 
the original growth had been a sweet orange this was satis- 
factory ; but in many instances the old trees in profuse bearing 
before the freeze were themselves grafts on an original sour- 
orange stock; and now these inedible varieties, with the per- 
sistence of type characteristic of nature, reasserted their in-, 

New conditions were giving rise to a new opportunity. The 

The Reclamation of an Industry. 265 

growers, not being handicapped by the existence of mature 
groves of inferior quality, budded or grafted varieties best 
adapted for the Northern markets, and maturing at seasons 
when they would be most valuable commercially. This was 
true especially of the grape-fruit, then for the first time win- 
ning recognition as commercially valuable, and of the various 
types of "kid-glove" orange — the earliest to ripen, and in some 
ways the most satisfactory, of the oranges. 

Meanwhile, horse and man had to be fed; and in the aban- 
doned groves, by this time razed to the ground, the farmers 
planted velvet beans, cow-peas, and beggar weed. It soon ap- 
peared that these, planted with no especial thought of advant- 
age to the orange trees, were as a matter of fact the best meth- 
od of promoting their growth. These plants drew their sus- 
tenance from the air, and gave out into the soil nitrogen, the 
very thing to fertilize the groves. A little experiment re- 
vealed the fact that almost unwittingly, the growers had hit 
upon the very thing which they most needed — a fertilizer which 
would promote the development of the tree, but would not 
unduly foster the fruitage. Those who had the foresight and 
patience to wait looked forward to a time when the tree would 
be mature enough to bear with safety abundant crops, and so 
discouraged a premature fruitage. In addition, of course, 
there was the intrinsic value of these growths. The beggar- 
weed proved to be to Florida what the clover crop has been to 
Kentucky or Virginia — at once the best provender and the best 
fertilizer which it was possible to provide. 

Meanwhile, as the trees began to develop, the problem of 
protection to the delicate first growths became of immediate 
importance. The first method to be used was "firing," and it 
is still the one most generally employed. Billets of pine wood 
are piled at points equidistant among the trees, and when the 
weather-bureau issues warning of a freeze, the growers scour 
the country for "help;" wagon-loads of laughing negroes de- 
bouch at the groves, and as the waning hours of the night 
bring the most acute cold, the sky becomes lighted up with the 
glow of many fires. It is a picturesque sight when viewed 
from a distance — the blazing piles among the green trees, the 
figures darting from point to point, the distant laughter and 
song. But the night is lor::;, and enthusiasm is apt to- pall be- 
fore the sun brings back the needed warmth to the air. 

Next in popularity to tiring is "tenting." Around each 
tender tree is placed a canvas tent similar to the ordinary camp 
tent in structure, but of diminutive proportions. Within the 
tent, and close beside the trunk of the tree, is an oil stove, 
which it is the duty of the wise virgins of the grove always 
to keep filled with oil. A field of these tented trees, stretching 

266 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

as far as the eye can see, is like the encampment of a Lillipu- 
tian army, ready to withstand the siege of General Jack- 
Frost. A peep within the tent-flap at night reveals the glow- 
worm light of the stove and the dim outlines of the leafy 
boughs, coming to a safe fruitage in a comfortable tempera- 
ture. The tents, however, are expensive; and the rapidly de- 
veloping trees soon outgrow their canvas clothes and have to 
have a new suit. Nor can the cast-off garments be handed 
down to the next generation, for most of the groves are at about 
the same stage of development. 

But the surest, though by all odds the most expensive form 
of protection, is by massive sheds, which house the whole 
grove. As yet but few, and those the most wealthy of the 
growers, have adopted this method; but those who have are 
enthusiastic in its praise. In their judgment, it not only en- 
sures the trees against frost, and protects them from winds, 
but lends a better color to the fruit, and lessens the danger 
from insects. An obvious advantage, also, is the possibility 
of commanding the market by bringing the fruit to maturity 
at any season of the year. The fact that an outlay of not less 
than 800 dollars per acre is required to construct sheds of av- 
erage height, is, however, an overwhelming obstacle to the 
average grower. 

While these methods of protecting the varieties already 
known are being practiced through the State, the Agricultural 
Department in Washington is attempting to develop hardier 
varieties which will resist a comparatively low temperature, 
unprotected. To attain this object, the Department is hybrid- 
izing the hardy trifoliate orange (inedible), with the various 
varieties of the ordinary sweet orange. A number of these hy- 
brids have been produced, and are now being grown in various 
parts of the State; and while it is too early to forecast the 
outcome of these experiments, it has at least been demonstrated 
that hardy evergreen oranges can be produced which will stand 
a degree of cold much lower than that which can be borne by 
the ordinary orange. Some of these varieties have stood a 
freeze of 15 F. without injury. As yet, however, none has 
fruited, and so it is impossible to determine their full value. 

In closing this little survey, it is instructive to compare the 
number of boxes grown in successive years since the freeze 
with the amounts produced up to 1894. In that year, it will be 
remembered, the Florida groves reached their maximum of 
5,000,000 boxes. In 1895, the number of boxes produced was 
only 46,580 — an appalling contrast. Since that time the gain 
has been slow but surer, on the whole, than it could ever have 
been under the old regime. Now with the bitter lesson of the 
freeze in their minds, the fruitgrowers know how to meet al- 
most any emergency. 

The Reclamation of an Industry. 


1895 — Number 

of boxes produced, 46,580 

1896— " 

" " 93,152 

1897- ." 


1898— " 

" " " 293,445 

1899 — " 

" " " 334466 

1900 — " 


1901 — " 


The agriculturalists may well congratulate themselves on the 
success that has attended their efforts. Hercules did not 
strive more perseveringly for the apples of the Hesperides 
than have these steadfast laborers for the golden fruit which 
nature had snatched away from them in a moment of seeming 
caprice. Capricious indeed the disaster seemed at the time; 
but in the wiser retrospect of the present, the caprice of nature 
has become but a part of the "one unceasing purpose," and out 
of the shattered fortunes of '95 has grown a new and better 


Contributed bt Dunbar Rowland, Director Mississippi Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

Introductory Note. 

The Act of April 7, 1798, creating the Mississippi Territory 
provided for the appointment of a Governor, Secretary, a 
Court with common law jurisdiction to consist of three judges, 
and other civil officers ; it provided that the governor and three 
judges, or a majority of them, should "adopt and publish in 
the district such laws of the original states, civil and criminal, 
as may be necessary and best suited to the circumstances ;" to 
report them to Congress from time to time, the same to be in 
full force until disapproved by Congress or altered by a terri- 
torial assembly. By virtue of that law President Adams ap- 
pointed Winthrop Sargent, governor of the territory, John 
Steele, secretary, and Peter Bryan Bruin, Daniel Tillton and 
William McGuire, judges. 

No laws were promulgated during 1798 because Judges Mc- 
Guire and Tillton had not reached the territory. The first law 
promulgated in the Mississippi Territory bears date of Febru- 
ary 28, 1799., and is signed by Winthrop Sargent, Peter Bryan 
Bruin, and Daniel Tillton. There is an impression, arising 
from statements in Claiborne's History of Mississippi, that 
Judge Bruin did not sign the Sargent laws about which there 
was so much indignant protest. 

The administration of Governor Sargent seems to have been 
marked by continual controversy arising out of the laws passed 
by the governor and territorial judges. The protests of the 
people against the first territorial laws so passed finally culmin- 
ated in a Congressional investigation which resulted in many 
of the laws being revoked. 

The objections to the Sargent laws mainly urged were that 
the laws were made in violation of the ordinance of 1787; that 
the punishment for the crime of treason was in violation of the 
Constitution of the United States, that a fee of $8.00 was 
charged for a marriage license, and that certain fees were fixed 
as perquisites of the governor without authority of law. It was 
charged that the laws were chiefly copied not from the laws ex- 
isting in the old States but from a code of laws prepared by 
Governor Sargent when he was secretary of the Northwest 
Territory; and it was charged also that Gen'l St. Clair had 
condemned the laws when submitted to him as governor of that 
territory. Only one of the judges appointed by President 

The First Law of the Mississippi Territory. 269 

Adams was a lawyer, hence it was not strange that the first 
code of laws should have been faulty and defective. Judge 
McGuire was a lawyer, but he did not arrive in the territory 
until about April, 1799, and many of the most objectionable 
laws had been promulgated at that time. Judge Bruin and 
Judge Tillton were good men but they knew little about the 
science of law. 

Since the creation of the Department of Archives and His- 
tory of the State of Mississippi these original manuscript laws 
have been discovered and are now on file in this Department. 
The manuscripts are in a good state of preservation and the 
great seal of the territory is perfectly preserved thereon. 

In a letter from Governor William C. C. Claiborne to Secre- 
tary Madison, dated December 20, 1801, the following interest- 
ing estimate in which the court was held is given. The Gover- 
nor writes :* "The legislature is engaged on a new judiciary 
system. The manner in which the superior and inferior courts 
have heretofore been arranged is generally condemned. There 
is certainly room for improvement. One half, perhaps more, 
have no confidence in the judges. The legislature participates 
in this feeling, and will, I fear, be inclined to legislate more 
against men than principles. 

"It is an unpleasant state of things, and will be for me the 
source of much trouble. A late decision made by the superior 
court of this territory has occasioned much complaint, and 
aroused the sympathies of the legislature. Subsequent to the 
ratification of the treaty between the United States and Spain, 
and shortly before this district was evacuated the Spanish gov- 
ernor granted to certain of his favorites much valuable land, 
and to evade objections these grants purported to have been 
made previous to the treaty. 

"In some few cases these fraudulent grants were made of 
lands which had been previously granted in good faith. And in 
a case of this kind where suit had been instituted, the holder 
of the fraudulent grant (which falsely bore date older than the 
bona fide grant) obtained recovery. In the inferior court 
when the suit commenced, parole testimony was admitted to 
invalidate the antedated grant, and the defendant had a ver- 
dict. But upon appeal to the higher court parole testimony 
was declared inadmissible, and the judgment below was re- 
versed. This case is generally considered a very hard one, 
and the legislature, to afford a remedy, contemplated a law au- 
thorizing the admission of parole testimony; but upon my 
intimating that, for the present, I could not assent to such a 
measure it was dropped. A statute for the admission of parole 
testimony to disprove and invalidate a record would be a grave 

♦Journal of Gov. Claiborne, vol. i. pp. 31, 32 and 33. 

270 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

innovation upon the law of evidence. Yet I can see no other 
way by which these frauds can be set aside, unless indeed, as 
I think a court of chancery would reach the case. And most 
of the lawyers here think it would not. I shall be happy to 
have your opinion on the matter."* 

First Law of the Mississippi Territory. 


All free male inhabitants between the age of sixteen and 
fifty, the officers of civil government appointed by the President 
and Senate of the United States, or commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor; ministers of religious societies, that are and may be 
established, and regularly educated practicing physicians, only 
excepted, shall be liable to, and perform military duty, and be 
divided agreeably to the order of the commander in chief, into 
corps of horse and foot, and formed in the following manner. 

Sixty-four rank and file shall form a company of infantry, or 
rifle-men, or a troop of horse. 

To each company of infantry or rifle-men, there shall be ap- 
pointed a captain, lieutenant, and ensign, four sergeants, four 
corporals, a drummer and a fifer. 

To a troop of horse, one captain, one lieutenant, and one 
cornet, four sergeants, four corporals and one trumpeter. 

The whole militia of the territory shall, until the commander 
in chief may otherwise. direct, be formed into two legions, and 
bear the names of the counties to which they shall respectively 
appertain, so soon as such shall be erected and laid off. 

A lieutenant-colonel shall command each legion, and there 
may be appointed such other field officers as the commander 
in chief may deem necessary. 

There shall also be appointed to each legion, an adjutant and 
a quartermaster ; and whenever the commander in chief shall 
believe it essential to the well ordering of the militia of this 
territory, he may appoint an adjutant general, with the rank 
of a major or lieutenant colonel. 

Each and every horseman shall furnish himself with a sword, 
one pistol, twelve rounds of cartridges, three flints, a priming 
wire, small portmanteau, and such other arms and accoutre- 
ments as the commander in chief may direct. 

Every militia man who is enrolled for service on foot, shall 
furnish himself with a musquet and bayonet, cartridge box and 

♦This is our first reported case and the opinion of the court has 
been termed a gross blunder. 

The First Law of the Mississippi Territory. 271 

thirty rounds of cartridges, or rifle and tomahawk, powder 
horn and bullet pouch, with one pound of powder and four 
pounds of bullets, six flints, priming wires, brushes and knap- 

And every person enrolled in this militia, who shall be found 
deficient upon any muster day, in the arms ammunition and 
accoutrements, or any of them, herein ordered to be furnished, 
shall after a reasonable time given in the judgment of the 
legionary commandants, (not exceeding six months) to enable 
him to procure the same, at each and every time of default be 
fined in the sum of three dollars. 

The officers shall be armed and accoutred as the privates, 
with the addition of swords only for the infantry. 

Upon the second Saturday of each and every month, officers 
commanding companies are to assemble and parade their men 
at such time, and place as they may deem best adapted for their 
general convenience, and there diligently exercise them for the 
space of two hours, in marching, wheeling, firing with good 
aim, and the use of the bayonet for the infantry. 

There shall be four field days in each and every year, to be 
named by the commander in chief, or the commandants of 
legions under his order, upon which the respective commands 
that can, in his judgment, with any convenience be assembled, 
must be exercised as legionary corps. 

If any person enrolled in the militia shall refuse or neglect 
to appear upon the regular stated muster or field days, after 
being informed by a commissioned or non commissioned officer 
of the time and place of parade, or shall refuse to do his duty 
when appearing, he shall be fined in the sum of three dollars 
for each default, except in case of absence and when he shall 
render a sufficient excuse to his captain. 

If any commissioned, non commissioned officer or private 
shall xause or promote any disorder upon the regular stated 
muster or field days, so as to impede or prevent the military 
exercises which may be ordered, he shall be tried by a court 
martial, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in a sum 
not exceeding ten dollars. 

All fines are to be collected by a warrant of distress from the 
captain or senior officer of a company, directed to any one of 
the sergeants, who is to levy upon the goods or chattels of the 
defaulter, and after advertising the same for five days, if the 
fine is not then paid, he shall proceed to sell at public vendue 
to the highest bidder so much of the effects as will answer the 
fine, and one dollar for his own use, returning the overplus if 
any there be to the party who owned the property so destrain- 
ed, and the fine levied shall by the officer from whom the war- 
rant issued be paid unto the county treasury for the use of the 
legions, and to be appropriated in such way and manner as the 

272 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

field officers, or a majority of them, shall direct with the appro- 
bation of the commander in chief. 

Upon any invasion of this territory, or the appearance there- 
of, or domestic disturbances actually existing or apprehended, 
the commander in chief or commandants of counties, in press- 
ing emergencies where the commander in chief cannot season- 
ably be resorted to, are authorised to make such detachments 
for guards, patrols, and other military duty as the public ex- 
igencies may in his, or their opinion, require (provided that in 
all cases where detachments are ordered by commandants of 
legions, report thereof shall be made without delay to the com- 
mander in chief) and in case of refusal to appear and perform 
duty under such authority, or disobedience or neglect of orders 
in time of service, the defaulter shall be deemed guilty of 
cowardice and be heard, tried, and sentenced by a court martial. 

All officers shall be attentive to the forming, disciplining, 
parading, and commanding their respective corps, and to such 
other duties as shall respectively bind them by this law; and 
by the orders from time to time to be given them by the com- 
mander in chief or other of their superior officers. 

If any officer shall be guilty of a breach of this law or in 
any respect violate or neglect his duty, he shall be heard, tried, 
and sentenced by a court martial. 

A court martial shall not consist of more than nine members, 
nor less than three, whereof one at least shall have rank 
superior to a lieutenant. 

Courts martial may be appointed by the commander in chief, 
or the commandants of legions, but the commander in chief 
only shall have the power of approving and carrying into effect 
sentences of courts martial whereby the punishment shall be 
capital or an officer cashiered ; and the commander in chief is 
authorised and empowered to remit fines that may be inflicted, 
where it shall appear from the oaths of two credible witnesses 
that the person fined is unable to pay the same without great 
distress to himself or family. 

The free male inhabitants above the age of fifty shall arm 
and accoutre themselves either as cavalry, or those who serve 
on foot (at their own option) but they shall not be liable to 
military service except in cases of actual invasion, and under 
the immediate direction of the commander in chief. 

The foregoing is hereby declared to be a law of the Missis- 
sippi Territory, this twenty-eight day of February, Anno 
Domini one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine. In testi- 
mony of which we have undersigned our names and caused 
the public seal to be thereunto affixed. 

Winthrop Sargent, 
Peter Bryan Bruin, 
Daniel Tillton. 



By Rev. A. C. Harte, Mobile. 


At the instance of P. J. Hamilton, Esq., and the Secretary 
of the Young Men's Christian Association the following gen- 
tlemen : Messrs. P. J. Hamilton, F. G. Bromberg, Erwin Craig- 
head, Erwin Ledyard, and A. C. Harte, assembled in the Asso- 
ciation lecture hall Tuesday, Sept. 4th, 1901, to consider the ad- 
visability of organizing a club for the study of local history. 
After general discussion, a preliminary organization was ef- 
fected with Mr. P. J. Hamilton president pro tempore and A. 
C. Harte secretary pro tempore. The meeting adjourned to 
assemble for permanent organization on Thursday, Oct. 3rd. 

On Thursday, Oct. 3rd in the Association lecture hall, the 
meeting was called to order by president pro tempore, Mr. 
Hamilton. The following were present: Messrs. Hamilton, 
Craighead, Ledyard, Harte, and T. A. Taylor. After general 
discussion, it was deemed wise to adjourn, for permanent or- 
ganization on Saturday, Oct. 5th. 

By general invitation on October 5th, at 7:30 p. m. the fol- 
lowing were present in the Association lecture hall, Messrs. 
Hamilton, Craighead, Ledyard, Taylor, Harte, L DeV. Chau- 
dron, W. K. P. Wilson, Leo Brown, and Cary Butt. President 
pro tempore, Mr. Hamilton, called the meeting to order. 
Messrs. Hamilton, Chaudron, and Harte made remarks endors- 
ing the object of the proposed club. On motion of Messrs. 
Harte and Chaudron a committee was appointed to report a 
constitution and by-laws, consisting of Messrs. Harte, Wilson, 
and H. Pillans. On motion of Messrs. Craighead and Ledyard 
a committee was appointed to report on the celebration of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the founding of Mobile. The 
president appointed the following committee: Messrs. Craig- 
head, Butt, and Chaudron. The meeting then adjourned to 
reconvene on the call of the president. 

At the call of the president. Mr. Hamilton, on October 19, 
1901, the following gentlemen assembled in the Association 
lecture room: Messrs. Hamilton, Ledyard, Craighead, Butt, 
Bromberg, Brown, Taylor, Chaudron, and Harte. 

Mr. Craighead reported that the committee on the bi-cen- 
tennial celebration had had no meeting, and asked to be relieved 
from service on the committee on the ground of business en- 

274 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

gagements. Mr Craighead was retained on the committee, and 
Mr. Butt was made chairman. 

The committee on constitution reported the following consti- 
tution which was adopted by a vote of eight to one. 


Of the Iberville Historical Society of the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Mobile, Alabama. 

I. Name. 

The name of this Society shall be The Iberville Historical 
Society of the Young Men's Christian Association of Mobile, 

II. Object. 

1. The study of the history, antiquities, and traditions of 
Mobile territory, and their preservation to posterity. 

2. The collection and preservation of historical records, 
papers, books and objects. 

3. The marking of historical sites in and about Mobile. 

III. Officers. 

The officers of this Society shall be a President, a Secretary- 
Treasurer, and a Corresponding Secretary. They shall be 
elected at the annual meeting in October, and shall hold office 
for one year, or until their successors are elected. Their duties 
shall be those assigned to such officers in Roberts' Rules of 
Order. They shall be members in good standing of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Mobile, Alabama. 

IV. Executive Committee. 

This committee shall consist of five members, three of whom 
shall be the President, the Secretary-Treasurer, and the Cor- 
responding Secretary of the Society. This committee shall 
arrange the annual program of work. No money shall be ex- 
pended except by their direction. They shall under no circum- 
stances gfo into debt. 

& v 

V. Membership. 

The membership of this Society shall be limited to thirty. 
Any person is eligible to membership who shall agree to furnish 
once a year an article of original research on a subject agreed 
on by the Executive Committee, or perform such other work 
as shall be assigned by that committee. Members may be 
elected at any regular meeting by a two-thirds vote of those 

The Iberville Historical Society. 275 

VI. Property. 

All records, collections, etc., of this Society shall be the prop- 
erty of the Young Men's Christian Association of Mobile, in 
trust for the purposes of the Society, unless otherwise specified 
at the time of their acquirement, unless the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association shall become extinct, in which latter case the 
property shall belong to some public educational institution 
agreed upon by a two-thirds vote of the Society at a regular 

VII. Dues. 

There shall be no stated dues for members. The Executive 
Committee shall from time to time as necessary levy assess- 
ments not to exceed one dollar. Assessments may not be more 
than four dollars per year. 

VIII. Meetings. 

This Society shall meet upon the second Tuesday in each 
month except the months of July, August, and September. 
The hour of meeting shall be appointed by the Executive Com- 
mittee. There shall be at least one public meeting a year, at 
which reports of the work of the Society shall be read, and such 
other proceedings had as may be decided on by the Executive 

IX. Quorum. 

One-fifth of the active members, provided the number be 
not less than five, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction 
of business. 

X. Rules of Order. 

This Society shall be governed in the transaction of business 
where no provision exists in the Constitution or by-laws, by 
Roberts' Rules of Order. 

XL Amendments. 

Amendments to the Constitution may be made at any regular 
meeting of the Society, provided that the amendment proposed 
has been read and handed to the Secretary in writing at the 
regular meeting immediately preceding that at which the vote 
is to be taken. 

After the adoption of the constitution on October 19, 1901, 
the following officers were elected: President, P. J. Hamilton, 
Esq. ; Secretary-Treasurer, Leo Brown ; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, A. C. Harte, all residing in Mobile. 

276 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Work of the Society. 

The work of the Iberville Historical Society to date includes 
the following: It definitely fixed the location of the site of Ft. 
Louis de la Mobile at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff, brought about 
the successful celebration of the Bi-centennial of the Founding 
of Mobile, the erection of a monument at Twenty-seven Mile 
Bluff, and the erection of a bronze tablet at the court-house. 
While the celebration of the Bi-centennial, the erection of the 
monument and tablet were the work of the special Bi-centennial 
committee, the inspiration came from the Society. 

The following addresses and papers have been prepared and 
delivered before the Society : 

"The Life of Iberville/' by P. J. Hamilton, Esq. 

"The Indian Canal and Fort The Bon Seccour," by Louis 
DeV. Chaudron. 

The following subjects have been assigned: 

Mr. Erwin Ledyard, "Mobile and the Civil War." 

Mr. H. Pillans, "The Nomenclature of the Coast and of 

Mobile Streets." 

Mr. A. C. Harte, "Oral Traditions of Mobile," and "The 

Spanish American War." 

The Society was successful in having transferred and put 

up in Bienville Square and Duncan Place the old guns from 

Water and St. Michael streets. 

The members of the Society are: Peter J. Hamilton, Leo 
W. Brown, Erwin Craighead, T. A. Taylor, H. Pillans, Erwin 
Ledyard, Cary W. Butt, A. C. Harte, Paul E. Rapier, Wm. Fry 
Tebbetts, Paul C. Boudousquie, Richard Hines, F. G. Brom- 
berg, L. DeV. Chaudron. 



De Funiak Springs. 

The Breeze, w. 

May 18, 1899-Dec. 27, 1900. 


Weekly East Floridian. 

May 26, 1859-Dec. 19, 1860. 2 vols. 

The Florida Mirror, dem. est. 1878. w. 

July 1, 1882-July 31, 1886. 2 vols. 
Mar. 30, 1889-Nov. 22, 1893. 1 vol. 
Jan. 6, 1898-Dec. 27, 1900. 

The Florida News. w. 

Feb. 10, 1858-Dec. 23, 1858. 1 vol. 
Jan. 20, 1859-May 19, 1859. 

Previously published at Jacksonville. 

The Florida News. w. 

Oct. 2, 1846-Dec. 27, 1851. 1 vol. 
Jan. 1, 1853-Dec. 31, 1853. 1 vol. 
Jan. 21, 1854-Dec. 22, 1855. 2 vols. 
Jan. 12, 1856-Dec. 13, 1856. 1 vol. 
Jan. 3, 1857-Dec. 26, 1857. 1 vol. 

Publication continued at Fernandina. 

The New South, w. 

July 15, 1874-June 23, 1875. 1 vol. 

The Florida Republican, w. 

Mar. 1, 1849-Dec. 13, 1849. 1 vol. 
Jan. 3, 1850-Dec. 19, 1850. 1 vol. 
Jan. 2, 1851-Nov. 13, 1351. 1vol. 
Mar. 6, 1851-Mar. 30, 1S54. 
Jan. 2, 1852- June 16, 1S53. 1 vol. 
June 15, 1854-Apr. 16, 1856. 1 vol. 
July 9, 1856-Apr. 1, 1857. 

♦Reprinted by permission from the Check List of American Neivs* 
papers in the Library of Congress (1901). 

The abbreviations are : w., s.-w., and d., weekly, semi-weekly, and 
daily; v., volume, meaning one bound book; ind., dem., rep., est, 
Independent, Democrat, Republican and Established. 

!78 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine. 

Semi- Weekly Republican. 
May 1,-June 5, 1856. 

The Jacksonville Standard, w. 

Feb. 24, 1859-May 12, 1859. Odd nos. 

The Florida Times, w. 

• Oct. 5, 1865-Dec. 28, 1865. 
Jan. 25, 1866. 
June 14, 1866-July 5, 1866. 

The Florida Daily Times. 

Feb. 1, 2, and 3, 1883. 

Consolidated with The Daily Florida Union. 

The Florida Times-Union, d. 

Feb. 4, 1883-Sept. 8, 1897. 26 vols. 
Continued as: 

The Florida Times-Union and Citizen, dem. est. 1878. d. 
Sept. 9, 1897-Dec. 31, 1900. 9 vols. 

The Weekly Florida Union. 

Dec. 31, 1864-Dec. 30, 1865. 1 vol. 
Feb. 3, 1866-July 28, 1866. 

Mar. 7, 1868-Sept. 3, 1868. 1 vol. 
May 19, 1877-Dec. 24, 1877. 1 vol. 

The Florida Union. 
Sept. 9-Dee. 30, 1868. 

The Daily Florida Union. 

Jan. 1, 1876-May 13, 1877. 

Nov. 20, 1881-Jan. 31, 1883. 3 vols. 

Consolidated with The Florida Daily Times. 

Key West. 

Key West Register and Commercial Advertiser, w. 
Feb. 19-Sept. 3, 1829. 1 vol. 

The Florida Democrat, w. 
Jan. 23-May 20, 1846. 

Tne Floridian. w. 

Sept. 1, 1821-Aug. 17, 1822. 1 vol. 
Mar 8, 1823-Dec. 20, 1823. 1 vol. 

Bee The Weekly Floridian of Tallahassee. 

Florida Newspaper Files in the Librae y of Congress. 279 

Pensacola Gazette, w. 

Mar. 13, 1824-Dec. 14, 182G. 3 vols. 
Jan. 5, 1827-Oct. 21, 1828. 2 vols. 
Feb. 17, 1829-Dec. 19, 1829. 1 vol. 
Jan. 2, 1830-Sept. 18, 1830. 1 vol. 
Nov. 5, 1830-Dec. 11, 1830. 
Jan. 2, 1833-Dec. 4, 1833. 1 vol. 
Jan. 7, 1836-Dec. 24, 1836. 1 vol. 
Jan. 14, 1837-Dec. 1, 1838. 1 vol. 
Jan. 11, 1840-Dec. 26, 1840. 1 vol. 
Jan. 16, 1841-Dec. 21, 1844. 4 vols. 
Mar. 29-April 5, 1845. 
Jan. 10, 1846-Aug. 29, 1846. 1 vol. 
Jan. 8, 1848-Oct. 1, 1853. 6 vols. 
Feb. 28, June 6 and 27, 1857. 

The Daily news. dem. est. 1889. 
Jan. 1, 189S-Dec. 31, 1900. 5 vols. 

The West Florida Times, w. 
Jan. 6-Mar. 17, 1857. Odd nos. 

St. Augustine. 

Florida Herald and Southern Democrat, w. 

Jan. 4, 1823-Dec. 26, 1826. 4 vols. 
Mar. 25, 1829-Dec. 16, 1829. 1 vol. 
Jan. 5, 1832-Dec. 5, 1833. 2 vols. 
Jan. 30, 1834-Nov. 6, 1834. 1 vol. 
Jan. 10, 1835-Oct. 8, 1835. 1 vol. 
Jan. 6, 1836-Dec. 26, 1842. 7 vols. 
Nov. 1, 1838-Sept. 21, 1848. 3 vols. 

The News. w. 

Nov. 3, 1838-Sept. 11, 1846. 1 vol. 

Jan. 3, 1840-May, 1840. 

Feb. 19, 1841-Jan. 1, 1842. 

Jan. 8, 1842-Dec. 9, 1843. 2 vol. 

Jan 13, 1844-Dec. 21, 1844. 1 vol. 

St. Joseph. 
St. Joseph Times, w. 

Jan. 1-Dec. 23, 1840. 1 vol. 


The Florida Advocate, w. 

Feb. 7, 1829-Apr. 25, 1829. 
June 13, 1829-Aug. 1, 1829. 

Consolidated with The Weekly Floridian. 

280 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

The Weekly Floridian. dem. est. 1821. 

Sept. 3, 1829-Dec. 15, 1829. 

Jan. 5, 1830-Nov. 1, 1831. 2 vols, odd nos. 

Jan. 3, 1832-Dec. 27, 1834. 2 vols. 

Jan. 31, 1835-Dec. 5, 1835. 1 vol. 

Jan. 2, 1836-Dec. 29, 1838. 3 vols. 

Jan. 4, 1840-Apr. 2, 1842. 

Mar. 14, 1846-June 26, 1852. 6 vols. 

Jan. 1, 1853-Dec. 22. 1860. 8 vols. 

May 15. 1877-Nov. 25, 1893. 6 vols. 

Dec. 2, 1893-Dec. 29, 1900. 

See The Floridian of Pensacola. 

Florida Intelligencer, w. 
Feb. 24-Dec. 8, 1826. 1vol. 

Southern Journal, w. 

Jan. 13, 1846-Dec. 15, 1846. 
Jan. 0, 1847-Apr. 13, 1847. 

Florida Sentinel, w. 

May 21, 1841-Dec. 31, 1841. 
Jan. 14, 1842-Apr. 18, 1843. 
Jan. 1, 1850-Mar. 22, 1853. 

Star of Florida, w. 

July 14, 1841-Sept. 1, 1843. 3 vols. 
Feb. 23, 1844-Dec. 19, 1845. 2 vols. 

The Florida Watchman, w. 

Feb. 17, 1838-Nov. 3, 1838. 1 vol. odd nos. 

a $7 


Dear Sir: — I received your very kind and complimentary 
letter only a few minutes ago, and hasten to reply. 

I have been long aware that a connection existed between 
us — without knowing precisely in what manner. Your letter, 
however, has satisfied me that we are second cousins. I will 
briefly relate to you what little I have been able to ascertain, 
or rather to remember, in relation to our families. That I know 
so little on this head will not appear so singular to you when I 
relate the circumstances connected with my own particular 
history. But to return. My paternal grandfather was General 
David Poe of Baltimore — originally "of Ireland. I know that 
he had brothers — two I believe. But my knowledge extends 
only to one, Mr. George Poe. My grandfather married, when 
very young, a Miss Elizabeth Carnes of Lancaster, Pa., by 
whom he had five sons, viz : George, who died while an infant ; 
John, William, David and Samuel ; also two daughters, Maria 
and Elisa. Of the sons none married with the exception of 
David. Pie married a Mrs. Elizabeth Hopkins, an English 
lady, by whom he had three children, Henry, myself and Ro- 
salie. Henry died about four years ago, and Rosalie and my- 
self remain. The daughters of General David Poe, Maria and 
Eliza, both married young. Maria married Mr. William Clem, 
a gentleman of some standing and some property in Baltimore. 
He was a widower with five children, and had after his mar- 
riage with Maria Poe, three others, viz : two girls and one boy, 
of which a girl, Virginia, and a boy, Henry, are still living. 
Mr. Clem died about nine years ago without any property 
whatever, leaving his widow desolate and unprotected, and 
little likely to receive protection or assistance from the relatives 
of her husband, most of whom were opposed to the marriage 
in the first instance, and whose opposition was no doubt aggra- 
vated by the petty quarrels occurring between Maria's child- 
ren and Mr. C's children by his former wife. This Maria is 
the one of whom you speak, and to whom I will allude again 
presently. .^ . 

Elisa, the second daughter of the General, married a Mr. 
Henry Herring of Baltimore, a man of unprincipled character 
and by whom she had several children. She is now dead, and 
Mr. Herring having married again, there is no communication 

♦The original of this letter is in the possession of William T. Poe, 
Esq., of Birmingham, a grandson of the addressee, Mr. William Poe, 
who resided at the time of its receipt in Augusta, Ga. 

282 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

between the family of his wife's sister. Mrs. Poe, the widow, 
of General D. Poe, and the mother of Maria, died only about 
a year ago at the age of 79. She had for the last eight years 
of her life been confined entirely to bed, never, in any instance, 
leaving it during that time. She had been paralyzed and suf- 
fered from many other complaints, her daughter, Maria, at- 
tending her during her long and tedious illness with a Chris- 
tian and martyr-like fortitude, and with a constancy of atten- 
tion and unremitting affection, which must exalt her character 
in the eyes of all who know her. Maria is now the only sur- 
vivor of my grandfather's family. 

In relation to my grandfather's brother, George, I know but 
little. Jacob Poe of Frederickstown, Maryland, is his son, — 
also George Poe of Mobile — and I presume your father, Wm. 
Poe. Jacob Poe has two sons, Neilson and George, also one 
daughter, Amelia. 

My father, David, died when I was in the second year of 
my age, and when my sister, Rosalie, was an infant in arms. 
Our mother died a few weeks before him. At this period my 
grandfather's circumstances were at low ebb, he from great 
wealth having been reduced to poverty. It was, therefore, in 
his power to do but little for us. My brother, Henry, however, 
he took under his charge, while myself and Rosalie were adopt- 
ed by a gentleman in Richmond, where we were at the period 
of our parents' death. I was adopted by a Mr. John Allan of 
Richmond, Va., and she by a Mr. Wm. McKenzie of the same 
place. Rosalie is still living with Mr. McKenzie still unmar- 
ried, and is treated as one of the family, being a favorite with 
all. I accompanied Mr. Allan to England in my seventh year 
and remained there for five years at school, since which I re- 
sided with Mr. A. until a few years ago. The first Mrs. A. hav- 
ing died, and Mr. A. having married again, I found my situa- 
tion not so comfortable as before, and obtained a cadet's ap- 
pointment at West Point. During my stay there, Mr. A. died 
suddenly and left me — nothing. No will was found among his 
papers. I have been accordingly thrown upon my own re- 
source. Brought up to his profession, and educated in the ex- 
pectation of an immense fortune, (Mr. A. having been worth 
$750,000) the blow has been a heavy one and I had nearly suc- 
cumbed to its influence, and yielded to despair. But by the ex- 
ertion of much resolution, I am now beginning to look upon the 
matter in a less serious light, and although struggling still with 
many embarrassments, am enabled to keep, up my spirit. I 
have lately obtained the editorship of the Southern Messenger, 
and may yet do well. 

Mrs. Thompson, your aunt, is still living in Baltimore. 
George Poe of Baltimore allows her a small income. 

Notes on the Genealogy of the Poe Family. 283 

In conclusion, I beg leave to assure you that whatever aid 
you may have in your power to bestow upon Mrs. Clem will 
be given to one who well deserves every kindness and atten- 
tion. Would to God I could at this moment aid her. She is 
now, while I write, struggling without friends, without money 
and without health to support herself and two children. I 
sincerely pray God that the words which I am now writing may 
be the means of inducing you to unite with your brothers, and 
your friends, and send her that, immediate relief, which it is 
utterly out of my power to give to her just now, and which, 
unless it reaches her soon, will, I am afraid, reach her too late. 
Entreating your attention to this subject, I remain, 
Yours very truly and affectionately, 
(Signed) EDGAR A. POE. 

It would give me the greatest pleasure to hear from you in 

To Mr. Win. Poe, 



I. A New England Estimate of Calhoun. 

The following comparatively recent letter from Senator Bradberry 
is of interest as presenting a contemporary estimate by an associate, 
who belonged to an opposite school of political thought and who rep- 
resented a section of the country whose people were followers of Web- 
ster, and who differed radically from the constituency of Mr. Cal- 
houn. Mr. Glass who has furnished the letter for publication is an 
Episcopal clergyman, residing in Anniston, Ala. 

Augusta [Maine], Jan. 14, 1897. 
Rev. Jas. G. Glass: 

My dear sir, I must beg you to excuse my delay in acknowl- 
edging the receipt of your kind letter, and thanking you for the 
volume containing Trent's Sketches of Southern Statesmen that 
accompanied it. The delay has been unavoidable. When they 
were received I was not very well, and it required all the 
strength I could spare to get through with my duties as Chair- 
man of the Committee on our Centennial Celebration and get 
ready for the occasion ; and as yet I have only found time to 
take a glance at Mr. Trent's sketch of Calhoun. 

While some traits of his character are very well drawn, it 
appears to me there seems to be a willingness to underestimate 
the man and his ability. His idea of genius necessarily in- 
cludes the creative power of a poet, and hence he concludes that 
Calhoun was not a man of genius ! I think his definition is 
too narrow, and that he would deny to some of the greatest 
men in history the appellation of genius as well as Calhoun. 
In my opinion he stood next to Webster in intellectual pozuer, 
in a Senate that contained such great men as Clay, Cass, Ben- 
ton, Douglas, Chase and others, and that History will assign 
him a place among the men of genius. It is true that Clay may 
have surpassed him as an orator and an adroit controller of 
men, for he was a wonderful popular leader, as well as an able 
statesman; while for massiz'e pozver, I thought that only Web- 
ster was before Calhoun. He never spoke without command- 
ing the closest attention. Without any attempt at oratorical 
display he skillfully took his position and then reasoned so 
clearly, rapidly and forcibly as to enchain the attention of his 
hearers. He left the impression of immense power. He dwelt 
so long upon his theory of government that he thoroughly con- 
vinced himself; and came to the belief that a sovereign State 
was not bound by the decision of the Supreme Court when the 
State deemed it important to exercise its sovereignty. His 
intense thought upon the rights of the States made him over- 

Documents. 285 

look the fact that the Supreme Court was established to deter- 
mine, among other things, the constitutionality of the laws 
which the people of the States were bound to obey, and that 
it was not the tribunal of one party, but was established by both. 

That he was sincere I have never doubted. 

He was a man of marked integrity and purity of life. An 
instance of his conscientiousness now occurs to my mind. 

On Private Bill day, he uniformly came to the Senate and re- 
mained during the session to aid in guarding the public treas- 
ury against the fictitious claims that then, as now, were pressed 
upon the attention of Congress, while others of the old, distin- 
guished Senators left that work for the younger members. 

He had a great love of converting young men to his theory 
of government, confining it to the exercise of those powers 
and measures only that were necessary to its sovereignty, leav- 
ing all others for the States. He had a great fear (but none 
too great) of the corrupting influence of public patronage. But 
I must break off here as I have time for no more to day. 

I must beg you to excuse these poorly ill-digested remarks, 
which will fail to give any thing like a good idea of the man 
whom Webster believed to be a "Roman Senator when Rome 

Yours very truly, 

James W. Bradberry. 

II. Observations on Affairs in the South in the Spring 

OF 1865. 
The following letter, written by John Murray Forbes to his wife, 
is contributed for publication by his son, Mr. Thomas Semmes 
Forbes, of Birmingham. The writer was born in Falmouth, Va., in 
1816, and was a lawyer of prominence. He represented Fauquier 
county in the Virginia House of Delegates, 1862-3. After the expira- 
tion of his term he was appointed by the State of Virginia to look 
after her interests in the Salt Works of Southwest Virginia. He was 
in Richmond a large part of the time during the war, and when he 
was not there he was mixing with the people not only of Virginia, 
but of the entire south. The salt business brought him to Mont- 
gomery at least once during the war. This letter therefore will be 
interesting as representing the views of a well informed man who 
was not confined in his sphere of observation to the Confederate 
Capital, but whose opinions must have been influenced by the people 
at large of the entire South. 

Richmond Saturday 

18 Feby., 1865. 
My Dear wife 

I had a very pleasant ride to Mr. Parr's the day I 
left home, contrary to expectations. Tuesday I got only as 

286 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

far as the vicinity of the "Highlands"* — Mr. Hud- 
son's. The travel was very bad and my horse much 
jaded. I stayed there all night. The next day I was detained 
there by the sleet till 4 o'c. p. m. Then I started and got to 
"Wood Park"** before night. I found all well. Thursday I 
took the carsf and reached here safely that evening. Salt 
matters are progressing before the committee and I ought to 
have been here sooner. I am very busy and shall be for some 
time to come. 

I sent you a number of the Examiner from Gordonsville 
containing the Message of Lincoln as to the interview with 
Stevens, Hunter and Campbell. Our people have been made a 
unit by the result of these proceedings. Not a word is said 
about reconstruction now. 

That party is rampant for resistance to the last degree. But 
in the Yankee Congress evidences of division among them are 
appearing. A motion to instruct a committee to ascertain if 
peace could not be procured — made since Lincoln's Message — 
was tabled by a vote of J2> ayes to 43 noes. This shows that 
the latter do not approve of his course. A minority it is true 
but it may grow, and I hope it will. 

Columbia, So. Carolina (the capital) has been evacuated by 
Beauregard. This cuts our communications with all the coun- 
try south of that point. But the gloom here when I left is dis- 
persed. Virginia will agree to raising negro troops, I feel 
assured by those better informed than I am. 

The skies look gloomy to my eyes. Our people will have to 
endure and exercise fortitude. But I do not despair, we will 
not loose our independence if we are true to ourselves. 

The result of the effort for Peace compels us to struggle on, 
for submission and conquest are the same. It is believed that 
the Abolition party in the Federal Congress, hearing of Blaine's 
mission, by threats deterred Lincoln from the policy of peace 
indicated by permitting Blaine to come here, and made haste to 
pass a law submitting the question of freeing slaves to the sev- 
eral States, after they heard of Blaine's mission, in order that 
Lincoln might present it to our commissioners when they 
should present themselves and forced him to act as he did. 
This explains the apparent o'tid indeed real inconsistency. The 

*The "Highlands" was the home of Rev. Philip Slaughter on Cedar 
Mountain overlooking the battlefield. Dr. Slaughter and the writer 
of the letter married sisters. 

**The home of the Willis family near Rapidan Station. Mrs. 
Willis was a first cousin of the writer. 

fThe bridge over the Rapidan River on the Orange & Alexandria 
R. R. had been destroyed and cars only went as far north as the river 
near Rapidan Station. 

Documents. 287 

statement that neither he nor Seward knew of Blain's purpose 
is not credited by any one. 


We must not repine. May God bless you all is the prayer of 
Your devoted husband, 

J. M. F. 

III. The Last Resting Place oe Major-General James 


Communication to Congress. 
{Senate Ex. Doc. No. 6, 4.2nd Cong., 3rd Session.) 

War Department, December 2, 1872. 
The Secretary of War has the honor to invite the attention 
of the United States Senate and House of Representatives to 
the fact that the remains of Major-General James Wilkinson, 
a veteran of the American War of Independence, who was in 
1796 Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United States, 
and was at a later date one of the first territorial governors of 
Mississippi and Louisiana, now lie in a corner of the church of 
San Miguel, in the city of Mexico, which has long since been 
closed, without monument or inscription to mark his tomb. 

He has therefore the honor to recommend that Congress au- 
thorize the exhumation of the remains of this gallant and meri- 
torious American soldier, and their removal to the National 
Cemetery of the United States in the city of Mexico, the ex- 
penses of such disinterment to be defrayed from the general 
appropriation for the establishment and maintenance of na- 
tional cemeteries. 

Wm. W. Belknap, 
Secretary of War. 

Communication from War Department. 

War Department, 
Quartermaster General's Office, 
Washington, November 6, 1900. 
Mr. Thomas M. Owen, 
Secretary of the 

Alabama Historical Society, 
Birmingham, Ala. 

Referring to your communication of September 13, 1900, 
to the Secretary of War, requesting information relative to the 

288 The Gulf States Histobical Magazine. 

place of interment of Genl. James Wilkinson, late of the U. S. 
Army, I have the honor to invite your attention to the enclosed 
transcript, in Spanish, from the records of the Church of San 
Miguel, Mexico City, Mexico, relating to the burial of Genl. 
Wilkinson in the cemetery of that chuurch on December 30, 
1825, and to respectfully state that the Superintendent of the 
United States Cemetery, Mexico City, reports that he obtained 
said transcript from the Presiding Priest of San Miguel 
Church: that the grave of Genl. Wilkinson was not marked 
by any permanent number or headstone, and in time its identity 
was lost: that the Cemetery was closed in the year i860, and 
the remains, together with others buried in same plot, were 
exhumed and reinterred in one vault under the church, thus 
making identification impossible at this time. 

By direction of the Qr. Mas. General, 

W. S. Patton, 
Quartermaster, U. S. Army. 

Certificate from Church Record. 

I, the Presbyter Francisco Loria Curate of the Parish of the 
Archangel San Miguel of Mexico, certify that in the book of 
Spanish services marked with the number 14, which begins the 
29th of April, 1822, and closes the 6th of July, 1826, on pages 
169 and following is found the entry signalized by the num- 
ber 280, which reads exactly as follows : "In the City of Mexi- 
co, on the thirtieth of December, the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-five, by previous order of 
the Provisor in charge, Doctor Don Ciro Villaurutia, on ac- 
count of the absence of Doctor Don Jose Maria Bucheli, were 
performed the obsequies in this Parish and afterwards was 
buried in the cemetery of the same, the body of General James 
Wilkinson native of the United States of North America in 
the seventy-fourth year of his age." 

In the margin: "280 — General James Wilkinson." The 
above is a faithful copy and corresponds to the original referred 
to above. 

In confirmation of which I affix my signature the twenty- 
seventh of October, one thousand and nine hundred. 

Presbyter Francisco Loria. 



JOINT RESOLUTION instructing his Excellency the 
Governor to cause the remains of the late Israel Pickens to be 
removed from the Island of Cuba to his late residence in 
Greene County. 

WHEREAS the public manifestation of a lively and lasting 
regard for the memory of illustrious citizens, distinguished for 
public services, wisdom, virtue and patriotism, forms the 
strongest incentives to noble and virtuous actions, ardent pur- 
suit of honorable fame and love of country. The death of our 
distinguished fellow citizen Israel Pickens, late Governor, of 
Alabama, which occurred in the Island of Cuba on the twenty- 
fourth day of April eighteen hundred and twenty-seven, af- 
fords to the General Assembly of this State an opportunity of 
providing for the removal of his remains to his late residence 
in Greene County, and thereby of manifesting to the world the 
high estimation in which they, in common with the citizens 
they have the honor to represent, entertain for his character 
and public services, rendered justly dear to Alabama by an able 
and zealous devotion to their best interests in the high and im- 
portant offices which he has filled, with honor to himself and 
honor to his country. 

Be it therefore resolved by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the State of Alabama, in General Assembly con- 
vened, That his Excellency the Governor be directed to cause 
the remains of Israel Pickens to be removed from the Island of 
Cuba to his late residence in Greene county, and that five hun- 
dred dollars be appropriated therefor. — From Acts, 1827-28, 
pp. 160-161 ; approved Jan. 15th, 1828. 


The venerable ELIHU HALL BAY, is no more! He de- 
parted this life on Monday night [Nov. 19, 1838] last, without 
a struggle, in the 85th year of his age. For near half a century, 
he filled the office of Associate Justice of the Court of General 
Sessions and Common Pleas of this State [S. C.J, having been 

*See query in vol. i, p. 57, of this Magazine. 

290 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

appointed on the 19th of February, 1791, and having held the 
office until the day of his death. In consequence of his infirm- 
ities of body, however, he was exempted by the legislature, 
for about twenty years past, from the performance of Circuit 
duty ; but, nevertheless, for a number of years after, voluntarily 
held the Law Courts of Charleston, in the absence of other 
judges, and continued, up to the period of his decease, to dis- 
charge the duties of a judge at Chambers. His usefulness 
was much impaired, for a long time, by great difficulty of hear- 
ing ; but during his latter years he exhibited the rare phenome- 
non of a partial recovery from deafness in extreme old age. 
In his two volumes of Reports of the Earlier Decisions of our 
Courts, in his published decisions as a Judge of the Constitu- 
tional Court and in his numerous manuscript decisions, on an 
infinite variety of points of practice and other matters, he has 
left enduring monuments of his talents, industry and useful- 
ness. During the several latter years of his life, his mental 
faculties had evidently undergone considerable decay, but there 
continued to be v occasions, almost to the last, when even amid 
the intellectual wreck, would be found the elements of former 
eminence. He was profoundly versed in the Common Law, 
of which he had an unbounded admiration as a system of juris- 
prudence ; and he will live in the recollection of our community 
as a humane, upright and learned judge. — The Courier, 
Charleston, S. C, November 21, 1838. 




After the surrender of the Confederate armies and after 
the war for Southern independence was virtually at an end, 
there were left as prisoners of war some thirty-six hundred 
prisoners, all officers save about one hundred who were pri- 

As might naturally be expected, the matter of what the Fed- 
eral Government would do with the Confederates was daily 
and hourly discussed. Some entertained great fears from An- 
drew Johnson who had so recently been elevated to the Presi- 
dency of the United States. Some believed that all the Con- 
federate officers would be banished from the country, at least 
all above the rank of Captain, while others were of the opinion 
that some of the leaders would suffer death because of the part 
they had taken in the so-called rebellion, and there were those 
who believed that the Federal Government could and would 
permit all to return to their Southern homes. 

Minor Topics. 291 

On one bright clay in April, 1865, was to Ds seen a b rou P °* 
three Confederates on prison grounds in earnest conversation ; 
they were Col. J. Z. George, of a Mississippi regiment, since a 
United States Senator from that State, but now deceased; 
Major H. D. McDaniel, of a Georgia regiment, since a governor 
of that State, and the writer, Lieutenant-Colonel John W. 
Inzer, of the 58th Alabama regiment. Col. George said that as 
the war was over and further effort to establish the Confederacy 
would avail nothing, he wondered what would be done with 
those of us who had actually participated in the war and held 
positions in the Confederate Army, and he further said he 
thought perhaps some of the leaders and instigators in the 
rebellion would suffer some sort of punishment at the hands 
of our conquerors. Major McDaniel said he believed that 
those who would suffer most would be those who started the 
war and not, necessarily, those who fought its battles. The 
Major went on to say that in his judgment members of the 
secession conventions of the Southern States would suffer the 
severest penalties, and that he believed that they or some of 
them, would be shot. Those three officers were members of 
such conventions in their respective States and were the only 
ones who were members of such bodies in prison, at that time, 
on the Island. Colonel Inzer remarked that the Federal au- 
thorities did not know or care whether we had served in such 
conventions or not. Just then the Major interrupted him by 
saying, "Don't you fool yourself, Colonel, they know every 
one of us and just what we did in such bodies and since that 
time," and that some of us "would be shot." Just here it was 
agreed by all of them that if shot for treason to the Govern- 
ment each would suffer death without a murmur or one word 
of complaint, all realizing that they had done their duty, con- 
scientiously, to the cause they loved. 

Colonel George is now dead, I believe. Governor McDaniel, 
I am informed, is still living in Georgia, one of the best and 
purest of men it was my pleasure to meet during the war, and 
he will doubtless remember the conversation referred to above. 

John W. Inzer. 
Ashville, Ala. 



General Wilkinson's Order Books. — General Wilkinson's old "Or- 
der books" in the Adjutant-General's office, Washington, D. C, dating 
as far back as 1803, and coming on down for years, give a good deal 
of information about matters in Louisiana and Southern Mississippi 
and Alabama after the American troops took possession of the 
Louisiana Territory. In "the line of duty" I read them all, some ten 
years ago. 


Hyattsville, Md. 

Sword and Pistol or Capt. Louis Wagner. — At the second battle 
of Bull Run Capt. Louis Wagner, Company D, Eighty-eighth Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers, was wounded and taken prisoner. Whilst lying 
upon the field, he gave to a surgeon or officer of an Alabama Regi- 
ment a plain black leather belt with sword and an officer's revolver 
with 'Capt. Louis Wagner, Company D, 88th Pa.' engraved on the 
butt. It would appear from the official records that the Eighty- 
eighth Pennsylvania Regiment w r as opposed by the Eighth, Ninth, 
Tenth and Eleventh Alabama, of Wilcox's Brigade. It may be possi- 
ble to procure some information of the sword or revolver from some 
of the officers or men of these commands, or others connected with 
the hospital. Any cost for their return will be cheerfully paid. 

Gen. Louis Wagner. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Relic of Ciiristopher Columbus. — The following item appears in 
the Chronicle, Columbia, S. C, June 25, 1845: "The iron bolt to 
which Christopher Columbus w^as chained, during his imprisonment 
in St. Domingo, has been received at the town of Newbern, N. C. 
It was procured by Robert S. Moore, late Pursur in the U. S. Navy, 
recently deceased. It is indeed a curious and interesting relic." 
Can anyone locate this old relic? 

Gen. Edward Lacey. — The South Carolina Historical and Genea- 
logical Magazine for Oct., 1902, p. 246, has the following valuable 

Mr. Owen would have gathered a new item in the life of Lacey if 
he could have seen the roll of Lacey's first Revolutionary company 
which was published in the last issue of this magazine. He would 
also have seen that Reuben Lact;y was not a Tory, at least at the 
beginning of the war. And he would have found an interesting item 
in the following obituary notice, published in the City Gazette and 
Commercial Daily Advertiser, Charleston, S. C, Saturday, July 3, 

♦See pp. 41-44 of the July, 1902, issue of this Magazine for Lacey 
Genealogy, etc. 

Notes and Queries. 293 

"Died, lately, in Kentucky, Gen. Edward Lacey, an old and firm 
patriot of the Revolution. He was for many years a member of the 
Legislature of this State, and held many other conspicuous and 
honorable posts as a public officer of the State, and formerly a resi- 
dent of Chester District. The name of Lacey will ever be cherished 
by those who know him well — as a soldier, public officer and citizen." 

Reconstruction in Alabama. — I desire to renew my request for 
data published in the Nov., 1902, issue of this Magazine, p. 221. I 
should also like information in regard to any of the men named be- 
low: C. C. Sheets, in the Alabama Convention of 1861; Lieutenant 
John T. Musgrove and Lieutenant Wilkinson, conscript officers in 
Blount county, 1863; Clark Livingston and James Ooten, enrolling 
officers in Winston county, 1863; Major E. Hollis, (probably from 
Pike county), Colonel Holly, and Captain W. C. Dowd, who were in 
Montgomery, March, 1864; Hon. James Johnston and Dr. Tuggles, 
of Columbus, Georgia, and George Reese, of West Point, 1864, (they 
may have lived across the line in Alabama) ; W. C. Brown, Jr., 
Thomas Lambert, James Wood (hanged by Confederate cavalry as 
a traitor), Parton Pardemon, John H. Paster (son-in-law of Wood), 
T. J. Pennington and J. W. Joiner, all of Randolph or adjoining 
counties in 1864; Abner R. Hill, Wedowee, Randolph county in 1864; 
Theophilus Burke, Meriwether county, Georgia, and Randolph coun- 
ty, Alabama, 1864; Lieutenant N. B. D. Armon, Talladega, 1864; L. 
McKee, Captain M. D. Robinson, Lieutenant Colonel E. B. Smith, 
Dr. R. L. Robinson (also a Methodist preacher), W. W. Dodson, 
William Kent, David A. Perryman, H. W. Armstrong, A. A. West, 
all of Randolph county about 1864; Captain WTLliam T. Smith, 
Demopolis, 1864; J. J. Giers, (brother-in-law of Governor Patton), 
Lauderdale county, 1864; Colonel H. W. Walter, Braxton Bragg's, A. 
A. General, 1864; Major McGaughey (General Roddey's brother-in- 
law), 1864-5; Lieutenant W. Alexander, in Roddey's command, 1865. 
Most of the officers named above were connected with the conscript 
service or with the reserves. 

Walter L. Fleming. 

Columbia University in the 

City of New York. 

;< : t" 


Confederate MpifOMENT at Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Va. — 
The monument erected to the known and unknown Confederate dead 
buried in the cemeteries of Philadelphia, Pa., "by the Dabney M. 
Maury Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy of that city, was 
unveiled in Hollywood cemetery on the afternoon of Oct. 25, 1902. 
The exercises were witnessed by a large concourse of people. The 
Speakers were Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, Dr. Thomas Nelson Page, and 
Hon. John Cadwalader, of Philadelphia. Hon. J. Taylor Ellyson 
presided. Rev. W. R. L. Smith, pastor of the Second Baptist Church, 
and a former member of Gen. Forrest's cavalry command, made the 
opening prayer. Then the hymn, "Nearer, My God, to Thee" was 
sung, accompanied by a band. After the addresses the monument 
was unveiled by Miss Dabney Maury Halsey. This was followed by a 
salute. j 

Emblem of the St. Louis Exposition. — The contest for the design 
to be adopted as the official emblem of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position was decided Nov. 25, 1902. The winner was Charles Hollo- 
way, now of Clinton, Iowa. The successful design contains five 
figures. One, in the center, is a woman representing the territory 
of Louisiana. By her side stands Columbia, placing around her the 
American flag. The garments of France have fallen from her and 
lie at her feet. The colors of the French flag and the fieur de lis 
are plainly recognizable in them. In the background is a boat con- 
taining two figures — Progress and Rectitude. In front of Columbia 
and by the side of Louisiana sits the figure of a woman representing 
France holding in her lap the treaty of the Louisiana territory. Drap- 
ed over her arm is the tri-color of France. She holds in one hand the 
sword of municipality. The border contains four large figures, typi- 
fying Agriculture, Commerce, Art and Science. Above are two small 
figures of Genius and Progress crowning Art and Science with a 
laurel wreath. In the lower corners are two shields with the colors 
of France bordered with the colors of France and the United States. 
The design is intended as the official seal for poster purposes, medal 
and any purpose connected with the Exposition. The scheme of 
colors comprises red, white, blue and yellow, representing the United 
States, France, and Spain. 

Mr. Holloway was born in Philadelphia forty-two years ago and ' I 

came to St. Louis when eleven years of age. He was a student in the 
St. Louis Art School several years, and was the winner of the prize 
offered by the Chicago Inter-Ocean for a figure typical of Chicago. 
In that contest Mr. Holloway's design was a woman, on whose breast 
were the words, "I Will." 

Historical News. 295 

Tiie Purchase of Beauvoib. — The present movement looking to the 
establishment of a Confederate Soldiers Home at Beauvoir, President 
Jefferson Davis's old home, had its birth at the annual meeting of 
the Mississippi Division of the United Sons of Confederate Veterans 
held at Meridian March 11 and 12, 1902. At that meeting Hon. 
T. M. Henry, of Jackson, Miss., offered a resolution that the 
press of Mississippi, and the outside papers circulating in this terri- 
tory, be requested to open their columns for popular subscriptions to 
secure the purchase money of ten thousand dollars, at which price 
Mrs. Davis agreed to sell the historic place for a soldiers' home. 
Mr. Henry was appointed a committee of one to lay the resolution 
before the papers and request their assistance in the praise-worthy 
and hitherto neglected undertaking. The movement met with suc- 
cess and in a few months $8,500 was subscribed in cash, and enough 
enthusiasm aroused to insure the raising of the remainder of $1,500 
without delay. 

It is also believed a sufficient sum will be secured in addition to re- 
pair the home and maintain it till the Legislature convenes, when 
it will be presented to the State with the understanding, that an an- 
nual appropriation be made by the Legislature to properly maintain 
it. There seems no doubt about the Legislature's doing this. Mr. 
Geo. C. Myers, of Holly Springs, was appointed at the recent meeting 
of the "Sons" in this city to make a personal canvass to secure the re- 
mainder of the money needed. He will soon start on his mission. 

The Daughters of the Confederacy are now raising funds to equip 
the home after it is purchased. They already have a considerable 
sum on hand. They will be given proper recognition on the board 
of management. 

Beauvoir, aside from its associations, is an ideal spot for the pur- 
pose designed. It is situated on the Mississippi Sound, with a wide 
and beautiful expanse of water in front and healthful pine hills be- 
hind. The Louisville and Nashville Railroad passes through the 
tract, which consists of one hundred and twenty-eight acres, at 
Beauvoir station, only half a mile distant from the home proper. 

Annual Meeting of the Boabd of Trustees of the Mississippi 
Department of Archives and History. — The board of trustees of the 
department of archives and history held its first annual session on 
Oct. 3, 1902, to review the atTairs of the department, and to receive 
the report of the director. 

This is the first report made of the affairs of the department, and it 
deals exhaustively with its organization and the materials collected. 
It reviews the causes which led up to the creation of the depart- 
ment, and the general movement all over the State for the preser- 
vation of historical materials, evidencing a healthy State pride in 
history, and especially the efforts of the various patriotic socie- 
ties in collecting reliable historical data. Chief among these socie- 

296 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ties named are the Mississippi Historical Society, the United Con- 
federate Veterans and the Sons and Daughters of Veterans. 

An outline of the legislation creating the department, together 
with the suggestions contained in the message of Gov. Longino are 
also given. 

After this preliminary the report proceeds with minutes of the 
first. meeting of the board of trustees of the department; treats ex-' 
tensively of the condition of the State's archives, showing the neglect 
with which they were treated before the department took charge of 
them. They were found stored in the third story of the old capitol 
building without a custodian, and without a friend. They were 
scattered and tumbled about on the floor and piled in boxes, and 
looked upon as rubbish and waste paper. 

The archives are traced through their wanderings "in the Wilder- 
ness" like the Israelites, their removal from "Old Concord," Natchez, 
Washington, Columbia, Jackson, Enterprise, Meridian, Columbus and 
Macon. A complete and concise description of five boxes of archives 
is given under the various subdivisions of Provincial, Territorial, 
State, beginning with the French, Spanish and English occupation 
of the State. It describes the original executive journal of Gov. 
Winthrop Sargent, containing 245 letters, dating 1798 to 1801, and 
the celebrated Sargent laws, in forty-four manuscripts. It also de- 
scribes the Executive Journals of Gov. William C. C. Claiborne, con- 
taining 1,700 letters, which the report states is most valuable his- 
torical material of a primary character, relating to the early days in 
Mississippi territory and the Louisiana purchase and the battle of 
New Orleans. 

Other valuable materials cited in the report are: The official let- 
ters of Gov. Robert Williams, 100 in number; the Executive Journal 
of Gov. David Holmes, 1810 to 1814, 662 letters; 679 letters of Gov. 
Holmes; letters of Acting Governors Dangerfield, Ware and Wade, 
and the legislative archives and original legislative journals of the 
earliest territorial times; the State archives of Govs. Holmes, Poin- 
dexter, Leake, Brandon, Scott, Runnels, McNutt, Tucker, Brown, 
Matthews, Quitman, Guion, Whitfield, Foote, McRae, McWillie, 
Pettus, Clark, Sharkey, Humphreys, Ames and Alcorn. 

The discovery of the Confederate war records of the State is set 
out at length, and the value o£ this splendid find to the department 
is set forth. The records comprise the rosters of 765 companies 
raised in Mississippi, order books, military telegrams, letters and 
other historical data. (See this Magazine, Sept., 1902, pp. 147-9, for 
further description.) 

The Hall of Fame vote, and the result of the ballot, is set out in 
full, and made a matter of history. 

The report refers to thirty-five portraits of distinguished Missip- 
pians which have been donated to the department by families of the 

Historical News. 297 

dead, and to valuable contributions of newspapers which have been 
collected; sketches by leading writers and literary men; the news- 
papers sent complimentary to the department, and then closes with a 
financial report. 

The report shows that the most satisfactory progress has been 
made since the establishment of the department, and already has it 
been thoroughly organized. The materials have been collated and 
arranged for convenience of ready reference as far as can be done 
in the cramped quarters at present occupied, but when the depart- 
ment is accommodated in the new capitol building a new era will 
begin for it and for the State in the establishment of an institution 
of such a worthy character. 

The trustees completed their labors on the morning of Oct. 4, after 
which it adjourned. Aside from reading the report of Director 
Rowland and auditing the accounts there was little of interest done. 
The trustees went over the entire work done by Mr. Rowland in or- 
ganizing the department and outlined the plans for its future work. 
They were extremely well pleased with the progress that has been 
made and strongly commended the director. 

Judge Kimbrough offered the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted: 

"Resolved, That the diligence displayed by Hon. Dunbar Rowland 
in the discharge of his duties as director of the Department of Ar- 
chives and History are most gratifying to this board, and entitle 
him to the gratitude of the people of the State. His success is 
phenomenal, demonstrating his entire fitness for the position. We 
tender him our most cordial thanks for his most faithful discharge 
of duty under exceptional difficulties." 

On the night of the 3rd the members of the board and other guests 
were entertained by the director at a banquet. There were present 
Gen. S. D. Lee, Chancellor R. B. Fulton, Judge S. S. Calhoon, Dr. 
R. W. Jones, Judge Robert Powell, Judge B. T. Kimbrough, Hon. J. 
R. Preston, Hon. C. H. Alexander, Dr. Franklin L. Riley, Prof. J. M. 
White and Prof. G. H. Brunson. The toasts were as follows: 
"Records of Mississippi," Gen. S. D. Leej "The University in the 
History of Mississippi," Chancellor R. B. Fulton; "The Confederate 
Soldier," Judge S. S. Calhoon; "An Educated Womanhood," Hon. 
J. R. Preston; "The Law in History," Hon. C. H. Alexander; "The 
Historical Society," Dr. F. L. Riley. Judge Powell presided as toast- 



Essays and Poems is the title of a small pamphlet of prose and 
verse by George Newman Ward, late of Abbeville, Ala. (1902; 12 
mo. pp. 53.) 

A revision of Chart No. 577, Fernandina to Jacksonville, Fla., has 
been issued by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

The U. S. Geological Survey has issued (1902) the "Pauls Valley" 
and the "Rush Springs" quadrangles, topographic sheets of parts 
of the Indian Territory. 

Judge C. W. Raines, of Austin, Texas, whose Year Book for Texas, 
1901, has been previously noticed (Sept., 1902, p. 163), announces the 
second volume of this work. It is to cover 1902-1903. 

Clifford Lanier, Esq., of Montgomery, Ala., a brother of the lament- 
ed Sidney Lanier, has issued through the Gorham Press, Boston, a 
beautiful little volume of verse entitled Appollo d Keats on Browning 
(1902; 12 mo. pp. 77.) The title poem is a fantasy, while the remain- 
ing selections consist of short poems many of which had previously 
appeared. There are several negro dialect poems written by the 
brothers, Sidney and Clifford Lanier, duo, who were the pioneers in 
this genre. 

Messrs. F. F. Hansell & Bro., limited, of New Orleans, announce 
the appearance early in 1903 of a new edition of Gayarre's History 
of Louisiana. This reprint is rendered necessary owing to the fact 
that all previous editions have been out of print for several years, 
and a considerable demand for the work has arisen. The only 
change will be an introduction and biography of the author, by Miss 
Grace King, and an analytical index prepared by William Beer, Li- 
brarian of the Fisk Free and Public Library, and of the Howard 
Memorial Library. 

Biological Laboratory Methods (The Macmillan Co., 1902; 12 mo. 
pp. 321, illustrations) , is the title of a text-book by Dr. Patrick Hues 
Mell, prepared for students, and intended to give full and clear in- 
structions concerning the use Of the miscroscope and other instru- 
ments and methods required in biological laboratories. Dr. Mell at 
the time of its preparation was the director of the Alabama Experi- 
ment Station at Auburn, but he is now the president of Clemson 
College, S. C. 

Book Notes and Reviews. 299 

The Tennessee Valley Historical Society has issued its Circular 
No. 2, the title of which is Preliminary- Announcement, 1902; Consti- 
tution; and Roll of Members (8 vo. pp. 4.) This Society was or- 
ganized Sept. 3, 1903 (see this Magazine, Nov. 1902, p. 226), and 
now has on its roll fifty-two members. The. president is Hon. Richard 
W. Walker, of Huntsville, and the secretary is Oliver D. Street, Esq., 
of Guntersville, Ala. A volume containing its Proceedings and 
Papers is announced for publication during 1903. 

The Publications of the Southern History Association, November, 
1902, concludes Kate Furman's paper on "General Sumter and his 
Neighbors," and continues the "Early Quaker Records in Virginia." 
The first installment of a journal, kept by Wm, H. Wills is given 
under the title of "A Southern Sulky Ride in 1837, from North Caro- 
lina to Alabama." The introductory note enclosed in brackets is 
prepared by Prof. George S. Wills, of Westminster, Md., presumably 
a descendant. The use of sundry brackets and parentheses mars 
the page, and has no justification in the matter of clearness or neces- 
sity. Why such a title should be given this old diary or journal is 
hard to conjecture. "Conditions in North Carolina in 1783" is the 
title of a letter written by John Sitgreaves, June 18, 1783, to Cap- 
tain John Davis. Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, who contributed the letter 
from his private collection, has a review of Miss Mary S. Locke's 
Anti-Slavery in America and also of Dr. J. C. Ballagh's History of 
Slavery in Virginia. 

The Sewanee Review for October, 1902, completes the tenth volume 
of this periodical. It has the following contents: "Robert Louis 
Stevenson," by Marie Louis Whiting; "Rhythm and the Science of 
Poetry," by Paul Elmer More; "The Naval Administration of the 
Southern States during the Revolution," by C. 0> Paullin; "The 
Correspondence of John C. Calhoun," by Gustavus M. Pinckney; 
"The Rev. George Patterson, D. D./' by Bishop Thomas F. Gailor; 
"The Social Question and the Christian Answer," by Kemper Bo- 
cock; "Two Dramas," by G. B. Rose; "The Future of the Democratic 
Party," by Messrs. McNeal and Mikell; "Ten Years of the Sewanee 
Review," by Dr. John Bell Henneman, the present editor; Reviews, 
Notes, etc. The story, in the last article, of the founding and his- 
tory of the undertaking is told by Dr. Henneman in a most interest- 
ing way. The hopes of the founders, Dr. Wm. P. Trent and Dr. 
B. Lav/ton Wiggins, have been more than realized, and at the end of 
its first decade the Review stands easily at the head of the Southern 
periodicals of "the type of the English Review." 

The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine for 
October, 1902, (vol. iii, No. 4) has an interesting body of contents, 

300 The Gdxf States Historical Magazine. 

principally documentary, as follows: "Papers of the Second Council 
of Safety/' "Officers of the So. Ca. Regiment in the Cherokee War," 
"Letters of Hon. Henry Laurens to his son John," and "Capt. John 
Colcock and Some of his Descendants," with notes, queries, etc. The 
genealogy is by the accomplished editor, Alexander S. Salley, Jr., 
and is not only elaborate, bringing the family record down to the 
present generation, but it is fortified by numerous citations. 

The Yirginia Magazine of History and Biography for October, 1902 
(vol. x, No. 2) contains "The Germans of the Valley," by John W. 
Wayland, "Ferrar Papers," "Henry County," "Abridgement of Vir- 
ginia Laws, 1694," "The John Brown Letters," "Some Colonial Let- 
ters," "Pioneer Days in Alleghany County," "Virginia Militia in the 
Revolution," "Will of Wilson Cary, 1772," "List of Tithables in 
Northampton County, Virginia, 1666," Genealogy (the Brooke, Hern- 
don, Cocke, Gray, Bowie, Robb, Lindsay, Minor, RoBards and Farrar 
families), Notes, Reviews, etc. 

The South Atlantic Quarterly concludes its first volume with a 
list of valuable papers (Oct., 1902, vol. i, No. 4): "The Reign of 
Passion," "The Principle of Neutralization applied to Canals," by 
John H. Latane; "The Principle of Instructing United States 
Senators," by Dr. Wm. E. Dodd; "On Manitoulin," by Dr. Bernard 
C. Steiner; "Pure Scholarship," by Henry F. Linscott; "The South 
and Service Pension Laws," by Dr. Wm. H. Glassom; "Some Un- 
noticed Evils of Untruth," by Dr. Wm. I. Cranford; "William 
Lowndes," by Fannie White Carr; "How a Young Man built up 
History in Mississippi" (the reference being to Dr. F. L. Riley), 
Reviews, Notes, etc. 

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Gulf States Historical 

Vol. 1, No. 5. Montgomery, Ala., March, 1903. Whole No. 5. 


By Charles Edgeworth Jones, of Augusta. 

Charles Colcock Jones, Jr., the subject of the present sketch, 
was born in the city of Savannah, Georgia, on the 28th of Octo- 
ber, 1 83 1. He is descended from an old and honored lineage, 
in which the best blood of the Pinckneys, Haynes, Swintons 
and Legares of the Palmetto commonwealth commingles, 
his earliest ancestor, in the male line, having removed from 
England to Charleston, South Carolina, more than two centuries 
ago. His great-grandfather, John Jones, who was the first of 
the family coming from South Carolina to Georgia, was a rice 
planter in St. "John's Parish. During the Revolutionary war, 
he espoused the cause of the patriots, and, as a major in the 
continental army, fell before the British lines around Savannah 
during the sanguinary assault by the allied French and Ameri- 
can forces under D'Estaing and Lincoln on the 9th of October, 
1779. On that memorable occasion he acted in the capacity of 
aide-de-camp to Brigadier-General Lachlan Mcintosh; and 
met a soldier's death from a cannon ball while gallantly lead- 
ing a charge on the fateful Spring Hill redoubt. It should 
also be mentioned that his grandfather, in the maternal line, 
was Captain Joseph Jones, who, as commander of the famous 
Liberty Independent Troop, worthily distinguished himself in 
the War of 1812; and thus is our subject's claim to sturdy an- 
cestry fully substantiated. 

Rev. Chas. C. Jones, D. D., father of the historian, a distin- 
guished Presbyterian divine, was, at the time of his son's birth, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church in the city of Savannah. 
Resigning his charge in November, 1832, he removed with his 
family to his plantation in Liberty county, Georgia, where he 
devoted his energies to the religious instruction of the negroes. 
He was the apostle to that benighted people, and freely gave 

302 The Gulf States Histobical Magazine. 

his time, talents and money to their evangelization, and the im- 
provement of their moral and religious condition. 

Dr. Jones was a gentleman of liberal education, a wealthy 
planter, an eloquent pulpit orator, at one time Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History in the Theological Seminary at Columbia, 
South Carolina, and for some years he occupied the position, at 
Philadelphia, of Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Do- 
mestic Missions. He was the author of several works on the 
religious instruction of the negroes, of a Catechism specially 
prepared for their spiritual enlightenment, and of a History of 
the Church of God. 

Colonel Jones' boyhood was spent at the paternal homes — 
Monte- Video and Maybank plantations in Liberty county. At 
the former, — which was a rice and sea-island cotton plantation 
on North Newport river,— the winter residence was fixed, while 
the latter — a sea-island cotton plantation — located on Colonel's 
Island, lying between the island of St. Catharine and the main- 
land, was the summer retreat. The region abounded in game 
and fish. An indulgent father generously supplied his sons* 
with guns, dogs, horses, row-boats and sail-boats, and fishing 
tackle. As a natural consequence Colonel Jones, at an early 
age, became an adept with the fowling-piece, the rifle, the rod 
and the line. This out-door exercise and these field sports laid 
the foundations for a fine constitution, and encouraged an am- 
bition to excel in shooting, riding, swimming, fishing, and sail- 
ing. The opportunity as thus afforded for enjoyment and 
manly diversions was exceptional, and the training then ex- 
perienced produced a lasting impression. The civilization of 
the Georgia coast, under the patriarchal system then existent, 
was refined, liberal, and generous. The school was excellent 
for the development of manly traits. 

The early studies of Col. Jones were pursued at home, gen- 
erally under private tutors; occasionally under the immediate 
supervision of his father. In 1848 he repaired to South Caro- 
lina College at Columbia, where his Freshman and Sophomore 
years were passed. That institution was then in the zenith 
of its prosperity, being presided over by the Hon. William C. 
Preston, who was assisted by such professors as Dr. Francis 
Lieber and Dr. Thornwell. Subsequently matriculated at 
Nassau Hall, Princeton, New Jersey, in the Junior class of 1850, 
Colonel Jones at once took high rank among his fellows ; and, 
graduating with distinction he received his A. B. diploma from 
this college in June, 1852. 

Selecting the law as his profession, he went to Philadelphia, 
and, as a student, entered the office of Samuel H. Perkins, Esq. 

♦The late Prof. Joseph Jones, M. D., LL D., of New Orleans, was 
the other. 

Col. Charles C. Jojses, Jr. 303 

After reading law here for about a year, he matriculated at 
Dane Law School, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, from which institution he received in 1855 his degree of 
LL. B. While he was a member of that law school, Joel 
Parker, Theophilus Parsons, and Edward G. Loring were the 
professors. Besides taking his regular law-course, he attend- 
ed the lectures of Professor Agassiz, Mr. Longfellow, Dr. 
Wyman, Professor Lowell and Dr. Holmes. 

Returning home in the winter qf 1854, he entered the law 
office of Ward and Owens in Savannah, and was called to the 
bar in that, his native city, on the 24th of May, 1855. In due 
course he was admitted to plead and practice in the Supreme 
Court of Georgia; in the Sixth Circuit Court of the United 
States; in the District Court of the Confederate States; and 
in the Supreme Court of the United States. 

During the second year of his professional life, he became 
the junior partner of the law firm of Ward, Owens and Jones. 
When Mr. Ward went abroad as United States Minister to 
China, Mr. Owens retired from the firm, and the Hon. Henry 
R. Jackson, late United States Minister to Austria, was admit- 
ted as a member. The firm continued to be Ward, Jackson 
and Jones until Judge Jackson took his seat upon the bench as 
Judge of the District Court of the Confederate States of 
America for the District of Georgia. The business of this 
law firm was large and lucrative. 

On the 9th of November, 1858, Colonel Jones married Miss 
Ruth Berrien Whitehead of Burke county, Georgia. He was 
married a second time on the 28th of October, 1863, to Miss 
Eva Berrien Eve* of Augusta, Georgia, a niece of the late Dr. 
Paul F. Eve of Nashville, Tennessee. These ladies were, re- 
spectively, niece and grandniece of the Hon. John MacPherson 
Berrien, attorney-general of the United States during President 
Jackson's administration, and afterwards United States Senator 
from Georgia. 

In 1859 Colonel Jones was chosen an alderman of Savannah, 
and, in the following year, he was, without solicitation, nomi- 
nated and elected mayor of that city, — a position, writes Gover- 
nor Stephens, seldom, if ever before, conferred on one so young, 
by a corporation possessing so much wealth, population, and 
commercial importance. With the exception of this position of 
mayor he never held public office in his life, or drew a dol- 
lar of the people's money. 

During the term of his mayorality the Confederate Revolu- 
tion was precipitated, and many abnormal questions arose de- 
manding for their solution serious consideration and prompt de- 

*A sketch of the writer, a son of this marriage, will be found in the 
Trans. Ala. Hist. Society, 1898-99, vol. iii, p. 128, note. 

304 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

cision. Colonel Jones was a secessionist, and it is believed that 
one of the earliest public addresses on the situation, delivered in 
Savannah, fell from his lips. 

Declining a re-election to the mayoralty, he joined the Chat- 
ham Artillery — Captain Claghorn — of which light battery he 
was the senior first lieutenant. He had been mustered into 
Confederate service with that battery, as its senior first lieu- 
tenant, on the 31st of July, 1861, and remained on leave until 
his labors in the capacity of mayor were concluded. The Chat- 
ham Artillery was then stationed on the Georgia coast. 

In the fall of 1862 the subject of this sketch was promoted 
to the grade of Lieutenant Colonel of Artillery, P. A. C. S., and 
was assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery for the Military Dis- 
trict of Georgia. The assignment was important, and the com- 
mand extensive, including some eight light batteries and nearly 
two hundred guns in fixed position. This command was sub- 
sequently enlarged so as to embrace the artillery in the Third 
Military District of South Carolina. His headquarters were 
established at Savannah. 

Colonel Jones was brought into intimate personal and mili- 
tary relations with General Beauregard, Lieutenant General 
Hardee, Major Generals McLaws, Gilmer, Taliaferro, and Pat- 
ton Anderson, and Brigadier Generals Mercer, Lawton, and 
others. He loved, and took a special pride in the artillery arm 
of the service, and preferred it to any other branch. In illustra- 
tion of his partiality in this regard, it may be stated that at one 
time a commission of Brigadier General of Infantry was ten- 
dered him, which he declined. The artillery, both light and 
heavy in the Military District of Georgia, was remarkable for 
its proficiency. 

Colonel Jones was Chief of Artillery during the siege of 
Savannah in December, 1864, which he has so graphically de- 
scribed in his work on that subject, and he figured prominently 
in the defense of the city. He was at one time in command of 
the field artillery on James Island during the siege of Charleston, 
and at another time was Chief of Artillery on the start of Major 
General Patton Anderson in Florida. Upon the fall of 
Savannah he was summoned by General Hardee to the position 
of Chief of Artillery upon his staff, and was included in the 
surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston's army, which oc- 
curred near Greensboro, North Carolina, in April, 1865. 

Retrogressing slightly, we record the fact that in 1859 the 
career of Colonel Jones as an author and man of letters was, 
properly speaking, inaugurated. His Indian Remains in South- 
ern Georgia — an address before the Georgia Historical Society 
on its twentieth anniversary, was then issued in pamphlet form. 
A few months later, or in 1861, appeared his Monumental Re- 

Col. Charles C. Joxes, Ju. 305 

mains of Georgia, of interest as the first of his numerous books. 
In the same year, his Oration on the Occasion of the Seventy-. 
Fifth Anniversary of the Chatham Artillery, and his official 
Report as Mayor of Savannah, were also given to the public. 

Late in December, 1865, Colonel Jones removed with his 
family to New York City, and there resumed the practice of 
his profession, which had been interrupted by the war. His 
success in that new abode was gratifying, and he continued to 
reside there until his return to Georgia in 1877. 

Of the pleasure and profit which he derived from his sojourn 
in that great city, and of the broad and lasting influence ex- 
erted upon his intellectual life, there can be no question. His 
association with the literary characters and societies of the 
metropolis was most agreeable. The scope of his intellectual 
vision was enlarged, and his aspirations were elevated. He 
there enjoyed opportunities for study and literary research 
which he could not elsewhere have so conveniently commanded. 

Among the proofs of his literary labor as there performed, we 
may refer to his Historical Sketch of the Chatham Artillery 
during the Confederate Straggle for Independence (1867),- 
Ancient Tumuli on the Savannah River (1868), Historical 
Sketch of Tomo-Chi-Chi, Mice of the Yamacraws (1868), 
Ancient Tumili in Georgia (1869), Reminiscences of the Last 
Days, Death and Burial of General Lee (1870), Casimir 
Pulaski, an Address before the Georgia Historical Society on 
its Thirty-Second Anniversary (1873), Antiquities of the 
Southern Indians, particularly of the Georgia Tribes (1873), 
Antiquity of the North American Indians (1874), The Siege 
of Savannah in iff% as described in two Contemporaneous 
Journals of French Officers in the Fleet of Count D'Bstaing 
{translated and annotated — 1874), The Siege of Savannah in 
December, 1864, and the Confederate Operations in Georgia, 
and the Third Military District of South Carolina during Gen- 
eral Sherman's March from Atlanta to the Sea (1874), Ser- 
geant William Jasper, an Address before the Georgia Historical 
Society ( 1876) , A Piece of Secret History ( 1876) , and A Roster 
of General Officers, Heads of Departments, Senators, Repre- 
sentatives, Military Organizations, etc., etc., in Confederate 
Service during the War betzi'cen the States (1876). 

Returning to his native State in the spring of 1877, Colonel 
Jones established his home at "Montrose,'' in the village of 
Summerville, near Augusta, Georgia, where he continued to re- 
side up to the day of his much lamented death which occurred 
on the 19th of July, 1893. His law office was in the city of 

Since his return, collaterally with the practice of his profes- 
sion, he was able to accomplish a world of valuable literary 

306 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

In 1878 his Aboriginal Structures in Georgia was rendered 
into type, and in the same year his Dead Towns of Georgia, his 
Life and Services of Commodore Josiah Tattnall, and his Ora- 
tion upon the occasion of the Unveiling and Dedication of the 
Confederate Monument in Augusta, Georgia, were given to the 

Shortly after the delivery of his Address before the Confeder- 
ate Survivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its first Annual 
Meeting, in April of the following year, Colonel Jones sailed 
for Europe where he spent several months very pleasantly and 
profitably among the treasures and monuments of the Old 
World. The Journal of his travels in England, Scotland, and 
on the Continent consists of some thirteen hundred manuscript 
pages and possesses special interest. 

In addition to the Confederate Address already mentioned, 
the year 1879 likewise witnessed the publication of his Primitive 
Manufacture of Spear and Arrow- Points on the Savannah 
River. Shortly afterwards (in 1880) his Review of Canon 
William Greenwell's British Barrows appeared, together with 
his Hernando de Soto, the adventures encountered and the 
route pursued by the Adelantado during his march through the 
territory embraced within the present geographical limits of the 
State of Georgia, his Address before the Confederate Sur- 
vivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Second Annual Meet- 
ing, his Memorial presented by Jean Pierre Purry of Neuf- 
chatel, Switzerland, to His Grace, My Lord the Duke of New- 
castle, Chamberlain of His Majesty, King George, etc, and 
Secretary of State, upon the present condition of Carolina and 
the Means of its Amelioration (translated, annotated and pri- 
vately printed), and his Centres of Primitive Manufacture in 

The chronological order of publication of Colonel Jones' sub- 
sequent writings has been as follows : The Georgia Historical 
Society; its Founders, Patrons and Friends (1881), An Ad- 
dress before the Confederate Survivors' Association of Augusta, 
Ga,, at its Third Annual Meeting (1881), William Fezv, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of Georgia Militia in the Revolutionary Service 
(1881), An Address before the Confederate Survivors Associa- 
tion of Augusta, Ga., at its Fourth Annual Meeting (1882), 
Review of Sir John Evans' Ancient Bronze Implements, 
Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain and Ireland (1882). 
Silver Crosses from an Indian Grave Mount at Coosawattee Old 
Tow-n in Murray County, Georgia (1883), Military Lessons in- 
cidcated on the Coast of Georgia during the Confederate War, 
An Address before the Confederate Survivors' Association of 
Augusta, Ga., at its Fifth Annual Meeting (1883), Funeral 
Oration upon the occasion of the Obsequies of Governor Alex- 

Col. Chakles C. Jones, Jr. 307 

ander H. Stephens (1883), The History of Georgia; Vol. I, 
Aboriginal and Colonial Epochs; Vol. II, Revolutionary Epoch; 
(Boston and New York, 1S83), General Sherman's March from 
Atlanta to the Coast, an address before the Confederate Sur- 
vivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Sixth Annual Meet- 
ing (1884), The Life and Services of Ex-Governor Charles 
Jones Jenkins (1884), Historical and Geographical Sketch of 
Georgia (1884), Button Gzvinnett (1884), The Necessity for 
Increasing the Salaries of the Judicial Officers of Georgia, an 
address before the Georgia Bar Association (1885) ; The Bat- 
tle of Honey Hill, an address before the Confederate Survivors' 
Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Seventh Annual Meeting 
(1885), A Primitive Storehouse of the Creek Indians (1885), 
The Seizure and Reduction of Fort Pulaski (1885), Sepulture 
of Major-General Nathanael Greene and of Brig.-General 
Count Casimir Pulaski (1885), Bombardments and Capture of 
Fort McAllister (1885), The Life, Literary Labors, and Neg- 
lected Grave of Richard Henry Wilde (1885), Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Robert Toombs, an address before the Confederate Sur- 
vivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Eighth Annual Meet- 
ing (1886), Biographical Sketch of the Honorable Major John 
Habersham of Georgia (1886), Negro Slaves and their Rela- 
tions to the Confederate Government during the Civil War 
(1886), Monument to Gwinnett, Hall, and Walton, Signers 
from Georgia of the Declaration of Independence (1887), The 
Old South; address before the Confederate Survivors' Associa- 
tion of Augusta, Ga., at its Ninth Annual Reunion (1887), 
The Life and Services of the Honorable Major General Samuel 
Elbert of Georgia (1887), Hon. R. M. T. Hunter, Post-Bellum 
Mortality among Confederates; address before Confederate 
Survivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Quarterly Meet- 
ing (1887), Memorandum of Route pursued by Colonel Camp~ 
bell in 1779, from Savannah to Augusta, Georgia, (annotated, 
1887), The English Colonization of Georgia, 1733 — 1752, 
"Narrative and Critical History of America/' Vol. V, (1887), 
The Evacuation of Battery Wagner, and the Battle of Ocean 
Pond, address before Confederate Survivors' Association of 
Augusta, Ga., at its Tenth Annual Reunion (1888), — Negro 
Myths from the Georgia Coast, told in the vernacular (1888), — 
The Promulgation of the Declaration of Independence in 
Savannah, Georgia (188S), — A Roster of the General Officers 
of the Confederate States of America (1889), Address at Mid- 
way Meeting House in Liberty County, Ga., (1889), Georgians 
during the War between the States; address before Confeder- 
ate Survivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Eleventh An- 
nual Reunion (18S9), The Confederate Civil List, (1889), 
Kings, Presidents and Governors of Georgia, 1732-1889 ( 1889) , 

308 ■ The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Funeral Oration in honor of President Jefferson Davis (1889), 
The Siege and Evacuation of Savannah, Georgia, in December, 
1864; address before Confederate Survivors' Association, of 
Augusta, Ga., at its Twelfth Annual Reunion (1890), Memorial 
History of Augusta, Georgia, during the Eighteenth Century 
(1890), Memorial History of Savannah, Georgia, during the 
Eighteenth Century (1890), Dr. Lyman Hall, Governor of 
Georgia in 1783 (1891), Sons of Confederate Veterans; ad- 
dress before Confederate Survivors' Association, of Augusta, 
Ga., at its Thirteenth Annual Reunion (1891), John MacPher- 
son Berrien; address before Georgia Bar Association (1891), 
Biographical Sketches of the Delegates from Georgia to the 
Continental Congress (1891), Address before the Confederate 
Survivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Fourteenth An- 
nual Reunion (1892), Oglethorpe as a Landed Proprietor in 
Georgia (1892), The Jews and their connection zvith the Colony 
of Georgia, (1893), an d Military Operations in Georgia during 
the War between the States, address before the Confederate 
Survivors' Association of Augusta, Ga., at its Fifteenth Annual 
Reunion (1893). 

In addition to the foregoing publications, Colonel Jones has 
edited, with prefatory note, The History of the Church of God 
during the Period of Revelation ; by Rev. Charles Colcock 
Jones, D. D., (1867) ; and he has likewise edited, with prefatory 
notes and annotations, Acts passed by the General Assembly of 
the Colony of Georgia, 1755 to 1774, (1881), and A Journal of 
the Transactions of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of 
Georgia, in America; by the Rt. Honorable John Earl of Eg- 
mont, Viscount Perceval, etc., first President of the Board of 
Trustees of the Colony of Georgia (1886). 

Thus do we see that Colonel Jones's permanent publications 
number eighty ; of which fourteen are books, ten are pamphlets, 
twenty-nine are addresses, five are works edited and translated, 
and twenty-two are magazine articles. 

The truth is, while he in no wise neglected his profession, 
or failed in the discharge of duties appurtenant to it, law was 
never to him a very jealous mistress. For him history, bio- 
graphy, and archaeology presented enticing attractions. Gover- 
nor Stephens bore testimony to this fact when he said : "He has 
not permitted the calls of his profession, however, to absorb all 
his time and energy. By a methodical economy in the arrange- 
ment of business peculiar to himself, he has, even under the 
greatest pressure of office duties, found leisure to contribute 
largely to the literature as well as science of the country by his 

In this rapid summary of the writings of Colonel Jones, we 
have not paused to consider the works by which his reputation 

Col. Charles C. Jones, Jb. • 309 

was achieved, and through which it will be perpetuated. We 
refer more especially to his Antiquities of the Southern Indians, 
and to his History of Georgia. As the one was instrumental in 
introducing him to the scholars and scientists of the Old World, 
and in establishing his claims as an eminent authority upon the 
subject of Archaeology, so did the admirable qualities of the 
other commend it to the attention of the venerable Bancroft, 
and win for its author the appellation of the "Macaulay of the 
South." \ 

Erect in carriage, six feet high, powerfully built, with broad 
shoulders surmounted by a massive head covered with a wealth 
of ringlets sprinkled with grey, with genial countenance, hand- 
some features, and a lofty brow overhanging a pair of penetrat- 
ing blue eyes, Colonel Jones was at once a man of commanding 
presence, and the soul of courtliness and grace. Eloquent in 
utterance, wise in counsel, decisive in action, public-spirited, 
liberal to the extent of his means, with a charity and sympathy 
as broad as the race, high-toned in sentiment and act, and noble 
and generous in his impulses, he presented an attractive portrait 
of unselfishness and earnest devotion to duty, challenging the 
respect and confidence of all. To charming conversational 
powers, social qualities of a high order, and an affable address, 
he united varied and comprehensive knowledge, a retentive 
memory, a mind open to all impressions, and an interest in 
everything savoring of intellectual development. His energy 
and activity were never more apparent than when engaged upon 
any literary composition. He then worked with great rapidity, 
seldom revising or reading his MS. until it was finished. In 
proof of this assertion we may instance his Siege of Savannah 
in December, 1864, which was written in seven evenings; the 
two volumes of his History of Georgia, which, exclusive of the 
preliminary study involved, were prepared, at odd intervals, 
during seven months ; and his Memorial Histories of Savannah 
and Augusta, Georgia, which were begun and completed with- 
in less than two months. While he possessed the ability of 
rapid composition, he also had that other desirable attribute of 
excellent chirography. His penmanship was faultless, and his 
bold, flowing hand was not only legible but very attractive. 

From his earliest years the subject of this memoir evinced a 
love for the collation and classification of primitive objects. 
His collection, comprising some twenty-five thousand speci- 
mens, is one of unusual interest. It illustrates in the most com- 
plete manner the customs and occupations of the aboriginal 
population prior to the advent of Europeans, and before the 
cruel Spaniards had rudely interrupted their simple methods of 
life. In association with the collection are several hundred 
typical objects of primitive manufacture from Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and other localities. 

310 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

As a collector of autographs and historical documents, 
Colonel Jones occupied a distinguished place among those 
whose tastes were in harmony with his own. His series of 
Autograph Letters and Portraits of the Signers of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, of Autograph Letters and Portraits of 
Presidents of the Continental Congress, of Presidents of the 
United States, and of Vice-Presidents of the United States, of 
Autograph Letters and Portraits of Members of the Continental 
Congress, of Autograph Letters and Portraits of the Chief Jus- 
tices and Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States, and of the Attorneys-General of the United 
States, of Autograph Letters and Portraits of the Delegates to 
the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and of Autograph Letters 
and Portraits of the Signers of the Confederate Constitution, 
are worthy monuments to his industry in this fascinating avenue 
of research. 

His library was well selected, and consists of several thousand 
bound volumes, many of which have been privately illustrated 
at great expense, and in the highest style of the illustrator's art. 
Fine specimens of binding are not infrequent. In works per- 
taining to Georgia and adjacent States his library is especially 

Colonel Jones was twice complimented with the degree of 
Doctor of Laws, and was honored with membership in vari- 
ous literary and scientific societies both in this country and in 
Europe. Viewing the numerous and varied works of his 
accomplished pen, he was, without exaggeration, the most pro- 
lific author Georgia has ever produced and he stood at the head 
of the historical writers of the South of his generation.* 

*It is proper to add, by way of making this sketch more complete, 
that Col. Jones had a sister, Mary S., who married Rev. Robert Q. 
Mallard, of New Orleans. 


By John Witheespoon DcBose, of Montgomery. 


Together and separately, the two subjects of sectional vari- 
ance, tariff taxation and slavery, resident in the original or- 
ganic law of the Union, were released from the reformed Con- 
federate States Constitution. Slaves from all sources of supply 
were denied the right of entrance and taxation of commerce in- 
volving, in the United States, inequitable disbursements of 
taxes between the sources of production, was here denned and 

The mature art of civil conduct, the phenomenal unity in 
aim, the unparalleled achievements in arms on land and seas, 
the all-sufficient material wealth, are the heroic surviving 
records of the Southern Confederacy which mystify to history 
the fact of its fall. Amidst the emblems of the catastrophe, 
there have from time to time risen up interpreters. We are 
told that ignorant slaves of a degraded race were numerous in 
the land ; that ignorance was the primal law of labor here and 
that society upon such a mudsill was incompetent for a com- 
petitive national sphere of life.* 

It must be a doubtful privilege of judgment to condemn, ex- 
post facto conditions of society irremediable in their time. 
The surviving fact of patriotism forbid a society so powerful 
as the South, relatively with the societies of all the world, to 
accept extra-mural terms of reform or of life itself. There 
was a time in the history of Harvard College when the South- 
ern students enjoyed carpets on the floors of their apartments 
while the floors of the men from the North went bare; when 
Southern students paid their dues in money current and 
Northern students paid in commodities, "a sheep weighing 67 
pounds equals £1 ; 2 bushel of wheat, 8 shillings. "y 

The numerical majority in the federal government began its 
work of devastation of a sectional constitutional system. The 
Missouri compromise was experimental and slow at best. This 
measure of 1820 brought from Jefferson the prophetic outcry, 
"The men of '76 have lived in vain !" Force and exploitations 
of sectional supremacy over the constitutional sectional system 

♦Benjamin H. Hill's Oration, University of Georgia, 1871; and 
Henry W. Grady's Address before the New England Society of New 
York, 1886. 

•\History of Higher Education in Massachusetts (1891), p. 50. 

312 Ti-ie Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

took a long stride forward in Mr. Clay's "American System," 
of 1828, a plan for taxing the South for the benefit of the 
North, co-temporaneously urging the Liberian colonization of 
the Southern labor. Both these sectional measures fell to a 
timely death. One recourse only of revolution seemed open to 
tne enemies of the South. William Lloyd Garrison, in 1831, 
began, with half dozen zealous men and a tiny weekly news- 
paper, to organize the North for violent destruction of slavery 
in the South. The project, intensifying in purpose and enlarg- 
ing in methods, passed on through various phases, the mission- 
ary New England singing master, the emissary school master 
from the North, motions in Congress, John Brown, in brief 
time to Mr. Lincoln's coming, exactly 30 years later, with 
the most numerous and best equipped army the world has ever 
seen to conquer slavery. 

The negative force in Southern society, African servitude, 
was remarkable in its identity as a substitute for the inevitable, 
generic negative force of social organization everywhere else. 
It was a happy substitute. The unlettered African of the 
South was not a victim of society but rather a carefully placed 
factor of society. He responded happily to the trust. In the 
operations of State laws, the master's rights of property in the 
body of the slave did not begin until the slave had been made 
legally secure in a permanent home on his master's land and 
legally secure for life in a humane support. The negro of the 
plantation, it is true, was allowed to remain in his prehistoric 
race ignorance of letters but in the elements of character con- 
tained in sobriety, fidelity to trust, manual skill, and applica- 
tion he had no equal in the agricultural labor of the world. 
The negro, the mudsill, the negative, expanded sensibly with- 
in the actual potentialities of society -and it must stand in the 
sphere of argument urn ad captandum vulgus after the fact to 
contend that slavery incapacitated the South for independence. 

The movement led by Mr. Yancey failed of prudently anti- 
cipated results. In consequence of its failure, the most serious 
status of the negro toward society, not only in the South but in 
the entire country presents itself now. A distinctly marked 
feature of the question of negro relations to government is that, 
in the Southern States, government is dual in motive, practice 
and efforts. The separate State governments in those States are 
constructed and conducted in sole and constitutional reliance 
upon political and social supremacy of the white population. 
On the other hand, the federal government in all its functions 
of administration in those States, but not in the Northern 
States, for example, in the post office and in the judiciary, be- 
stows the honors and emoluments of public office either upon 
the negro or upon those whites who accept the government 

Yancey: A Study. 313 

policy of preference for the negro. The effect of the dual mo- 
tives and instrumentalities of government in the Southern 
States is, the encouragement there of oligarchy in its most of- 
fensive characteristics. No government was ever more un- 
worthy of the name of representative than the government 
which in motive and instrumentalities injects the negro into 
political positions in the South. The transparent effect of the 
duality of motive and instrumentalities in the civil government 
of the Southern States is, the practical destruction of the repre- 
sentation of those States in Congress. Southern members of 
Congress, to keep their places, in face of tireless agitation of 
the race question on the floor, must array themselves as the 
"Solid South." A solid section cannot develop the American 
idea of representative federal government. The rule applies 
to eacli section, North and South, alike, hence the inevitable 
substitute, an oligarchy. 

Recurring to the original question, various and acutely sug- 
gestive to impartial history must be the revelations of com- 
petency in the South of i860 to sustain a national existence on 
its merits. John C. Calhoun was, for eight years in the for- 
mative period of the practical government of the United States, 
1817 to 1825, Secretary of War. His executive skill notable is 
in the fact that he imparted to the army a degree of organic 
energy never before reached by it, and which sustained 
it in its conquest of the Indian nations, Mexico and the Con- 
federate States. Among other original measures of executive 
reform, introduced by this Secretary of War, was the system 
of weather observations and reports, now so happily matured in 
the Weather Bureau.* Matthew F. Maury of Virginia, dis- 
covered the geography of the sea, upon which discovery de- 
pended the laying of the first trans- Atlantic cable so rich in its 
political as well as commercial influence. Maury discovered 
the course of the winds, a knowledge which is imparted to com- 
merce the widest consequence. Brooke of Virginia discover- 
ed the deep-sea sounding apparatus so essential to navigation. 
These discoveries and inventions blessed the North. Coming 
more directly to the test of military genius co-existent with the 
institution of slavery at the South, the system of organization 
of the Confederate army, proposed by President Davis, has been 
admitted by the ranking officer of the United States army, 
General Nelson F. Miles, to have excelled the organization of 
any American army at any time. At the outset, the Confeder- 
ate government had no powder mills, no armories, no percussion 
cap machine, no improved cannon or projectiles. In brief time, 
its Ordnance Department was prepared to supply all the re- 

*Life of Calhoun, Harper and Bros., N. Y:, 1843, p. 27. 

314 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine. 

quired ammunition and caps and improved projectiles. Cap- 
tures of rifles and cannon on the field made by its soldiers 
bearing shot guns and cast off muskets into battle, supplemented 
the home supply. A Confederate common soldier, at an early 
period, invented a percussion cap machine, the most efficient 
in America and perhaps in the world ; Colonel William Leroy 
Broun, of the Ordnance Department (late President of the 
Ala. Polytechnic Institute) discovered a new process for making 
the necessary fulminate.* The Confederate sub-marine torpedo 
boat, "Hunley," invented and built by Confederate soldiers at 
Mobile, blew up and instantly destroyed the great United 
States sloop of war, "Housatonic," February 17, 1864, lying in 
blockade off the port of Charleston, So. Ca.f From this humble 
source, with this initial, the sub-marine torpedo boat of the 
naval equipments of all modern nations sprung. The Confed- 
erate army is one of the few armies of the world's history, if 
any other there be, which held within its ranks the farmers 
whose wives managed the farms that produced the food for it ; 
one of the few armies which detailed soldiers to go in the for- 
est and cut timber to be worked up by other details of soldiers 
into army wagons, gun carriages and army saddles. 

In March, 1901, General Edward McCrady delivered an ad- 
dress at the Centennial celebration of the Irish Volunteers, at 
Charleston, So. Ca. He said: "I cannot better tell you to- 
night of the first Irish company of the Confederate service than 
by quoting from my address before alluded to. Immediately 
upon our relief from duty on Sullivan's Island (April, 1861) 
Captain A. S. Parker, Captain James Armstrong and myself 
commenced the re-organization of the company to form another 
Regiment, which was to have been commanded by Colonel Pet- 
tigrew; and we at once reported its ranks full and ready for 
muster. But delay occurred, and in the meantime the Second 
Regiment under Colonel Kershaw was sent to Virginia and 
other troops refused permission to follow. Then began the 
struggle through which all who desired to get into the service 
had to go ( ?) It would be really amazing if we did not know 
the serious results to recall the difficulties which were interposed 
in the way of those who asked only to be allowed to fight for 
their country. In our case, it required one first to visit Mont- 
gomery and then Richmond. To get an opportunity of offering 
his life and the lives of others in the cause, one had to wait, for 
days, his turn to be heard and when he was heard he found all 
sorts of obstacles interposed to prevent the accomplishment 
of his purpose. At last however, after waiting and begging, 

*U. S. Artillery Journal, April, 1898. 

f See this Magazine, Sept., 1902, vol. i, pp. 81-91. 

Yancey: A Study. 315 

the Confederate government in Richmond graciously agreed 
to accept our Company for the war, provided we could furnish 
ourselves with arms. This, of course, threw us back on the 
State for arms and I am almost afraid now to tell how we got 
them. But we did at last succeed in getting one hundred mus- 
kets and I soon was able to report one full Company of Irish 
Volunteers for the war and that we could raise a battalion. 
Indeed, another Company was organized and was actually in 
camp, and a third began to gather, with the offer of a fourth 
from the (interior) country, upon which I went again to Rich- 
mond and offered the battalion but received again the same 
conditional acceptance, viz: to arm ourselves. Upon my re- 
turn, I received an order from Governor Pickens forbidding the 
organization of more than one Company. The camp at Ham- 
stead was broken up and the men who in June, 1861, were 
refused admittance into the army were conscripted in 1862." 
The government was confused. It was common talk. "The 
way to get the President to do the wrong thing is to advise 
him to go right," wrote Cobb from Montgomery to his wife. 
Again, May ioth,he writes in agony of disappointment: "Would 
to God that I could infuse some of my restless energy into the 
Executive departments !" May 4th he wrote : "Leroy Napier 
has given $10,000 to the volunteers and their families and took 
$40,000 in the Confederate loan."* The people were awake 
and the government asleep. Wade Hampton gave a large sum 
to the arming of his Legion ; Z. C. Deas, of Mobile, armed at 
his own cost his Regiment, the Twenty-second Alabama In- 
fantry, by rifles manufactured at New Orleans in 1861 ; N. B. 
Forrest armed his battalion of cavalry with arms he bought 
in Louisville, and John William Tayloe, of Marengo county, 
Ala., paid one-third of a private subscription fund of $4,500 to 
equip his Cavalry troop. All this for the Confederate army. 
There were many like instances. Quickly after the battle of 
Manassas, July 21, 1861, General Joseph E. Johnston called the 
President to his army there and insisted on an immediate in- 
vasion of the North. The President replied he had no arms 
and he did not know when he would get any.f As soon as 
General Albert Sidney Johnston took command in the South- 
west he called for many thousands of volunteers; they came. 
Secretary of War, Judah P. Benjamin, a lawyer of distinction, 
an unnaturalized Englishman, ordered the disbandment of the 
camps because the government would not feed troops that it 
could not arm !$ 

♦Southern Historical Society Papers, vol. xxviii, pp. 287-288. 
fManuscript account signed by Generals J. E. Johnston, G. T. Beau- 
regard and G. W. Smith, all present at the convention. 

t-William Preston Johnston's Life of General Albert Sidney Johns- 

316 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

The generalship in the army of the Confederate States, the 
seamanship of commanders of Confederate warships are unsur- 
passed in excellency in the annals of all time ; the valor of the 
soldiers and sailors in service has no parallel. No nation ever 
lived with superior warlike instincts. The nation was entitled 
to good civil government but its resources were delayed, neg- 
lected and crippled by prolonged policies of its civil govern- 
ment; the young nation was entitled to harmony between its 
head and his subordinates, but the President was out of touch 
with both Senators from iVlabama, Yancey and Clay, not even 
on speaking terms with these two of his most intimate friends 
in former days. Out of touch with Toombs, Wigfall, Rhett, 
indeed the head of the government was in confidence with no 
civilian who had led the people into the government he com- 
manded. He was at enmity, open and defiant, with Generals 
Joseph E. Johnston, Beauregard and Hardee. Stonewall Jack- 
son tendered his resignation from the army because of direct 
interference from Richmond with his military field of opera- 
tions; Forrest was in open revolt against the favorite officer 
among all of the President's favorites, General Braxton Bragg, 
and refused to serve longer under him. Longstreet says of 
Lee and the perplexities of that ranking officer in the field, by 
reason of interference and in appreciation from Richmond in his 
preparations to invade Pennsylvania, in the summer of 1863 : 
"His early experience with the Richmond authorities taught 
him to deal cautiously with them in disclosing his views, and to 
leave for them the privilege and credit of approving, step by 
step, his apparently (?) hesitant policy, so that his plans were 
disclosed little at a time; and finding them slow in approving 
them, still slower in advancing the Brigades of Pickett's Di- 
vision, and utterly oblivious of the effect of a grand swing north 
on our interior lines, he did not mention the part left open for 
Beauregard until he had their approval of the march of the 
part of his command as he held it in hand. The part assigned 
for Beauregard became the subject of correspondence between 
the authorities (civil) and the officers (subordinates in various 
disconnected posts to the South) who knew nothing of the gen- 
eral ideas and plans. The latter failed to see any benefit to ac- 
crue from taking troops from their commands and naturally of- 
fered objections to their going. The authorities, not compre- 
hending the vast strength to be gathered by utilizing our in- 
terior lines, failed to bring about their execution and the great 
possibility was not fully tested."* The "authorities" refused 
General Lee's plan to move against Washington by way of 
Pennsylvania, fresh as he was from Hooker's defeat at Chan- 
cellorsville, while Beauregard should move with troops, brought 

*Longstreet's From Manassas to Appomattox, p. 336. 

Yancey: A Studi-. 317 

from Charleston and the interior, upon Washington by way of 
Manassas ; the "authorities, " the year before, as we have seen, 
actually broke up the camps and disbanded the troops General 
Albert Sidney Johnston had collected to invade Kentucky and 
Ohio; the "authorities" removed General Joseph E. Johnston 
from the most successful campaign in the history of the war, 
on either side, the campaign in Northern Georgia, in 1864; the 
"authorities" heard General Lee's reiterated demands for food 
for his army in the trenches at Richmond without heed and 
finally saw Lee starved into surrender alongside a railroad 
that connected his army with bursting stores of provisions at 
Danville, Va., Greensboro, N. C., and other accessible points to 
the rear.* 

What of the "authorities?" Who comprised the "author- 
ities?" Judah P. Benjamin, Secretary of War, ordered the 
mutilation of General A. S. Johnston's army and the sup- 
pression of his high genius; Benjamin was a Whig while 
Whigs were known, a Unionist, a "submissionist," a "central- 
ist," never a student of military affairs but a lawyer and a 
politician. James A. Seddon was Secretary of War when Lee's 
plans, hi 1863, were denied and Seddon had been a Whig and 
a Unionist even after the Confederate States had been born. 
He was a lawyer, in infirm health, never a student of war and 
its operations. Secretary Seddon had for First Assistant John 
A. Campbell, who had reluctantly resigned from the office of 
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 
when life had become intolerable at Washington, by the suspic- 
ions of the authorities there. Campbell averredf after the war 
that he had never sympathized with the Confederate cause and 
that he had, while in the War Office, only contempt for Presi- 
dent Davis' capacity, in his position. Secretary Seddon's next 
Assistant in order was Rev. Albert J. Bledsoe, a philosopher and 
controversialist, who knew nothing of war, theoretical or prac- 
tical. When the end came, Genral Bragg was in command over 
Lee and all others in the field, and in four years' active service 
Bragg had not a single glory of his own. He was appointed 
to supreme command, under the President, immediately after 
his compulsory retirement from the army he had wrecked, the 
second army of the Confederacy.^: 

The young nation, struggling with matchless genius and 
heroism, suspected of all nations, was entitled to its just and 

*Gulf States Historical Magazine, July, 1902, vol. i, p. 30 and 

fCampbell's letter to Curtis, Century Magazine, Sept., 1889. 

^General Whiting's letter, in Southern Historical Society Papers, 
vol. xxvi, p. 129; Johnston's Narrative; Dr. Polk's Life of Gen- 
eral Polk; Dr. Wyeth's Life of Forrest. 

318 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

reasonable claims upon the guidance of statesmen from whose 
brain it had evolved, and upon the services of the Generals who 
were the willing paladins of its sacred cause. But, statesmen 
nor Generals were favored by a test of their powers. Mr. Davis 
wrote two voluminous histories of the Rise and Fall of the Con- 
federate Government, witti labor and pains, but nowhere in his 
pages appear the names of Yancey, Rhett or Wigfall ; Mrs. 
Davis wrote voluminously, along- the same line, with no men- 
tion of Yancey, Rhett or Wigfall. 

* The President came into office at Montgomery with a wide 
personal knowledge of the statesmen who had brought forth 
the Confederate States and of the professional soldiers and 
sailors who had come under the new flag from the old. His 
first act after taking the oath of office was to offer to Mr. 
Yancey his choice of civil positions within his gift* 

In part, he had made up his cabinet and his original selec- 
tions, so far as revealed, seem to have been made with expected 
wisdom. He testifies as follows : "I had intended to offer the 
Treasury Department to Mr. Toombs of Georgia, whose knowl- 
edge of subjects of finance had particularly attracted my no- 
tice when we served together in the United States Senate."f 
Even then Toombs was Chairman of the Committee on Fi- 
nance in the Provisional Congress. 

An evil star rose upon the horizon of this young Republic — 
the star of small politics. In lieu of trust, upon his own knowl- 
edge, of Toombs, this self-consecrated President who would 
cheerfully have lowered his neck on the block in supreme sacri- 
fice to the cause of his government, sacrificed that paramount 
consideration to an irreverent and disastrous distribution of 
political power by geographical divisions of the territory. He 
had heard nothing to justify the experimental substitution of 
Memminger for Toombs, for there were no facts in extenuation. 
At the outset, Toombs in his genuine sagacity and exuberant 
boldness, seeking to impress the young government with a sense 
of energy, had exclaimed, "Ninety per cent, of war is pure busi- 
ness." So was the "business" of war in the brain of Thomas 
R. R. Cobb, a Georgia delegate, when he urged the Provisional 
Congress to deny to aliens the benefit of the Courts to try their 
claims to property, the meaning being to secure the Con- 
federacy cotton then in the ports that had been sold to Northern 
purchasers. Toombs, Yancey, Rhett and the original leaders 
of the Southern movement generally, advised that an exhaus- 
tive shipment of the millions of bales on hand, a fraction of the 
crop of i860, and all of 1861, be made to Europe, there to be 

♦Report of Hon. Benjamin C. Yancey, brother of the leader, in 
person to the writer. 

■fltise and Fall of the Confederate Government, vol. i, p. 142. 

Yancey: A Study. 319 

stored as the basis of trade in arms and munitions of war. 
Mrs. Davis, very near the President in his political acts and 
opinions, says in her Memoir of her husband, that the policy of 
suppressing the shipments of cotton to Europe was dictated by 
fear of capture on the seas. For want of means to defend 
this great source of war in the gin houses, it was there captured, 
appropriated by the enemy or burned by the Southern Generals. 

The Confederate States, without arms or manufactories of 
arms,, at the outset sent to Europe a purchasing agent, Caleb 
Huse, a native of Massachusetts and a graduate of West Point, 
at the time of his appointment the drill master at the Uni- 
versity of Alabama. From the date immediately following the 
"first Manassas/' say September, 1861, to the latter part of the 
following winter, cotton being in plentiful supply on the plan- 
tations and the seaports open sufficiently to its egress, the 
Secretary of the Treasury sent to Huse, within that period, 

It is here a personal reminiscence, introduced in confirmation 
of the original measure of confidence of the Southern people 
in their resources, that John A. Winston, a political leader and 
a cotton merchant, Henry G. Humphries, a delegate to the 
secession convention and a cotton merchant, both of Mobile, 
expressed the gravest apprehensions upon the early confirmed 
policy of the government not to ship the cotton to Europe. 
Facilities were not wanting. Even in the last hours of the war, 
Governor Watts of Alabama dispatched W. C. Bibb, a cotton 
planter, direct to President Lincoln to negotiate for the ex- 
change of raw cotton for gray cloth and other soldiers apparel. 

Ignominious desertion of national character, evolved from 
a great and glorious civilization, or defense by war was the 
Southern alternative. We have in the end, time and opportu- 
nity to cast up the situation. The year 1903 opens with the 
negro question under federal auspices. It is a sectional ques- 
tion now, as since 1832. Emancipated slaves and the sword are 
the elements of the question now. At the North, permission 
to ignore the negro in politics or society is enjoyed by all classes 
of federal appointees. At the South, white beneficiaries of 
federal patronage, officers of the judiciary and the post office, 
are studiously selected upon a prerequisite of individual sym- 
pathies with the relation of the negro to the structure of society 
and in conflict with the general sense of the white community 
touching wholesome disposition of the negro. 

Mr. Yancey went to Europe in the second month of the life 
of the Confederacy with a heavy heart. He foresaw failure 
of the diplomatc anticipations of the government he reluctantly 

♦Letter of W. L. Yancey to the President, April 17, 1861. 

320 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine. 

undertook to represent. On the original suggestion of Mr. 
Rhett, he asked to be instructed to offer England and France 
in return for their act of recognition of the independence of his 
country, twenty years trade in her ports upon a tariff not to 
exceed 20 per cent, ad valorem and port charges not to exceed 
expenses. The instructions were denied, without an equiva- 

While abroad, Mr. Yancey seems to have found no difficulty 
in sending letters home. The following to his colleague on the 
Commission, of which he was the head, Mr. P. A. Rost, indi- 
cates that commerce was not cut off at that date with the Con- 
federate States' seaports: 

"London, nth July, 1861 
"Hon. P. A. Rost, 
"My Dear Sir: I have received a letter from Bordeaux in- 
forming me of your kindness in purchasing and forwarding 
(to me) a case of red wine for 'long drinks.' I am very much 
obliged to you. It has not yet arrived but when it does I shall 
invite some friends here to test it and drink your health. Shall 
I send you the amount of the bill? 

"Yours informing me of the opinions you had derived from 
conversations with leading gentlemen in Paris, rec'd yesterday. 
I was glad thus to be reassured of French views. Matters 
here seem to be progressing favorably to us. 

"Say to Mr. King that no vessel of ours will sail very soon, 
perhaps not under a month. The merchant ships sail occasion- 
ally, one last w T eek for Savannah. 

"With my respects to Mrs. Rost and your sons, I (am) dear 

"Yours very truly, &c, &c, 

"W. L. Yancey/' 

To his ardent friend, Reuben Chapman, of Alabama, he had 
written a few days earlier : 

"London, 3d July, 1861. 
"15 Half-Moon St., Piccadilly. 
"Dear Chapman : The enclosed, cut from the N. Y. corre- 
spondence (of June 19) of the London-Telegraph of 2d July 
informs me of your safe arrival in New York and probably 
peaceful departure. It has given to me relief and satisfaction. 
B — T — left Paris for his home about 4th ult. Gen. Fair has 

h ■ ii, . . .. 

♦Manuscript history, prepared by Robert Barnwell Rhett. 

Yancey: A Study. 321 

also left. Falkner is still here. Preston from Spain is here 
and will leave for Washington in about three weeks. I have 
received several letters from my family, the last dated 9 June — 
all well. 

"Public opinion is daily growing favorable to us. It does 
not manifest itself here, as in America, in strong, vehement 
language. Moderation is the normal condition of the English 
mind. But the cause of the North is understood at this time 
to be the cause of Selfishness and Force. I am satisfied Eng- 
land and France are sincere in their neutrality and will enforce 
it. I am equally satisfied that they will find causes to raise the 
blockade during the year, after our cotton is ready for market. 

"From the tenor of my wife's letters, I think that she will be 
soon cramped for funds. Every thing is sold for cash. None 
of the male members of my family are at home. My spring 
courts were not held and clients are not paying. Will you be so 
good as to pay to her the amount I loaned you? 

"I have written to her to come over by the first convenient op- 
portunity that offers after my daughter joins her husband (Mr. 
John Harrell), who (is) in the Gen. P. A. Department at Rich- 
mond. If you find any family coming, please notify her of the 

"Cotton rose -Jd on 29th, 25,000 bales sold on that day. 

"You can write to me by sending the letter to a friend at 
Louisville with request to forward under cover to Baring Bro. 
& Co. I rec'd Mrs. Y's last that way. 

"With my kind regards to Mrs. C. & your family.— I am, 
dear C — , yrs &c. 

"W. L. Yancey. 
"Hon. R. Chapman, 


The Treasury Department ceased to send funds to Europe 
to prosecute the war and the government had no foreign policy. 
Mr. Yancey offered his resignation, which was declined, at first, 
but finally accepted. Before he reached New Orleans by sea, 
"in February, 1862, he was elected, without opposition, Senator 
in Congress from Alabama for a full term. 

Arriving at Richmond, the seat of government, he was pro- 
foundly alarmed and oppressed in spirit by the want of energy 
in the Treasury Department. He was wont to spend familiar 
evenings in the parlors of his colleague, Senator Clay, a life 
long friend. "I shall never forget the pain and woe of Mr. 
Yancey's voice, as he talked over the fearful neglect of our 
government, nightly in my parlors," wrote the mistress of the 
house. He had ventured to write the following letter to Presi- 
dent Davis soon after taking his seat in the Senate : 

322 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine. 

"Richmond, April 6, 1862. 

"Sir: I have had occasion, very recently, to examine with 
some care the instructions of the War Department to Captain 
Huse. The finished military education of Captain Huse nat- 
urally inclines him to buy none but the most superior rifled 
arms. The instructions of the government strengthen him 
in that inclination. The markets of Europe can afford at this 
time few rifled muskets. Many very fair smoothbore muskets 
can be found in Europe if pains are taken to find them. The 
appointment of at least two additional officers to make differ- 
ent sections of Europe their spheres of action would facilitate 
the acquisition of such arms. Instructions to each officer to 
confine his operations to the sphere allotted to him would avoid 
conflict with others and also be some protection against spec- 
ulative prices. 

"The manufacturers of rifled and other muskets are now- 
pretty much open to the monopoly of your contractor. But 
to this end a large amount in cash is absolutely necessary. For- 
feit money must be deposited with the contract. Cash is ab- 
solutely required on the delivery of the arms — which would be 

"I notice in Mr. Meminger's statement of the amount of 
money, sent to the Agent of the War Department, that in the 
most critical period of your contracts in England, between Sep- 
tember 25, 1861, and January, 1862, nearly four months, he 
only sent $1,031. The consequence was, Captain Huse had to 
beg an advance from Sir Isaac Campbell & Co. to the amount 
of half a million dollars. Had this house not come generously 
to his relief, we should have lost every contract; and also some 
fifty thousand muskets delivered in. that period and since. 

"The funds sent, up to March 1 ultimo, will only pay for de- 
liveries under old contracts; which do not, I believe, call for 
more than 10,000 muskets per month. 

"If we are to arm 200,000 additional men or, rather, obtain 
200,000 or 300,000 additional muskets, by fall, not only will you 
be compelled to send additional officers, imbued fully with your 
ideas, but a million dollars a month also. 

"Pardon me for the suggestions. They are dictated by a sol- 
emn sense of duty. I address them to you because I believe 
from the immense pressure upon you of very public interest, 
you cannot comprehend all unless with the aid of some plain 
spoken friends. 

"I have spoken of what I know and submit it for what it 
may be worth to your consideration. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

"W. L. Yancey." 

Yancey: A Study. 323 

The President was deeply offended in the contents of the 
letter of the Senator and promptly returned a reply, caustic, 
resentful and insinuating. The Senator knew his ground and 
relaxed nothing of his urgency. The government should pre- 
pare the country for war. He supported the President in the 
Senate, and in Alabama, especially upon the conscript law, while 
Governor Brown, of Georgia, and others in that State violently 
opposed that law. He frowned upon the suggestions, widely 
circulated, to compel the President to resign from his office.* 
He urged the Senate to pass a bill authorizing the Secretary of 
the Treasury to sell $25,000,000 cotton bonds in Europe. In 
lieu of this sum, the Congress authorized the sale, in London 
and Paris, of $15,000,000 only. The bids upon the call in those 
cities aggregated $75,000,000, at least one of which rose to 5 
per cent, premium. f 

Men now living who lived then, men who have truthful 
books only from which to learn, need not be reminded here 
that the National Republican Convention of i860, assembled 
at Chicago- — the second National Convention of the new party 
— was a Free State Convention exclusively, the delegates ever 
trying "to get around this Constitution or to embarrass the free 
exercise of the rights secured by the Constitution," as Mr. 
Webster had described them ten years before. The Convention 
had been carefully considered for four years and the issues 
steadily forced toward decision there. The various revolu- 
tionary sub-organizations, — Eli Thayer's Kansas Colonization 
Society, Beecher's Free Love Society, Mrs.. Howe's Fugitive 
blave Rescue Society, Gerritt Smith's Underground Railroad 
Directory, Lucretia Mott's New Christ dogma — these and 
all the others, akin, had been fused the year before under the 
inspiration of John Brown's incendiary raid and the fate of the 
leader. These wild forces of whirlwind came together at Chi- 
cago to prepare for precipitation in condensed force. They 
were in search of a leader. Brown's work had made Seward 
impossible; if Seward, then no canonization of Brown. Lin- 
coln had become the indubitable necessity of the revolution. 
Lincoln had no scruples arising from culture in statecraft or 
knowledge of religion. He was in himself a short argument of 
the intellect and the morals of the conglomerate, a summary of 
its forces. The nullifying States brought to Chicago none but 
themselves, committed to prolonged and uncompromising nul- 
lification. These States were in need of a President for them- 

*Yancey's letter to Hon. William F. Sanford. 

fContemporary reports of speeches and proceedings of Congress 
published in Richmond newspapers. . 

324 The Gulf States Histokical Magazine. 

selves and themselves only. This page of certainty lies open, 
nor will it 

"Let the imprisoned essence escape." 

We follow the rough way of the revolution along its 
actual path. God and the men of the South who lived then 
only know what was intended there and here. There, "Wide 
Awakes," a million men, mustered at night in white tunics, 
drilled nightly, chanting "Old John Brown's Soul Goes March- 
ing Along." men of all degrees and conditions, merchants, and 
their clerks, mechanics and hod carriers, lawyers, doctors, 
preachers. Possibly the progress of society demanded it all ; 
probably it was all charlatanry ; a windy sentimentality, bent 
on "Saving the World." The only part left to the South was, 
to see and dare. So taught Yancey his people. 

The nullifying States, that had made every preparation to 
prolong nullification, as their prescribed relations to the Union, 
elected the nominee of the Chicago Convention. Within the 
lifetime of the same generation, State nullification had been 
denounced by act of Congress,* the act of March 2d, 1833, to 
work forfeiture, in the citizen aiding or abetting, of life, lib- 
erty and property, at the discretion of the President without 
appeal. The effect of this act, passed with the unanimous con- 
currence of the free States, was to supersede the civil authority 
by martial law in a nullifying State. So much for President 
Jackson's power over South Carolina, in 1833. Felix Grundy 
was Chairman of the Senate Committee that reported the bill 
and Mr. Webster, a member, the latter in effect taking charge 
in the Senate The act expired by its own limitation. But 
under the theory of the act of March 2, 1833, the electoral vote 
of the nullifying States for Mr. Lincoln, in i860, was counted 
by sufferance of Congress and not. by right under the Consti- 
tution. The consent of Congress alone, under the theory of this 
act, qualified the electoral votes of the nullifying States and if 
the qualification so dependent was valid, the election was in it- 
self a practical revolution of the government. On the other 
hand, Mr. Breckenridge received 72 electoral votes, unchal- 
lenged, all from States in unimpeachable standing in the Union. 

What claim had Lincoln upon States not in nullification? 
No more than Davis had upon the States not in secession. 

Breckenridge took the oath of Senator at Washington at the 
same hour Lincoln took the oath of President ; in four months 
Lincoln had forced Breckenridge out. Like Grouchy at 
Waterloo or Longstreet at Gettysburg, Mr. Breckenridge came 
to the South too late. He had experimented as arrestor of 
revolution while wiser men accepted revolution. 

Of two such lessons, why forget "the nobler and the manlier 

*U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. iv, chap. 27, p. 632. 



By Anne Bozeman Lyon, of Mobile. 

The tranquillity of Louis XVIII. was disturbed soon after 
liis return from Ghent by the knowledge that there were men 
in his kingdom whose love for Napoleon might again prove 

dangerous. With this fear actuating him, he determined to 
send them from France. Fouche was told to write out the list 
of the persons who had conspired to re-establish the Empire 
during the first Restoration. There were two lists, one con- 
taining the names of some of the friends of the Minister of 
Police, to whom he was as merciless as to his enemies. The 
original number condemned to leave Paris was sixty, but it was 
reduced to thirty-eight by Louis. Nineteen of' these were to 
be arrested and tried at once. They were: "Marshal Ney, 
Labedoyere, the two brothers Lallemand, Drouet, D'Erlos, Le- 
febvre-Desnouettes, Ameile, Braver, Gilly, Mouton, Duvernet, 
Grouchy, Clausel, Deville, Bertrand, Drouot, Cambronne, Lav- 
alette, Rovigo.y 

In the other list were as famous men to be banished from 
Paris. Of these only Real, Gamier de Saintes and de Cluis 
are of moment here. The ordonnance of July 24th, 1817, de- 
creed that they should depart from Paris in three days and go 
where they would be under the espionage of the Minister of 

Nevertheless, Louis, Talleyrand, the Duke de Richelieu and 
Fouche, the latter influenced, perhaps, by latent regard for his 
former party, thought it would be more advantageous to the 
Bourbons' interests to extenuate the fault of the offenders. 
To obviate the result of a trial the king and his ministers 
sought to provide the Bonapartists with money to escape. 
Even though the arrests were delayed and passports given the 
accused, they were finally arrested as they were fleeing from 
France. But many of them, with courage worthy of the man 
for whom they had dared so much, refused to go, as their de- 
parture would be a tacit admission of guilt. 

The trial and execution of Labedoyere and ultimately of Ney 
were of such significance that, at the end of 1816 and begin- 
ning of 1817, a number of Imperialists were allowed to sail for 
Philadelphia. Broken in spirit they desired to be alone in a 

♦This paper was printed some years ago in a short-lived magazine. 
It is of sufficient value and merit to warrant republication, with 
revision, for preservation in more permanent form. 

fLamartine's UHistoire de la Restauration. 

326 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

new country, a wilderness where they could be absolutely be- 
yond the reach of the Bourbon's displeasure. Frenchmen 
themselves, they knew their people and their king. True, he 
had evinced much nobility toward them, but he might change. 
Fouche was at times implacable, and one was never sure of 
him. To elude him they decided to leave Philadelphia and 
go to the west. They looked to it as a refuge where they 
could gather up the shattered forces of brain and soul and be- 
gin another life. 

After mature deliberation Colonel Nicholas Simon Parmen- 
tier, one of the emigrants, was sent to Washington to request 
the United States government to grant them a tract of land in 
the West. "An act to set aside and dispose of certain public 
lands for the encouragement and cultivation of the Vine and 
Olive, passed on the 3d day of March, 1817." The Secretary 
of the Treasury was required "to designate and set apart any 
four contiguous townships, each six miles square of vacant 
public lands lying in that part of the Mississippi Territory, and 
now the Territory of Alabama, and authorized to contract for 
sale of said four townships at the rate of two dollars per acre 
to make payable fourteen years after the contract which should 
be concluded with any agent or agents of late emigrants from 
France who have associated together for the purpose of form- 
ing a settlement in the United States."* 

Clausel, Real, the jLallemands, the Vandammes, Lacanel, 
Peniers, Lefebvre-Desnouettes, Marshal Grouchy, Victor 
Grouchy, Pierre Drouet, de Cluis, the de Saintes, Gamier and 
his brother, General Raoul, Bazile Meslier, Simon Chaudron 
and Frederic Ravesies, agent of the "Tombeckbee Association," 
were the chief grantees. 

During the absence of Colonel Parmentier the emigrants as- 
certained that the West was not the elysium they fancied, and 
were readily persuaded by a Kentucky gentleman, Dr. Samuel 
Brown, to establish their colony in Alabama near where the 
Tombigbee and Warrior rivers meet. He had traveled in 
France and felt sure the Bonapartists would find in the south 
a climate and soil so like the*r own that they would have no 
difficulty in the development of their agricultural projects. Be- 
sides they would feel a kinship with the people of a region that 
once belonged to F ranee. Most potent thought of all, sympathy 
warm and deep would be given them ; for there were Frenchmen 
in Mobile who loved Napoleon. Not far from Mobile was 
Louisiana ; and proximity to that State might mean some hope, 
some plan for the future. Viewed from every standpoint, 
Alabama was the place to which they must journey — the un- 
known haven for which they had prayed since the Restoration. 

*American State Papers, vol. iii. 

The Bonapaetists in Alabama. 327 

Before leaving for the south they organized the Vine and Olive 
Company and divided the land among its three hundred and 
forty members, nearly all soldiers and merchants. Mr. George 
N. Stewart was appointed their secretary. He married, in 
later years, a daughter of General David, whom he met in 
Philadelphia. Prosper Baltard, A. Mocquart and S. le Fran- 
cois assisted the emigrants in the adjustment of their financial 

Colouel Parmentier and others of the company left Philadel- 
phia with some of the French gentlemen and their families on 
the McDonough, a schooner hired for that purpose. He wrote 
thus to a friend in Philadelphia of an accident that occurred 
while on board :* 

"Mobile Bay, May 26th, 1817. 
"After a passage of 21 days from the capes of Delaware, we 
have arrived within sight of these shores, which not a soul on 
board had ever seen before; we had, however, a very narrow 
escape at the moment when about to gain this real land of 
promise ; we were gliding gently along under favor of a pleas- 
ant breeze, lead in hand, when suddenly from nine fathom 
we made only two fathoms, or twelve feet, and before we could 
haul off, grounded. You may conceive the feeling of our 
associates under all our circumstances. However, we were 
fortunate in possessing in Capt. John McCloud, a mind ex- 
perienced, collected and intrepid; his activity, presence of 
mind and excellent temper were not disturbed by the indis- 
creet conduct or the despair of those on board, whose impru- 
dence and want of self-possession might have been fatal with 
a man of less manly and less resolute disposition ; he may be 
fairly said to have saved every person on board by his firmness 
and discretion. By his good disposition we were enabled to 
obtain succor from Fort Boyer ; a boat from which put off un- 
der its intrepid and generous commanding officer, Lt. R. Beal, 
of the artillery, and Captain Bourke, formerly of the army, who 
happened to be at the fort. These two gallant men with four 
privates put off on discovering our situation and succeeded in 
carrying our passengers on shore, after great and persevering 
fatigue ; it is by men like these, whose profession inures them to 
danger and privations unknown in common life that the great- 
est acts of generosity are usually displayed ; not content with 
rescuing us from danger of wreck they conducted us into the 
fort and with an affection the most unaffected taught us to for- 
get the dangers we had escaped, and to bless the circumstances 
which enabled us to enjoy their generosity, hospitality and 
kindness ; there was nothing the country could afford which 

. ^National Intelligencer, Washington, July 17, 1817. 

328 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

we were not provided with, and they have left on our hearts 
impressions of gratitude which time cannot efface. 

"Our vessel being lightened, and having suffered no injury, 
moved into the channel, and having obtained the requisite in- 
formation to proceed to our destination, the same kindness 
which had flown to our relief, and contributed to our comfort 
and gratification on shore, conducted us on board, and accom- 
panied by such a variety of refreshments and acts of goodness, 
exercised towards individuals whom they had never before 
seen, but whose fortune . and destiny appear to have found 
in their generous hearts a noble sympathy; they fur- 
nished us with letters of introduction to their friends. It. is 
impossible to communicate the sense we entertained of the 
kindness we have experienced — to-morrow we ascend the river 
Mobile, from whence you shall hear from me again. 

"The country on the margin of the sea presents a scene of 
the highest luxuriance. The foliage brighter than your more 
northern climate : this bay is a young sea, and appears to be un- 
bounded ; but it is too soon to give you any idea of a distinct 
landscape, or to speak to you of a soil which we have scarcely 
touched, and that towards which we are approaching too re- 
mote yet to be seen." 

Colonel Parmentier had opportunity to give his correspon- 
dent a minute account of the landscape as they stopped in Mo- 
bile. i\nd the kindness they received made them fully realize 
that in the little foreign-looking town many hearts beat in 
unison with theirs when conversing of recent unfortunate 
events in France. 

Addin Lewis, the Collector of the Port, supplied them with 
a barge in which they embarked and resumed the long voyage 
up the river. Another stay was made at Fort Stoddart, where 
Judge Harry Toulmin, a distinguished citizen of Alabama, to 
whom they took letters of introduction, welcomed them most 
hospitably. General Edmund Pendleton Gaines, the captor of 
Aaron Burr, then in command at Fort Montgomery, was next 
visited. He showed the travelers many courtesies also, and 
after a period of mutual pleasure they steered across to the 
Tombigbee and went to the town of St. Stephens. There they 
left the boat furnished by the government, and obtaining one 
more commodious proceeded farther up the river. They ex- 
plored the country carefully, then settled themselves at White 
Bluff. Obliged to dig trendies in which to keep their pro- 
visions, they burned bonfires at night to frighten away the 
beasts prowling in the forest. 

Near "Old Fort Tombeckbee" some of the emigrants con- 
sulted the United States Choctaw Factor, Mr. George Strother 
Gaines, concerning the location of the colony. He suggested 

The Bonapartists in Alabama. . 329 

that it should be at White Bluff. Jean A. Peniers and Bazile 
Meslier, who had been sent to the Red River to report upon its 
environs, joined the voyagers; and concurring with Mr. 
Gaines, they also decided upon White Bluff. 

These two gentlemen despatched letters to Philadelphia con- 
taining a detailed description of Alabama and the inhabitants; 
their statements convinced the association of the practicability 
of colonizing the region selected. 

With Indians for their nearest neighbors they made the home 
for which they had pined for the last two years — the log cabins 
were hardly completed before other members of the company 

The actual needs of existence compelled them to hew away 
the forest and cut the tough canes to prepare small plots for 
the planting of garden seeds. This they did without knowing on 
what tracts they were to live permanently. Notwithstanding 
their incertitude the town of Demopolis was formed and named 
by Count Real, though it has been said it was not included in 
the French grants. 

General Lefevre-Desnouette seems to have assumed leader- 
ship of the colony from the time he journeyed to Philadelphia 
in behalf of the settlers. Confusion had been caused in the 
distribution of the various lots, as the first emigrants to come 
made their own choice. But many of them had to relinquish 
their holdings because their associates in Philadelphia, ignorant 
of the country, had located the townships irrespective of the 
claimants. Mr. William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and Mr. Charles Vilar, agent of the association, had en- 
tered into a new contract, necessitating the sale of the lands 
and the designation of the owners who had received the allot- 
ments in Philadelphia. Unfortunately, General Desnouette 
could do nothing for his friends, but he rescued his own tract. 
Upon his return to Alabama he regretfully saw them leave 
their homes and begin afresh the labor of clearing the woods 
into which they went. 

In spite of the pain of abandoning the humble cabins they 
had compensation in each other's society; it shone with 
the vivacity that characterized it in Paris. Madame Jerome 
de Cluis, and Madame Raoul, formerly the Marchesa Sinabaldi, 
maid of honor to Queen Caroline, were the spirit and centre of 
a delightful coterie. Madame de Cluis was Mademoiselle de 
Mezieres; an exquisite grande dame always, even though her 
life in Demopolis was filled with vicissitudes — more unendur- 
able because of her youth and inexperience. 

The ignorance of the colonists regarding the most ordinary 
domestic affairs was pitiable. There was a painful incongruity, 
too, between the very garments they wore and their daily work ; 

330 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

the women milked and sowed corn in the velvet gowns and 
satin slippers they had danced in at court balls; the men 
ploughed and dug and sawed wood in their finest military 

Ornaments that beautified their salons in France were 
brought to America ; also books, musical instruments and paint- 
ings as well as china, glass and silver, the last often the gift of 
royal friends. Madame de Cluis' descendants treasure a mas- 
sive silver coffee-pot which Napoleon gave to Joseph Bona- 
parte; the latter presented it to her when he became king of 
Spain. Perhaps it was a token of the immeasurable gratitude 
he felt to Colonel de Cluis for guarding the luckless Ferdinand 
so well. For had the aide-de-camp and secretary of the' Duke 
de Rovigo relaxed his vigilance the good Joseph might not 
have received a crown from his generous brother. 

In despair, and wishing to put from him, if possible, the re- 
membrance of the sorrow that had befallen him, de Cluis burned 
his papers before leaving France. His decorations are, how- 
ever, still extant — three crosses of the Legion of Honor; in 
one is the same bit of crimson ribbon that was there the day 
the emperor fastened it on his breast. 

The bravery that won for Nicholas Raoul the regard of Na- 
poleon was not comparable to the fortitude with which he bore 
himself in his adversity. And, after struggling for the barest 
subsistence, he left his grant to support himself by keeping 
a ferry at Demopolis. Although Real was one of the grantees 
there is no evidence that he lived long in the settlement. 
Neither did Clausel remain more than a year. Marshal 
Grouchy sent his son Victor to their allotment, for Waterloo 
was still so vivid a memory that his own presence could not be 
borne by his comrades ; they thought he caused the defeat of 
that day, but wishing to vindicate himself he carried on a ver- 
bal warfare with them in the American newspapers until his 
return to France. The Vendammes, Gamier de Saintes, his 
brother, Charles Batre and Frederick Ravesies completed that 
brilliant group. The last named of these gentlemen founded 
the town of Areola on the Warrior river, and as agent of the 
association made authentic reports to Congress of the condition 
of the Vine and Olive Company. He married the widow of 
General David, whom he had met and loved before her first 

The famous National Assembly, where the fate of Louis 
XVI. was decided, was represented by Jean A. Peniers and 
Monsieur Lacanel. Both had voted. for the death of the king. 
During the empire Lacanel had charge of the Department of 
Education; a position that conferred many honors upon him. 
Another scholar was M. Simon Chaudron, the editor, when in 

The Bonapaetists in Alabama. 331 

Philadelphia, of "L/Abeille Americane.' , He was a writer of 
polish, and his poems, especially an ode to Napoleon, were in- 
dicative of genius of a lofty order. 

Tradition asserts that the Marquis de Vaubercy, the last de- 
scendant of the princely counts of Champagne, was one of the 
colonists. But there is no mention of him by any of the Ala- 
bama historians in the annals of the settlement. That he was 
in Mobile is an authenticated fact as he married the daughter 
-of Sir Robert Farmer, the first British Intendant of the town, 
presumably in the last century," as Sir Robert died in 1781, and 
his wife in 1795. In early youth the marquis had been a page 
of Louis XVI. and it is probable that he was driven from 
France by the disasters of the Revolution. 

The largest part of the grant was in Marengo county, a name 
suggested after the arrival of the Bonapartists by a member of 
the Legislature. It was a holy thought to these soldiers of the 
•Old Guard and army that their refuge should have commem- 
orated the first great achievement of their invincible corps. 
Yet, trying as that terrible day had been, the survivors were 
destined now to fight harder battles than they had won and 
lost for their emperor. With him, renown, whether of victory 
or defeat had awaited every conflict; and here were toil and 
obscurity, the most unceasing warfare that can be waged by 
proud and haughty spirits — submission to poverty and petty 

As the settlers were again forced to leave Demopolis they 
laid off Aiglesville, which they had to abandon since it was 
not included in the grant. In obedience to some twist of fate 
the exodus became compulsory as soon as the log-houses were 
built and the gardens in a state to repay the strength expended 
on their cultivation. Of this M. Ravesies says in a letter to the 
President of the Senate: "We have in many instances been 
obliged to neglect the performances of our contract and yield 
to the more immediate and pressing demands of our industry 
for a large competency and support. Many of the grantees, 
unfortunately for themselves, came prematurely to the trackless 
desert impervious to the approach of man, without a road or 
passage, consequently the means of transportation to their par- 
ticular allotment of land was so impracticable that many per- 
sons were compelled to settle temporarily on their small lots 
around the town of Aiglesville, and they became unable to 
make a second settlement upon their larger allotments."* 

No matter how far into the forest these men went some le- 
gal misunderstanding would arise decreeing that they go far- 
ther still from civilization. Besides, they experienced the same 
inconvenience from the need of horses and wagons as at White 

* American State Papers, vol. iii. 

332 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Bluff. A dearth of water in the canebrake caused them to leave 
the more fertile tracts untilled. As it was impossible for them 
unaided to continue to perform the constant labor of the fields, 
and having no negroes of their own, General Desnouettes sug- 
gested the importation of German redemptioners, which was 
accomplished by his energy and generosity. His kindness 
availed nothing; for the Germans, devoid of honor regarding 
their contract, were of no genuine help. The grain and vege- 
tables raised were at the cost of incredible wages — Desnouettes 
alone spent more than twenty- five thousand dollars on his tract. 
In consequence of such continual expenditure the colonists were 
discouraged and sold out to Americans. 

Most of the settlers retaining their property now began in 
earnest the cultivation of grapes and olives. They frequently 
imported plants from Bordeaux which failed to flourish, pos- 
sibly from the difference in soil or lack of knowledge of viti- 
culture on the part of the French. Seven years elapsed before 
the soil was in condition to receive the vines. Of this M. Ra- 
vesies says: "Instead of seven, perhaps severity years would 
be required correctly to ascertain this fact"* Often the stocks 
would reach Alabama when the season was over and died when 
put in the earth. However, grapes were produced, but yielded 
poor wine, as the fruit matured in hot weather. In 1821 three 
hundred and eighty olive trees were planted and almost as 
many in 1824. The first winter they were killed, and every 
year after the shoots that sprang from the roots were de- 

In conjunction with repeated sickness and the futility of their 
efforts as growers of the vine and olive, the colonists were 
beset by squatters who unscrupulously took possession of the 
lands. Lawsuits ensued to be eventually decided in favor of 
tiie emigrants ; but they had grown heartsick from disappoint- 
ment and dispiritedly let the usurpers keep their land for an 
inadequate amount. Other Americans with a just appreciation 
of the grants bought them for a sum nearly sufficient to com- 
pensate the owners for their toil. 

After the seizure and sale of the lands the colony was 
broken and scattered. With a tender recollection of the cour- 
tesy and sympathy they had received in Mobile a number of 
the emigrants removed to that city, though many remained in 
Marengo county.* 

The old Republican, Peniers. became agent for the Semi- 
noles in Florida, dying there in 1823. General Raoul went to 
Mexico with his wife and stepchildren. He had the felicity of 
ending his days as an officer of high rank in the army of the 
Bourbons. Colonel de Cluis lived for a long time in Greens- 

*American State Papers, vol. iii. 

The BoNArAETisTS in Alabama. 333 

borough, as much of the arable land which belonged to the 
grantees was in Greene county. But he also moved to Mobile, 
where he led a saddened existence for fifteen years, since he 
could never accustom himself to the change wrought by his 
exile. Madame de Cluis died a little more than a decade ago 
(about 1886), at the age of ninety-four. Toward the close of 
her life she suffered great agitation when alluding to the past, 
especially the fall of the Empire and the events that preceded 
her coming to America. Lacanel moved to Mobile as early as 
1819; he lived down the bay until his departure for France in 
1843. General Clausel was his neighbor. He, the general, 
sowed and reaped his homely crops of cabbage and potatoes as 
contentedly as the humblest peasant, and brought his produce to 
town to dispose of it, forgetful of his former station. Like 
Raou! he was recalled to France ; then was made Governor of 
Algeria by Louis Philippe. Bazile Meslier, Frederic Ravesies 
and Simon Chaudron lived and died in Mobile. Of the Vah- 
dammes, de Saintes and Drouet, nothing is related save that 
they occupied their tracts. Charles Batre and the Hurtels also 
left their allotment to live in Mobile. 

The career of none of these Bonapartists in Alabama began 
more brilliantly than that of Colonel Emile de Vendel. Born 
in Paris about the time of the death of Louis XVL, his child- 
hood and youth were passed in the turbulent adjustment of 
the new regime. When Napoleon was at the apex of his su- 
premacy the boy de Vendel entered the service of the Com- 
missioner-General of the Grande Artnee as secretary. In a 
short period he filled the same position to the Duke de Cadore, 
there displaying the intellect and judgment of maturity. At 
the end of three years he left the duke with the most laudatory 
letters to Marshal Kellerman ; they were answered in phrase- 
ology as courtly and appreciative of his talents. He was at 
once enrolled as one of the National Guard and given the place. 
of Mare eh a! de Logie. Later he went through the campaign 
of 1813. On February 27th, 1814, the title of Chevalier 
d'Honneur was bestowed on him by order of the emperor. 

The exile to Elba, a bitter blow to the young soldier, only 
deepened his love for Napoleon. And, with courage worthy 
of his ancestor at Agincourt, de Vendel offered himself, in 
company with three other youths, to carry despatches to the 
island. The secrecy with which this hazardous errand was 
conducted resulted in Bonaparte's return to France. No 
stronger proof of their devotion could be found than the letter 
they wrote to him soon after the escape from Elba. The fol- 
lowing is an exact copy of it : 

A Sa Majeste L'Empereur: 

Sire: — Permettez que quatres jeunes francaises uni par les 

334 The Gulf States Histop.ical Magazine. 

liens de l'amitie presente a votre majeste l'ecrit cle la disgrace 
que leur a fait eprouver leur devouement a son auguste per- 

Vons n'apprendez pas sans interet, Sire, line detention con- 
traire aux lois de l'etat, et qui n'etait motivee que sur un sin- 
cere attachment a la nation et a votre dynastic 

Sensible a 1'honneur, actifs et courageux, nous avons tou- 
jours aime de la France et votre Majeste. Comment avec de 
tels sentiments aurions nous pu rester dans un pays dont la 
gloire semblait etre eclipsee pour jamais? 

Nous avions forme le pro jet de suivre votre Majeste dans 
son exile volontaire. Ce pro jet ne pu etre execute que par Tun 
de nous. 

II eut riionneur de vous parler et de vous offrir ses faibles 
services ; les autres arretes en route par les agents d'un gouv- 
ernement soupconneux, n'ont pas en le meme bonheur. In- 
justement incarceres, nous avons ete en proie tous les quatres 
aux plus odieuses persecutions. Dans Page due courage et 
de la formete, nos coeurs n'ont point ebranles par cette 

Votre Majeste dans sa retraite ne pouvait entendre les voeux 
que nous faisons pour son retour. Aujourd'hui nos desirs se 
trouvent si heureusement accomplis, les malheurs que nous 
avons eprouve la visite que nous avons faite a votre Majeste 
pendant son infortune passagere, nous donnent- peut-etre le 
droit de la feliciter sur sa rentree glorieuse dans un empire qui 
va de nouveau briller de son eclat. 

Heureux si nos sentiments manifestos dans un temps il etait 
dangereux de paraitre attaches a votre cause, peuvent attirs 
sur nous les regards bienveillants de votre Majeste. Puissons 
nous, Sire, vous faire agreer les services que nous avous ofTerts 
endes jours moins prospere. 

Nous prouverons par notre conduite que vous n'avez pas 
feti jets plus fideles, plus devoues, et des serviteurs plus dignes 
de votre connance. 

Nous avons rhonneur d'etre avec le plus profond respect, 
bire, de votre Majeste, les humbles et tres obeissant serviteurs 
ea sujets. 

Regnier, Lavocat, 

exchiron de l'armee, depute depute de a Ville de Joinville. 

de la Ville de Joinville. 

De Vendel, 
foumourel, avocat. Intend gde de la Cou- 

ronne, ExS. chef de div. a 
la chancie de l'ordre de la 
Reunion. ' 

On the wrapper enclosing de Vendel's manuscript is writ- 

The Bonapaetists in Alabama. 335 

ten: "Histoire de ma captivite en France (Paris) comme 
Prisonnier d'Etat accuse de favoriser le retour de l'empereur 
Napoleon de File d'Elbe en 1814. 

"Manuscrit publie apres le retour de I'ernpereur dans la bro- 
chure qui fus presentes par moi-meme, et mes ties compagnons 
d'infortune, a la seance que obtin mes dans la grand Salle de 
Mareehaux aux Tuileries. 

"Tous quatre gracieusement, accueilles par l'Empereur." 

The reply to this expression of love is not among the yellow 
time-darkened papers de Vendel left, written in a hand so 
small that a lens has to be used to decipher them. It is evident 
that Napoleon granted their request as he honored them with 
an interview in which he thanked them for their demonstra- 
tions of fidelity. He also named them to the Lord Chamber- 
lain for preferment. M. de Vendel was nominated, May 10th, 
1805, to the Sous Prefecture of the Department of the Seine 
and Marne. Napoleon had had evidence before this ■ of de 
VendeFs reliability and affection for himself; and in express- 
ing his thanks for what the young man had done — the com- 
mission was of a private nature — he took from his belt a richly 
chased and jeweled dagger which he gave him. After the Re- 
storation de Vendel was imprisoned six months for the part 
he bore in the return of Napoleon. But knowing his loyalty 
made it impossible to look for aught from the Bourbons, he left 
France and came to America in Joseph Bonaparte's suite. A. 
friend writing of de Vendel at that time says of him: "Al- 
though but twenty- four years of age, the glory of his life was 
gone ; the buoyancy of youth and hope had fled ; the great ob- 
ject of his existence was defeated, and the exalted purposes 
which clustered around it only tortured his soul by the utter 
impossibility of their r ealization. 

De Vendel brought from Lafayette letters to the most emi- 
nent personages in Washington, for between the general and 
himself was a sincere friendship. He spent some months in the 
Capital, then went to New York. There he married Mademoi- 
selle Josephine Bancal de Confluent, a daughter of Sieur Louis 
Bancal, formerly Grand Equerry to Louis XVI. ; a gentleman 
who escaped the guillotine to find a home in this country. De 
Vendel finally settled in Huntsville, Alabama; he afterward 
moved to Mobile. He did not remain long in town, but bought 
a place at Spring Hill. His daughters were educated there ; the 
eldest was Madame Adelaide de Vendel Chaudron, one of the 
most distinguished women in the South. Had it not been for 
her desire to shun publicity the world would have been enriched 
by her brilliant literary achievements. As it was, however, she 
produced many virile and apposite editorials ; her work on the 
Mobile Register, under the guidance of Col. John Forsyth, has 

336 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

never been equalled by any other feminine journalistic matter 
in the {State. Her translation of Joseph the Second and His 
Court stamps her as a linguist of rare attainment. 

Much could be said of the little suburb where the de Vendels 
lived, and of Bishop Portier. Surrounded by cultured French 
families, he held a veritable court, famed for its wit and ele- 
gance. Thus, amid the friends to whom the splendor of Na- 
poleon's genius was as dear as to himself, de Vendel passed his 
life; it was that of a man whose moral greatness triumphed 
over his disappointments and griefs. 

Wearying of the monotony of the settlement, Charles Antoine 
Lallemand returned to Philadelphia, whence he wrote to his 
brother Henri: "I have more ambition than can be gratified 
by the colony upon the Tombigbee." Alas, for his exalted 
dream of a spot where the soldiers of the Empire could be 
saved from the degradation he fancied awaited them as mere 
tillers of the earth. His "Champs d'Asile," established through 
the support and approval of Joseph Bonaparte, failed to give 
to the sore hearts gathered there the ease they craved. 

It is curious to observe that wherever the officers of the Old 
Guard and army went they took with them a hope of rescuing 
Napoleon. In the canebrakes of Alabama and the forests of 
Texas they spent hours talking of his deliverance. Lallemand 
dwelt on the vision of liberation until it almost became an actu- 
ality to himself and Desnouettes, who had joined him in Texas. 
Their delight, as well as that of their comrades in Alabama, 
was infinite when it was known that their trust in Louisiana 
had not been groundless; for Stephen Girod and other Bona- 
partists in New Orleans, with a number in Charleston, had con- 
ceived a plot to rescue Napoleon.* But his death frustrated 
it, ending forever the dormant belief of the exiles in their own 
ability to vitalize the ruins of imperial power into an imper- 
ishable dynasty. 

♦There is a detailed account of this plot in the Guide-Book to the 
Crescent City, published in 1S84 or 1885. 

33 7 


By Dk. Alcee Foktier, of New Orleans. 

In an article on the "South and her History," published in 
the October number of the "American Monthly Review of Re- 
views," the author, Mr. David Y. Thomas, says : "Several other 
States have organizations, in name at least, that of Louisiana 
published two volumes about fifty years ago. Since then it 
appears to have remained inactive most of the time, but is now 
said to be 'in a state of hopeful vigor.' " These words do an 
injustice to our Society, and we shall endeavor to prove that 
Mr. Thomas was misinformed when he made the statement 
quoted above. 

Historical Sketch. 

The Louisiana Historical Society was founded on January 
15, 1836, and its first president was Judge Henry A. Bullard. 
Among the members were some of the most distinguished men 
in Louisiana at that time. In June, 1846, the Society was re- 
organized by the following gentlemen : John Perkins, J. D. 
B. De Bow, Edmund J. Forstall, Charles Gayarre, Gen. Joseph 
Walker and Alfred Hennen. Judge Francois Xavier Martin 
was elected presides* but he died in December, 1846. The so- 
ciety was incorporated in 1847, and Judge Bullard was elected 
president for the second time, and John Perkins and J. D. B. 
DeBow secretaries. By an act of the Legislature, approved 
February 10, i860, it was decreed that "in the event of a disso- 
lution of the Historical Society all books, maps, records, manu- 
scripts and collections shall revert to the State for the use of 
the State library." 

In i860 Judge Charles Gayarre was elected president *of 
the Society. It was chiefly through his intelligent labors that 
the valuable historical collection was made, which is now in 
the custody of the Society. They comprise important docu- 
ments copied from the archives of France and Spain and rare 
old books pertaining to the history of Louisiana. Judge 
Gayarre resigned the office of president in 1888 and died in 
1895. His name will be associated forever with all investiga- 
tions and studies in the history of the colony and of the State. 

In April, 1877., a new charter was obtained from the Legis- 
lature, and the domicile of the Society was transferred from 
Baton Rouge to New Orleans. In 1888 Judge W. W. Howe 
succeeded Judge Gayarre as president and remained in office 
until 1894 when the following officers were elected : President, 

338 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Professor Alcee Fortier ; first vice-president, Miss Grace King ; 
second vice-president, Dr. Gustave Devron ; secretary and 
treasurer, Professor John R. Ficklen ; assistant secretary, Pro- 
fessor J. H. Rapp. Dr. Devron died in 1900, and the present 
officers are : President, Professor Alcee Fortier ; first vice- 
president, Judge Joseph A. Breaux; second vice-president, 
Hon. James S. Zacharie; secretary, Miss Grace King; treas- 
urer, J. W. Cruzat ; assistant secretary, Dr. Charles G. Gill. 

Since February, 1894, nine monthly meetings have been held 
every year, at each of which historical papers have been read or 
original documents exhibited. Two volumes have been pub- 
lished by the Society and Volume III., Part I., has lately been 
issued. The following index of the Publications of the Society 
proves that it has not "remained inactive," as stated by Mr. 


Vol. I., Part I. : "Report of Professor Alcee Fortier, as Chair- 
man of Committee on Work and Archives ; Address of Presi- 
dent Fortier at annual meeting; Report of Professor John R. 
Ficklen, Secretary of the Society; Oration of Dr. B. M. Pal- 
mer at annual meeting." 

Vol. I., Part II. : "Resolutions on the death of Charles 
Gayarre, by Alcee Fortier ; Old Colonial Papers, .by Alcee For- 
tier ; A Relic of the Confederacy, by Thomas J. Semmes ; The 
West Florida Revolution, by Henry L. Favrot ; A Letter from 
Gen. Andrew Jackson, edited by Wffl. H. Seymour; An Old 
Manuscript Revised, by Grace King." 

Vol. I., Part III. ; "List of members ; Minutes of the Secre- 
tary, John R. Ficklen ; Sketch of Pierre Margry, by Gustave 
Devron ; The W T est Florida Revolution, Part II., by Henry L. 
Favrot; The Capture of Fort Charlotte, by William Beer; 
The Defences of New Orleans in 1797, translated by J. W. 
Cruzat ; A Letter of Gen. Andrew Jackson, edited by Wm. H. 

Vol. I., Part IV. : "Minutes of the Secretary ; Report on the 
Mounds of Louisiana, with illustrations, by George E. Beyer; 
Fac simile of Le Moniteur de la Louisiane, 1794; List of offi- 
cers and members." 

Vol. II., Part I. : "Minutes of the meetings, March-Decem- 
ber, 1897; Mounds of Louisiana, II. (illustrated), Professor 
George E. Beyer; two original and newly found documents of 
the departure, ship-wreck and death of Aubry, the last French 
Governor of Louisiana, G. Devron ; Sugar Crop in Louisiana, 
1896-97; Cotton Crop in Louisiana, 1896-97; List of officers 
and members." 

Vol. II., Part II. : "Minutes of the meetings, 1898; Letter 

The Louisiana Historical Society. 339 

of Gov. Miro to the Commissioners of the State of Georgia, 
and Remarks thereon, Gaspar Cusachs ; Investigation of some 
Shell Mounds in Calcasieu Parish (illustrated), Prof. George 
E. Beyer; Ancient Basket Work from Avery's Island, Prof. 
George E. Beyer ; The Northwestern Boundary of Louisiana, 
with special reference to the French Cession of 1803, Professor 
John R. Ficklen ; List of officers and members." 

Vol. IL, Part III.: ''Minutes of meetings, 1899; Abstract 
of the Paper of Miss Grace King ; 'Was the Espiritu Santo of 
the Ancient Cartographer the Mississippi?' Abstract of the 
Paper of lion. James S. Zacharie on 'The Cathedral Archives ;' 
Abstract of the Paper of Prof. Alcee Fortier, on Col. Francisco 
Bouligny (drawn from documents in possession of Mrs. Albert 
Bouligny Baldwin) ; Mound Investigations at Lemar, La., 
Prof. George E. Beyer ; Abstract of the Paper of Prof. H. E. 
Chambers on Mounds near Marksville and Natchitoches, La. ; 
Report of the Committee on the Historical Exhibition of the 
Society to be held in February, 1900; Abstract of Mr. Henry 
Renshaw's Paper on 'Pierre Soule' ; New Orleans : Its Old 
Streets and Places, Hon. James S. Zacharie; Catalogue of the 
Exhibit of the Louisiana Historical Society, opened February 
20, 1900." 

Vol. IL, Part IV. : "Minutes of the meetings, 1900 and 
1901 ; Notice of the death of Dr. Gustave Devron, First Vice- 
President of the Society, Alcee Fortier ; Centennial of the 
Louisiana Purchase, Act 14 of 1900 (La.) ; Circular sent to 
the Parishes calling attention to the Celebration of the Louisi- 
ana Purchase; Circular and Memorial to be sent to Congress, 
petitioning for the Publication of Documents in the 'Ministere 
des Colonies/ Paris ; 'Liste des Documents, Ministere des Colo- 
nies/ prepared by Victor Tantet ; Bill introduced in Congress 
by Hon. Adolph Meyer to provide for celebrating the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the Purchase of the Louisiana Territory, 
in the City of New Orleans ; Extracts from General Adolph 
Meyer's speech in Congress advocating the Celebration in New 
Orleans; The State Seal (illustrated), Henry L. Favrot; The 
Louisiana Lrsulines, Henry Renshaw ; 'Traite de la Cam- 
pagnie des Indes avec les Ursulines ;' List of officers and mem- 

Vol. III., Part I. : "Reception of President McKinley at the 
Cabildo, New Orleans, May 2, 1901." 

Future Work. 

One may see from the above that the Louisiana Historical 
Society has issued interesting Publications, mainly contribu- 
tions of its members. It intends to publish shortly extracts 

340 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

from the very valuable documents in its custody, and at present 
it is having made in Paris copies of all the documents to be 
found at the Ministry of the Colonies relating to the history 
of Louisiana in 1803, with facsimiles of the most important 

The Legislature of Louisiana has authorized the Historical 
Society to prepare a program for the celebration, on December 
20, 1903, of the centennial of the transfer of Louisiana to the 
United States, and has appropriated a sum of money for that 
purpose. The celebration will be most interesting, as it will 
be held at the Cabildo, in New Orleans, at the very spot where 
Claiborne and Wilkinson, the American commissioners, re- 
ceived the province from Laussat, the French commissioner 
and colonial Prefect. 

The Louisiana Historical Society is not merely in a state of 
"hopeful vigor." It has demonstrated its activity in the last 
eight years, not only by publications, but by organizing a very 
successful colonial exhibit, and by making strenuous efforts 
to have Congress copy and publish the documents to be found 
in Paris relating to the history of Louisiana. 

Communication to Presidents of Historical Societies. 

The following communication was sent to the various presi- 
dents of the Historical Societies in the States of the Mississippi 
Valley : 

"New Orleans, December §th, 1900. 
My Dear Sir: 

On a recent visit to Paris I was authorized by the Librarian 
and Keeper of Archives at the Ministry of the Colonies to 
make researches into the papers relating to the history of 
Louisiana. I found among them a number of volumes con- 
taining documents of the highest importance, hitherto unpub- 

When the attention of the Louisiana State Historical Society 
was called to the matter, at a meeting held on December 21st, 
1900, a resolution was adopted to send a Memorial to Congress 
praying that these volumes be published by the United States 
Government, and that the said Memorial be signed by the 
presidents of all the Historical Societies in the States formed 
out of the original province of Louisiana, and by the Governors 
of these States. 

I have the honor, to enclose the Memorial. As the time is 
short before the meeting of Congress, you are respectfully 
urged to sign it at once and to forward it to the Governor of 
your State with such recommendation as will secure his prompt 
attention and action. 

The Louisiana Historical Society. 341 

. The approaching celebration of the Centennial of the Cession 
of Louisiana has awakened public interest in the history of 
this great acquisition of territory by the United States, and the 
moment, therefore, seems very opportune for presenting the 
matter to Congress and obtaining data of inestimable value to 
the whole country. 

Hoping, my dear Sir, that I shall soon receive a favorable 
reply from you, I am, very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) A. Fortier, President" 

Memorial to Congress. 

"To the Honorable the Senate and the House of Representa- 
tives of the United States: 

The undersigned Governors of the States of the Mississippi 
Valley and the Presidents of the Historical Societies of the 
same States respectfully present this Memorial and ask for 
the publication by the United States of certain documentary 
records relating to the history of the Mississippi Valley, es- 
pecially of the vast territory acquired by the purchase of 1803. 
These records are contained in a series of volumes in the ar- 
chives of the Ministry of the Colonies, Paris, France, and con- 
sist of hitherto unpublished correspondence, orders, proclama- 
tions, official reports, grants of lands and privileges, the regis- 
tration of births, marriages and deaths, censuses, financial ac- 
counts, and various other data of great interest and importance 
to students and historians. 

Several rimes during revolutionary uprisings in Paris these 
archives were in danger of being destroyed; notably in 1871, 
by the Communists. In the event of such destruction the loss 
would be irreparable. 

We respectfully petition that Congress have these records 
copied and an edition printed for distribution 'as public docu- 
ments among the universities, colleges, libraries, historical and 
other learned societies of the United States, and that an appro- 
priation be made for the purpose." 

The Society offered President McKinley a dignified recep- 
tion at the Cabildo in May, 1901, and it will give further proof 
of its activity in organizing, in 1903, a worthy celebration of 
the centennial of one of the greatest events in the history of 
the United States, the transfer of the vast province of Louisi- 
ana to the American domination. 

The history of Louisiana is interesting and heroic, and the 
Society, which has been founded to commemorate it, is con- 
scious that it has not been unworthy of its trust. 

Alcee Fortier, 
President Louisiana Historical Society." 


By Charles A. Choate, of Pensacola. 

Notwithstanding the existence of an abundance of apparent- 
ly trustworthy material concerning the invasion of Florida in 
1539 by Hernando De Soto, there is much uncertainty and con- 
flict of statement in the published histories with respect to the 
exact location of his first landing place, his route thence 
through the State, the place where he made his winter camp 
for several months and the itinerary of his expedition through 
Georgia and Alabama, and beyond to the mighty Mississippi, 
of which he was the first white discoverer and beneath the 
turbid waters of which he found a "nameless grave." 

The most important sources of information concerning the 
expedition are comprised in a journal kept by a Portuguese 
follower of the great captain, translated into English by Hak- 
luyt and published in London in 18 12, and a more pretentious 
work by Garcillasso de la Vega, a noted writer of his time, 
translated into French and published in 173 1. La Vega ob- 
tained the material for his "history of the conquest of Florida" 
from interviews with a member of the expedition and from 
journals kept by two other followers of De Soto. From these 
sources, as he states, Alabama's distinguished historian, A. J. 
Pickett, procured the material for the initial chapter of his 
History of Alabama, which treats of De Soto's expedition. 

Without discussing the various apparently irreconcilable 
differences wmich have grown out of the pardonable inaccura- 
cies of the original relators of the history of the great expedi- 
tion, concerning the true landing place and the exact route of 
the invading army through Florida, or that which was followed 
after its departure beyond the borders of the State, it is pur- 
posed herein to consider briefly the location of the w T inter 
camp where De Soto and his companions spent some months 
recovering from the fatigues of their Florida campaign and 
preparing for the much longer and more difficult journey to 
the Mississippi. 

Pickett (who dates the arrival in Tampa Bay, May 30, 1539, 

*De Soto | in Florida ! An Itinerary of the Route of Hernando De 
Soto I through [ Florida; ' demonstrating by the | topography of the 
country and thej entries in his journal the place of | landing and his 
line of march | within the boundaries of the State | and in Georgia as 
far as the | Ocmulgee river | by | John Westcott I U. S. Surveyor-Gen- 
eral from 1852 to 1859 | Palatka | Palatka News Publishing Company, 
1888. I 4 to. paper. 6 engraved maps, or more accurately, a map of 
the route in 6 sections, on fine paper. 

De Soto in Florida. 343 

whereas another authority, presently to be mentioned, gives 
May 25th as the date), notes the arrival at the place of the 
winter camp on October 27th, and locates it at "Anaica Apa- 
lache, in the neighborhood of Tallahassee," with "the sea 
only thirty miles distant;" and describes the exploration of the 
region intervening between that point and St. Marks — where 
traces of the presence of Narvaez were discovered — and a 
more extended expedition overland, under Francisco Maldina- 
do, as far westward as the "Bay of Ochus" (now Pensacola), 
"one hundred and eighty miles distant from Apalache." He 
also states that Maldinado was ordered to proceed "in the brig- 
antines then lying in the Apalache Bay" to Havana, to return 
with a fleet laden with supplies to Ochus, "where the expedi- 
tion would join him in October." 

In 1888 the late Dr. John Westcott, of St. Augustine, who 
was United States Surveyor-General for Florida from 1852 
to 1859, engaged in the official survey of large portions of the 
State and hence familiar with its topography, published a most 
interesting and instructive brochure, giving the itinerary of De 
Soto from Indian Hill, the place of landing (identified appar- 
ently beyond question by the various authorities he consulted 
as well as by his intimate knowledge of the country), to the 
winter camp whence, after five months' stay, the intrepid ex- 
plorer departed upon his long and toilsome journey through 
Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi towards the great river. 

Tracing the progress of the invading army step by step, as 
recorded by day's marches and the lapse of time, Dr. Westcott 
brings De Soto to the winter camp at "An-ha-yea," which he 
locates "on the ridge dividing the waters of the Alapaha from 
those of the Withlacoochee," "ninety miles from St. Marks," 
to which point, among others, was sent a small party to explore, 
its members finding there the evidences of the presence of 
Narvaez. This locality, instead of being "in the neighborhood 
of Tallahassee," as stated by Pickett, lies in Hamilton county 
almost due north from the confluence of the Withlacoochee and 
Suwannee rivers, which is near the point where the latter is 
now crossed by the railroad extending from Jacksonville to 
Tallahassee and beyond. Dr. Westcott verifies its situation 
not only by the exact distance traversed by the expedition from 
Indian Hill (Hirr-ri-hi-gua) — 346 miles — and the route and 
distance traveled from "the great morass" where the crossing 
of the Suwannee river was effected, but also by the recorded 
itinerary of the expedition sent westward to explore the country 
as far as St. Marks. 

Dr. Westcott's narrative makes no mention of Maldinado's 
movement from St. Marks to Havana "in the brigantines," 
but he gives the details of the countermarch of "thirty lancers," 

344 The Gxjx.f States Historical Magazine. 

over the route just covered by the army, to Indian Hill, where 
the fleet lay, with orders for it to sail thence to St. Marks, 
leaving a portion of the reserves to follow the original line of 
march northward by land and rejoin De Soto at the winter 
camp. "The fleet arrived at the Bay of Aute (St. Marks) 
December 29th." Thence, during the winter, it explored the 
coast westwardly to the "Bay of Ochus," which, however, the 
expedition never reached, the army, after its disastrous en- 
counter with the great chief Tuscaloosa at Maubila, having 
been abruptly ordered to march northward because of the dis- 
covery by De Soto of a purpose among many of his followers 
to seize the ships which they expected to find there and return 
to Spain. 

Strangely enough, Dr. Westcott cites as his chief historical 
authority the work of La Vega mentioned above; but this 
fact serves only to illustrate the facility with which even the 
most careful of historians may misconceive or misinterpret 
sources of information. From his intimate personal knowl- 
edge, however, of the topography of the region which was the 
theatre of these great events, as well as from his well-known 
devotion to accuracy in every undertaking, it is easy to believe 
that his conclusions concerning the location of De Soto's land- 
ing place and the true route of the expedition through Florida, 
as well as the site of the winter camp, are correct. 



By Ulrich B. Phillips, Pb. D., 
University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

There is a wealth of work to be done in the field of Southern 
history, and encouragement should await each student who 
enters the field in the spirit of hard work, clear thinking and 
even judgment. It is .to be regretted that the monograph of 
Professor W. E. Martin upon internal improvements in Ala- 
bama does not come up to the requirements. It is superficial, 
undigested, and in scope too limited to fit the title. The au- 
thor writes apparently from afar off, and gives little indication 
of ever having seen an old map of Alabama or a newspaper 
published in the State before the Civil War. He deals with 
descriptions of the wilderness in the early period, and with the 
federal and State legislation concerning canals, river improve- 
ments, and railroads. So far as he goes, this treatment is 
fairly satisfactory. But the work does not approach an ade- 
quate handling of the subject which the title indicates. 

Historical research implies study and analysis of materials 
in addition to the simple accumulation of facts. The underlying 
reasons of things must be sought for. The history of roads, 
canals and railways, meaning practically the history of com- 
merce, involves the study of economic geography, of the pro- 
ductive industry of the country and its demand for commodi- 
ties, and, in some measure, of the life and habits of the people. 

The key to the whole economic situation in ante-bellum Ala- 
bama is the cotton plant. The cotton belt was the important 
section. The planters therein needed means of sending their 
cotton to the seaboard or to New England ; and they demanded 
manufactured articles from the North or from Europe, and 
corn, flour and meat from the Northwest. Therefore internal 
improvements were necessary. But on the other hand the in- 
habitants of the mountain region and the wire-grass district 
produced for themselves nearly all their required commodities. 
They were more largely independent of communications 
abroad, and they created little effective demand for railroads. 

Nearly all parts of Alabama were supplied with natural 
waterways giving outlets in some one direction. These rivers 
would suffice in some measure for marketing produce. But the 
stream of immigration and the needs of the postal service de- 

♦Internal Improvements in Alabama. By William Elejius 
Martin, Professor of History in Emory and Henry College. Johns 
Hopkins University Press Baltimore, April, 1902. (8 vo. pp. 87.) 

346 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

mancled cross-country lines from east to west or from north- 
east to southwest. The trading roads and the stage routes 
naturally took these directions. 

Canals, when introduced., were necessarily intended to sup- 
plement the natural waterways. The earliest railways were 
built with a similar object in view. The single noteworthy 
attempt at artificial waterways in Alabama was in the case of 
the Muscle Shoals Canal, running along the obstructed sec- 
tion of the Tennessee river and connecting the navigable upper 
reaches of that river with its lower course and the circuitous 
route to New Orleans. It was soon found that this canal 
could not be maintained and operated successfully; and after 
1833 it was replaced by a railroad running from Decatur to 
Tuscumbia. This railway proved a distinct success for portage 
purposes, until after two decades it was connected with the 
general east and west railway system and asserted its independ- 
ence of the river. 

The next railway to be undertaken was built northward 
from Selma with the plan of tapping the Tennessee river at 
Guntersville and thus opening a route between the cotton belt 
and the Northwestern States. But there were many delays in 
the completion of the road, and at length it was diverted to the 
northeastward, where it followed the cotton producing valleys 
to Rome and Chattanooga instead of crossing the mountains 
to Guntersville. 

The transportation of passengers soon became as important 
as that of freight. The railway from Montgomery through 
West Point to Atlanta was the first one to be built with the 
principal object of accommodating immigrants, the mail, and 
through freight. Northeast and southwest became the prevail- 
ing direction of railways when the systems connecting the 
South with Baltimore and New York were completed. The 
effort was then to connect Atlanta and Chattanooga with Mo- 
bile and New Orleans, as well as with the local cotton belt. 

Without causing the complete destruction of the river traffic, 
the railroads greatly diminished its importance. Alabama was 
backward in the development and it was found that the rail- 
ways in Georgia were drawing away much of the accustomed 
trade from Mobile. To remedy this, and strengthen Mobile in 
the contest with New Orleans, Savannah, and Charleston, the 
Mobile and Ohio railway was planned in the later forties and 
pushed toward completion in the decade of the fifties. A 
pamphlet issued by the Mobile and Ohio railroad management 
in 1848 claimed that the projected road would draw income 
(1) from local passengers and freight, (2) from through pas- 
sengers and such through freight as could be diverted from the 
Mississippi river, and (3) from the United States mail. It was 

Early Railroads in Alabama. 347 

set forth that the railway from Augusta to Charleston was 
thriving in competition with the Savannah river, and that 
Northern capitalists were planning a road parallel to the navi- 
gable Hudson river. The Mobile and Ohio road, it was stated, 
was intended to have branches which, like those of a great 
river, would increase the volume in the main stream. 

In the decades since 1850, Alabama has become covered with 
a considerable network of railways, some built with govern- 
ment aid and others without it. It is to be noted that first the 
cotton belt and later the mining region have been best supplied 
with railway facilities, while the wire-grass district has even 
yet failed to create an effective demand for them. On the 
whole it is apparent that economic geography, rather than legis- 
lation of government assistance is and must be the controlling 

These brief hints of railway history in Alabama will indi- 
cate what Professor Martin has left undone. A study of the 
development of commerce in Alabama is much to be hoped for 
as a contribution to American history. The work should be 
undertaken by a resident of the State, with a knowledge of 
economics as well as of history, and with the local material at 
his command. The study should include an account of the 
progress in the thought of the people. There are few fields 
of research which will better repay the work of an Alabamian 
to the manner born. 





Contributed by William Harden, 
Librarian of the Society. 

Augusta, Ga. 

Augusta Chronicle, w. 
1790-1797. lvol 
1798. 1 toI. 

Cassville, Ga. 
Cassville Standard, w. 
1855-1856. 1 vol. 

Macon, Ga. 

Georgia Journal and Messenger, w. 
1847-1849. 1 vol. 

Milled geville, Ga. 

The Southern Recorder, w. 
1823-1844. 9 vol. 

Georgia Patriot, w. 
1824-1825. 2 vols. 

Paris, France. 

Galignani's Messenger. (In English.) d. 
1861-1869. 15 vols. 

Savannah, Ga 

Drgia Gazette, w 


1 vol. 


1 vol. 


1 vol. 


1 vol. 


1 vol. 


1 vol. 


1799. 1 



1800. 1 



1 vol. 


1 vol 

Southern CentineL w. 
1793-1798. 2 vols. 

Newspapers in Library of the Georgia Historical Society. 249 i 

Columbian Museum, w. 
1796-1802. 7 vols. 
1804. 2 vols. 
1806-1807. 2 vols. 
1809-1810. 2 vols. 

Georgia Republican and State Intelligencer, w. 
1804-1807. 1 vol. 
1808. 1 vol. 

Southern Patriot, w. 
1806-1807. 1 vol. 

Public Intelligencer, w. 
1807-1809. 1 vol. 

Savannah Republican, d. 
1810-1812. 3 vols. 
1844-1846. 3 vols. 
Dec. 1864- June 1865. 1 vol. 

Savannah Gazette, d. 
1817-1820. 4 vols. 

Savannah Museum, d. 
1822. 1 vol. 

The Savannah Daily Georgian, d. 
1818-1854. vols. 1-36. 75 books. 

Savannah Daily Journal, d. 
1852-1855. 3 vols. 

Savannah Evening Journal, d. 
1852-1853. 2 vols. 

Savannah Republican, d. 
1870-1874. 8 vols. 

Includes the Advertiser. 

Savannah Advertiser, d. 
1868-1874. 14 vols. 

Includes part of the Republican. 

Savannah Evening Mirror, d. 
1866. 1 vol. 

Savannah Morning News. d. 
1870-1902. 64 vols. 

Washington , D. C. 
National Intelligencer. 
1824. 1 vol. 

Charleston,. S. C, Richmond, Va., and Savannah, Ga., news- 

1861-1869. 15 vols. 



Contributed by Mrs. F. R. Abercrombie, of Gadsden, Ala. 

The genealogy of the Fisher family, published in this Maga- 
zine, September, 1902, pp. 134-138, merely mentions the fact 
of the marriage by Milo Abercrombie, of one of the daughters 
of Robert G. Hayden and wife, Mary, daughter of Col. George 
and Catherine (Sossamon) Fisher. This contribution is in- 
tended to give a brief account of the descendants of the Aber- 
crombie-Hayden marriage. 

Milo Boiling Abercrombie, Sr., was born in Hancock county, 
Ga., March 1, 1806. He removed to Alabama when a young 
man, and on December 15, 1829, married Sarah L., daughter 
of Robert G. and Mary (Fisher) Hayden. She was born in 
Alabama, February 18, 1810. He belonged to a family of 
prominence and high standing. Garrett* says of them, in a 
sketch of Hon. James Abercrombie (brother of Milo B. A.) : 
"Major Charles Abercrombie, the father, was an officer in the 
Revolutionary War, and his character was held in the highest 
esteem by all who knew him. The Abercrombie family had 
great prestige from their wealth and social position, and also 
from the superior intellect and manly qualities they possessed." 

Milo B. Abercrombie resided at Cross Keys, in Macon coun- 
ty, where he was a planter and slave owner. Here his wife 
died August 4, 1850, and she is here buried. He was married, 
secondly, to Sarah G. Greenleaf, January 30, 185 1. He died 
August 22, i860, and is buried at Montgomery. 

Children of Milo Boiling and his first wife Sarah L. (Hay- 
den) Abercrombie: 

1. Mary S. Abercrombie, b. Aug. 14, 1830; d. Nov. 1, 1830. 

2. Alabama, b. Aug. 15, 1831, and d. same day. 

3. Leonard, A., b. Dec. 1, 1S32; d. Dec. 23, 1S91, at Huntsville, 

Texas. His wife was Miss L. A. Chilton, of Montgomery, 

*Garrett's Public Men in Alabama, p. 555. This family has played 
a conspicuous part in Georgia and Alabama history and several short 
sketches of various members appear in the usual sources, but no 
complete genealogy ha.s appeared. See Brewer's Alabama, pp. 243, 
513; Northern Alabama Illustrated (18S8), p. 741; and the Memorial 
Record of Alabama (1894), vol ii, p. 385.- Hon. Boiling Hall at one 
time a representative in Congress from Georgia, 1811-17, married a 
sister of Milo B. Abercrombie. — Editor, 

Abercrombie and Hayde.v Families. 351 

4. Milo Boiling, b. Jan. 15, 1835; m. Miss Houston, of Houston, 

Texas; and d. March 13, 1877, at that place, and is there 
buried. A son survives him. 

5. John Comer, b. Feb. 5, 1836; m. Miss R. A. Martin, March 

3, 1864; d. June 24, 1891, at Tuskegee, Ala. He was a 
member of the 45th Ala. Regiment Infantry, C. S. A. Milo 
B. Abercrombie, of Tuskegee, is a son. 

6. Robert Haden, b. Sept. 11, 1837; m. Miss Fannie R. Gary, 

Jan. 9, 1860; d. at Gadsden, Ala., June 8.- 1891, and is 
buried at Tuskegee. He was graduated from the law school 
of the Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn. in 1859, and 
immediately began the practice of the law at Tuskegee; 
in 1862 he entered the Confederate States Army as Capt. 
of Co. "H," 45th Ala. Regt. Infantry, and was promoted 
Major, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Colonel of the Regiment. 
He fought gallantly on many a field and when the struggle 
ended he returned home in May, 1865. Resuming at once 
his profession he practiced in Tuskegee until 1888, when 
he removed to Gadsden, where he resided at the date of 
his death in 1891. His widow, who is the writer, and one 
daughter, Mrs. Dr. D. H. Baker, survive him. His chil- 
dren were: (1) William, d. in infancy; (2) Fannie H., m. 
Dr. D. H. Baker, resides at Gadsden; (3) Ann E., m. Dr. 
Thomas S. Jordan, both dead; (4) Robert H.; (5) New- 
ton; and (6) Thomas Gary, the last three dying in in- 

7. George A., b. March 1, 1839; d. unm. Feb. 17, 1875, and is 

buried at Cross Keys. He was a physician and practiced 
at Snowdon, Ala. 

8. W. H. H., b. Oct. 18, 1840; d. Oct. 24, 1840. 

9. Sarah Comer, b. Dec. 8, 1841; m. Dr. W. H. Crawford, Feb. 

4, 1864; d. Nov. 22, 1866, and is buried at Cross Keys. 

10. Amelia M., b. Oct. 13, 1843; d. unmarried, May 29, 1874. 

11. Annie B., b. March 11, 1845; m. May 13, 1869, Boiling Reid, 

son of John C. S. Reid, of Tuskegee. Mrs. Reid and two 
sons survive. 

12. Charles A. (1), b. May 9, 1846; d. Oct. 12, 1846. 

13. Charles A. (2), b. Sept. 9, 1847; d. Sept. 30, 1847. 

14. James B. (1), b. May 11, 1849, and d. same day. 

15. James B. (2), b. July 27, 1850. 

By his second wife, Sarah G. Greenleaf : 

16. Webster Abercrombie; 17. Boiling; 18. Winona and 19. 

Webster Abercrombie is an educator of distinction. He is 
at the head of the celebrated Worcester Academy, in Mass. 



I. Robert 1 Sands, a native of Maryland, married Sarah 
Norris. He lived in Prince George county, but later removed 
to Baltimore, where he and his wife continued to reside until 
their death. He had several children, among them Benjamin 2 
Sands, who had Maria 3 Sands, who married Lloyd Addison. 
Hortense 4 Addison, a daughter, married Alfred Batre, and re- 
sides at Mobile, Ala. She is the regent of the Alabama Chap- 
ter of the Society of Colonial Dames. 

He also had another son 

II. Richard Martin 2 Sands, who was born Oct. 8, 1791, in 
Prince George county, Aid. He early entered the United 
States Army, and had a long career of faithful service. Under 
date of Jan. 9, 1903, the office of the Adjutant-General, War 
Department, Washington, D. C, supplied the following data 
from the official records : 

"It is shown by the records that Richard M. Sands, of Mary- 
land, was appointed Ensign, 38th Infantry, May 20, 1813 ; was 
promoted to be 3d Lieutenant April 22, 1814, and to be 26. Lieu- 
tenant July 9, 1814. It appears that he was disbanded June 15, 
1815, at the close of the war, but was reinstated December 2, 
1815, as a 2d Lieutenant in the 4th Infantry with rank from 
July 9, 1814, date originally promoted to that grade. He was 
promoted to be 1st Lieutenant March 12, 1817, and to be 
Captain April 30, 1819; he was brevetted Major April 30, 1829, 
for ten years' faithful service in one grade. He died Septem- 
ber 13, 1836, at Fort Call, Florida. 

"There is on file a letter from him dated Baltimore, February 
9, 1813, applying for a commission in the Army and stating that 
he had lost his left arm by accident about six years previously. 
and he expressed the hope that the injury he had received would 
not debar him from the appointment desired. When the Army 
was about to be reduced after the war, a small number of officers 
being retained, Major Enos Cutter of the 38th Infantry recom- 
mended Lieutenant Sands for retention as one of the best 

♦Compiled by the editor from data supplied by Col. Robert M. 
Sands, who now resides in the city of Mobile, Ala., enjoying a green 
old age. 

See Munsell's Index to American Genealogies, 4th edition, (1S95), 
p. 219, for sundry published genealogies and genealogical memoranda 
in reference to this family. 

Brief Memoranda of the Sands Family. 353 

offices of the regiment, as did also Lieutenant Colonel Stuart, 
of the same regiment. The records of the 1812 War on file are 
quite incomplete, and it is impossible to give a detailed state- 
ment of services rendered by Lieutenant Sands during the 

At Pensacola, Fla., June 14, 1824, by Father C. Moenhant, 
he was married to Adele, daughter of Peter and Agnes 
(Krebs) Senac, residents of the town. She was born in Pen- 
sacola, Aug. 4, 1807, and died at New Orleans, La., Dec. 31, 
1879. Peter (Pierre) Senac was a native of Bayonne, France, 
and his wife, Agnes Krebs, was born in Pascagoula, on the 
gulf coast, of a French family, which had been seated in that 
vicinity nearly two hundred years. f Agnes Senac died in Mo- 
bile, and is buried in the Catholic cemetery there. 

Major Sands died at Fort Call, Fla., but his remains, to- 
gether with several others, were removed to St. Augustine. 

Children of Maj. Richard M, and Adele (Senac) Sands: 

III. 1. Robert Martin 3 Sands, b. at Cantonment Brooke, Tampa, Fla., 
Oct. 12, 1825; m. Josephine LeBaron. 

2. Agnes Evalina 3 , b. at Tampa, Feb. 9, 1830; m. Joseph Fry, 

at New Orleans, Aug. 10, 1849. Their son Wm. Fry, and 
daughters, Mrs. Paul H. Demouey and Mrs. Franklin De- 
mouey, all reside in Mobile. 

3. Charles Senac 3 , b. at Mobile, Sept. 15, 1832; m. Nov. 25, 1857, 

Emma Laurendine, daughter of Clinton and Mercelite 
Ford. After his death she removed to Houston, Texas, 
and remarried. 

4. Richard 3 , d. in infancy. 

5. Harvey Hook 3 , d. in infancy. 

III. Robert Martin 3 Sands of Mobile, was born at Canton- 
ment Brooke, Tampa, Fla., Oct. 12, 1825. He received a good 
education, and was engaged in business pursuits in 1861, at 
the beginning of the war. He was then captain of the Mobile 
Cadets, and on Jan. 2, 1861, was with his company at Fort 
Morgan, Ala. On the formation of the Third Alabama Regi- 

*See also Gardner's Dictionary of the Army of the U. 8. 

fOwen's edition of Pickett's History of Alabama (1900), pp. 326-7. 

Another daughter of Peter Senac, Evalina married Thomas G. 
Rapier, who came from Kentucky to Mobile. John L. Rapier, of the 
Mobile Register, and Thomas G. Rapier, of the New Orleans Picayune 
are sons. Another daughter of Peter Senac, Mary Louisa, married 
Samuel Fry, who came to Pensacola, Fla., from Albany, N. Y., as 
Secretary to Gov. George Walton, — their son Joseph Fry was Cap- 
tain of Steamer "Virginius," captured by a Spanish man of war and 
Joseph Fry and crew were shot as fillibusters, at Santiago de Cuba in 
1874. Another of Peter Senac's children, Felix, married Mary Louisa, 
daughter of Adam and Rubina Hollinger, of Mobile, whose daughter, 
Ruby, married Henry Hotze, Confederate agent in Paris, France. 
At his death she returned to the TJ. S. and is employed in U. S. 
Weather Bureau, Washington City. 

354 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

merit, Infantry, his company became a part of that gallant com- 
mand in the Army of Northern Virginia. He was rapidly pro- 
moted Major and Lieutenant-Colonel, and during practically 
the whole of the war, after the battle of White Oak Swamp, 
Va., June 8, 1862, he commanded the Regiment. He was 
wounded July 2, 1863, at Gettysburg. In March, 1865, on ac- 
count of ill health, he was placed on the ''invalid corps," and 
sent to Talladega, Ala., where he was in charge of a camp ot 
instruction at the close of hostilities. 

His wife is Josephine LeBaron (b. Nov. 29, 1828, at Pensa- 
cola), daughter of Charles LeBaron (b. Dec. 13, 1804, at New 
Orleans), and wife, Ann McVoy (b. Oct. 21, 1803, at Pensa- 
cola, where she was married by Rev. Mr. Coleman, Feb. 2.2, 

Col. Sands children. 


I. Unpublished Letters ok Gen. Nathaniel Greene. 

Two letters of Gen. Greene, which are printed below, believed to 
have never before been published, are given here without special 
comment. The student of our Revolutionary annals will doubtless 
find them of interest and importance. These letters as well as the 
documents embraced in the four succeeding items were selected for 
use here by Dr. U. B. Phillips, of the University of Wisconsin, for 
which grateful acknowledgment is made. 

General Greene to Governor Nelson of Virginia. 
(Draper Collection, Sumter Mss., Vol. I., No. 68.) 

Head Quarters on the High Hills of 

Santee September 16th 1781. 

I did myself the honor to enclose your Excellency, in 
my last Letter, a State of the Virginia Line as it then stood in 
South Carolina. Since then we have had a severe and bloody- 
Action, by which their Ranks are considerably thinned. 

I hope your Excellency will recommend it seriously to the 
consideration of the Legislature to furnish us with a fresh sup- 
ply of Troops, and forward, all in your power, such measures 
as they may adopt to compleat the continental quota. Your 
zeal for the public good, and your knowledge of the state of 
things, I doubt not, will sufficiently induce you to great exer- 

Captain Pierce who will have the honor of delivering you this 
Letter, is fully acquainted with the state of the Line, and the 
circumstances of affairs as they at present stand in this part 
of the World. He will also give you the particulars of the 
Battle of Eutaw, which was fought on the 8th instant, and 
which was attended with signal success to our Arms. The 
Officers paid severely for the honors of the Day: But such as 
fell met their fate with becoming Dignity ! 

Your Troops participated considerably in the loss, and their 
very material Services claim the most generous acknowledge- 
ments of gratitude from their Country. 

Lieut. Colo Campbell who commanded the Brigade, and who 
was killed in the heat and fury of the conflict, merits all that 
can be said of a brave, active and intrepid Soldier. His worth 
I beg leave to recommend to you as deserving particular pub- 
lic notice. He has been engaged in our Service from the com- 

356 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine 

mencement of the War, and has bled more than once to save the 
liberties of America. A numerous Family is left behind to 
lament his loss, and a very gallant Youth, his Son, who is a 
Lieutenant in the Line, and who fought bravely by his side, 
is here to partake of such honors as Virginia may think proper 
to bestow on his Fathers merit. 

Permit me to congratulate you on the arrival of a French 
Fleet in Chessapeak, and the promising prospect of finishing 
a glorious Campaign. 

I have the honor to be with great respect 

Your Excellency's most 
obedient and most humble 

Nat. Greene. 
His Excels 

Governor Nelson. 
Address: His Excellency | Thomas Nelson junr. Esquire] 
Governor of | Virginia. 

General, Greene to Governor Lee oe Maryland. 

(Draper Collection, Sumter Mss., Vol. I., No. 67.) 

Your Excellency's Letter of the 6th of December I have 
had the honor to receive and shall be happy if your Legislature 
second your good wishes in giving effectual support to the 
Southern Army. We have waded through many difficulties, 
and without great exertions I am still afraid our troubles will 
be renewed in a few Weeks if not sooner. Many of your 
Officers are on their return home. I should be wanting in 
gratitude not to acknowledge their singular merit, and the im- 
portance of their Services. They have spilt their blood freely 
in the Service of their Country, and have faced every danger 
and difficulty without a murmur or complaint. I beg leave to 
recommended Col n Williams who has been at the head of your 
Line, to the particular notice of your State, as an officer of 
great merit and good conduct. 

Inclosed I send your Excellency a return of the Maryland 
Line, agreeable to a resolution of Congress and an order I 
lately received from Gen 1 Washington on that subject. A 
very considerable number of those returned are not, nor ever 
will be fit for service again. They are incapable of doing 
active duty and ought to be turned over to the Invalid Corps. 

This is an important crisis in the American War; wisdom 
says be prepared for whatever may happen. Force is to de- 
cide out fate. It is a pity therefore to leave your Army in a 
weak and distressed situation. 

Documents. 357 

The Commander in chief has so fully addressed you on this 
subject that there remains nothing to say. 
I have the honor to be with great respect 

Your Excellency's 
mo: obt. humble servt. 

Nath. Greene. 
Head Quarters, 

So. Carolina Feb- V . ist, 1782. 
His Excels 
Govr. Lee. 
Addressed : His Excellency | Governor Lee | of | Maryland. 

II. Views of John Sevier on the Second War with Eng- 
land, 1812-1815. 

Prom 1811 to 1815 John Sevier was a representative in Congress 
from Tennessee, and during this trying period served on the im- 
portant committee on military affairs in that body. His views on 
passing events at the beginning of 1814 are given in the following 
letter to Gov. Shelby. In 1815 he was appointed one of the commis- 
sioners to ascertain the Creek boundary under the treaty of 1814. 
It was while engaged in that service that he died, Sept. 24, 1815. He 
was buried at Fort Decatur on the Tallapoosa river, in the present 
State of Alabama, and there his remains - rested until within the last 
decade, when they were removed by Tennessee to Knoxville. 

(Draper Collection, Sumter Hss., Vol. I., No. 109.) 

Washington 5th February 1814. 
Dear Sir 

Your Much esteemed and very Satisfactory letter of the 
26th ultimo have just been reed. The adventures and 
dangers encountered on the expidition your Excellency have 
had the goodness to relate, seem to me as being conducted by 
the hand of providence indeed! — I do most sincerely antici- 
pate with you, that we shall yet live to see the day when the 
insiduous Machinations of the old and inveterate enemy, to- 
gether with our domestic foes (which are not a few) with their 
perfidious schisms will a second time be confounded. — I do as- 
sure you when I frequently hear what I deem toryism, treason, 
and insurrection, preached up in the sacred Walls of our Na- 
tional legislature; it is so grating, to my ears and feelings, 
that I can scarcely contain myself within the bounds of Modera- 
tion, & reason. The disaffected are numerous, and should the 
enemy be as successful in Europe as is reported, we may expect 
to have the second battle to fight over again for our Indepen- 

358 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

Your Excellency are acquainted with the transactions of this 
place which are daily published in the prints. The British are 
hovering about our coasts, and I have very little doubt they 
Mean to be very troublesome, so soon as the season will permit 
them to be so. Our Envoys will shortly embark, but I don't 
anticipate any very favorable result from the Mission, I wish 
I may be disappointed, but I have little hopes. I don't believe 
that our Northern Army is doing much, and fear very Much, 
the enemy will repossess himself chiefly of all the places that 
our arms so gallantly conquered in the course of the last years 
Campaign — 

Our Southern Army have been stationary for some time as 
to any offensive operations — I understand that the greater part 
of the army got disgusted with the commander, and have long 
since returned home, leaving with the General a very small 
force, but provision was Making to farward on a Reinforce- 
ment. I fear the Campaign have been badly planned, and illy 
executed ; their never was a finer set of men, who would have 
performed every and desired, had they been properly led on 
into the Midst of the Creek Country before they became half 
starved, and of course sickly. The army was encamped, a 
long time at a place called the ten Islands Waiting the Arrival 
of provisions, when there was plenty in the enemy's Country 
within three days March, to which place the army ought to 
have been Marched, and let them tried their strength with the 
enemy as our force was amply sufficient to have drove them, 
and taken the provisions. My health have some little im- 
proved since I had the honor of writing on the 4th ult. but I 
have had an unpleasant Winter, and may add Autumn — 
Your friend & obdt. Servt., 

John Sevier. 
His Excellency 

Governor Shelby. 

Addressed : His Excellency Governor Shelby, | of the State 
of Kentucky, | Frankfort. 

III. The South Carolina Yazoo Company 01? 1789. 

In this Magazine for September, 1902, pp. 141-143, was presented a 
hitherto unpublished manuscript, showing the system or scheme of 
land division adopted by the Tennessee Yazoo Company. The act 
of the General Assembly of Georgia of Dec. 21, 1789, known as the 
first Yazoo grant, created in addition to the Tennessee Yazoo Com- 
pany, two others known as the Virginia Yazoo Company and the 
South Carolina Yazoo Company. 

Documents. 359 

The lands in the limits of the grant to the South Carolina Company 
embraced the middle counties of the present State of Mississippi. 
The Company was given two years in which to pay therefor the 
paltry sum of $GG,9G4. Stevens' History of Georgia, vol. ii, pp. 462- 
466 is very severe, not only on the methods employed in securing the 
passage of the act, but he is also particularly severe on the individual 
promoters of the South Carolina Company. This Company proceeded 
at once with an effort to colonize its grant. To that end Dr. James 
O'Fallon was appointed principal agent. A letter from Alexander 
Moultrie, of Charleston, one of the directors of the company, to John 
Sevier, in response to a "polite offer" of the latter to become 
"interested" in the venture, as well as the official instructions to Dr. 
O'Fallon are given below. They are not easily accessible, even if, 
indeed they have ever before been published, and will add materially 
to the literature of this subject. The feeling of Mr. Sevier is readily 
understood. In 1785 he had been one of a body of daring spirits 
who undertook to form a settlement on the Tennessee river in what 
is now Alabama, under the act of Georgia creating Houston county, 
and he had always taken an active part in all pioneer and thrilling 
adventures. Dr. O'Fallon proceeded to Kentucky, and pushed his 
schemes, but the general government frowned on the whole affair, 
and in the meantime the conditions of the grant not being met as to 
payment the agreement lapsed. Much valuable material bearing 
directly on this company will be found in the American State 
Papers: Indian Affairs vol. i, pp. 114-117, 172, and Public Lands, 
vol. i, pp. 151-157. See also Owen's edition of Pickett's History of 
Alabama, pp. 409-410; Chappell's Miscellanies of Georgia, Part ii. 
p. 56 et seq.; Raskins' Yazoo Land Companies; and Dr. Ulrich B. 
Phillips' Georgia and State Rights (1902), pp. 29-38. 
(Draper Collection, Vol. V., No. 72.) 

Cha Ton 
So. Carolina March 8th 1790. 

Yours by Mr. Metzgar of the nth of February last, from 
Washington District North Carolina, came to Hand some 
few Days past. This will be communicated to You through 
the means of James OFallen Esqre. one of the late captains 
of the Fourth Georgia Battalion & late one of the Senior Phy- 
sicians of the Hospital of the United State. 

It is with Pleasure I can inform every wel wisher to our 
Yazoo Settlement that our Business is perfectly Sanctioned by 
a Legislative act of Georgia, & passed into a Grant we hope 
by this Day, the money having been sent on to finish the Pur- 
chase. Our commercial connections and Plans for Trade & 
Population, being both advantageous & Extensive we trust will 
in a very short Time progress our matters to a Degree of re- 
spectability & magnitude, which must accelerate their Perfec- 

(Draper Collection, Vol. V., No. 73.) 

Cha: Ton So. Carolina. 
Instructions to James O Fallon Esquire Principal Agent for 
the South Carolina Yazoo Company, for the Time being, in the 
Countries of Kentucky, & the Western Waters the Territory 
of the said Company, and at the City of New Orleans given at 
Charleston by the Grantees and the rest of the Members of the 
said Company their presents. 


You are to Proceed without delay from Charleston to Lex- 
ington in Kentucky: — You are there and in the Adjacent West- 
ern Territory to investigate the best and most infallible means 
of procuring a large Emigration from thence & the Countries 
above, to our Territory, & to put the same in a trait of Action 
ready for the first Notice, & to communicate the Extent of such 
means to the Company as speedily as possible. 


On your arrival at Lexington you are to obtain an Account 
of such Goods as have been sent there by Col. Holder: — of 
what are disposed & for what Purposes & of such as are not yet 
disposed ; to collect if Possible the value of such as have been 
disposed in the Mode most adapted to the Purport of this Mis- 
sion, & to have the remainder, with what now goes by Captn. 
Cape consolidated in one Stock for Satisfying the Choctaw In- 
dians for any Claims that may be yet remaining for their Grant 
& as Presents to them. 

360 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

tion & give them their true dignity. Dr. Fallon can make 
every Proper communication on the Subject. — 

Your Polite Offer of being Interested with us will be soon 
submitted to the Board, & I am certain will meet with due at- 
tention which shall be communicated in Time ; and your Chear- 
full tender of Services towards the Establishment of our Set- 
tlement, must afford us in their Operation such Proofs of your 
Zeal & good Wishes for the Interest of the company as will 
ensure no doubt Such an unequivocal Interest to you therein as 
we hope will be well worthy your Pursuit. 

Alexr. Moultrie Director 
So. Carol a , Yazoo Comp^ 

Genl. Jno. Sevier. 

Documents. 361 

When your Funds are thus collected, or if there requires 
dispatch, as soon as the Goods arrive by Captn: Cape you are 
with them & such Funds as you can collect to Prepare for a 
Negociation with the Choctaws : — to which Purpose you are to 
send a Proper Person as Courier to that Nation, & have a 
Meeting : You are then in the best manner Possible to Satisfy 
their Demands, & fix & foreclose the Negociation of the grant 
of the Settlement of the Territory & form the firmest Alliance 
with us possible as offensive and defensive Allies; & in which 
every due regard is had, to giving them a full Conviction, of 
the Utility to them of such a Measure, & to impress it strongly 
on their Minds. If you should find it Necessary to have an 
immediate interview with the Indians before Captn: Cape ar- 
rives, let the Goods Col: Holder will furnish be applied for 
that Purpose & let them know more are a Coming. — of which 
also immediate Notice must be given to the Company. 


A Subagent is to be appointed for Kentucky & the Western 
Country above & such other Place as you think proper, & one 
for the Companies Territory; — after the Measures are fixed 
in the next preceding Article, the Companies Agent in Ken- 
tucky will be preparing for moving with Emigrants & to be 
ready on the Shortest Notice from the Company to send down 
such a Body & on such terms as they shall direct ; — a Body of 
three or four hundred more or less will in mean Time (if 
prudent & can do it Peaceably) move down with you Mr. 
Woods & such as you shall choose as most Proper for pru- 
dence & Address to Assist in Conducting the Business & begin 
their Settlement in Conjunction with some & as many of the 
confidential Indians as will be a Sanction & let Agent for the 
District of the Territory remain to move with the Main Body 
after a peaceable Possession is established. 


On your Arrival at Yazoo & fixing the first small Party, you 
will Proceed to Orleans, & under the Sanction of your Creden- 
tials make such communications to those in Power there, as 
will convince them of the advantages which will arise to them 
& the Spanish Settlements, from our vicinity : — & that we wish 
them fully to conceive with us, that our Views & Interests 
should be mutual & reciprocally Friendly: — that we esteem it 
an object of Importance to us both, & highly worthy of a last- 
ing Cultivation : — You are then also to Secure the Spanish in- 
terest in our Settlement, as the first Political Bond of an At- 
tachment to them, in the manner we instruct vou in. 

362 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 


In Kentucky, Yazoo, & New Orleans you are to cause au- 
thentick information to be transmitted the Company, shewing 
the date & Progress of every Measure & incident & you are to 
Cause a constant Chain of Correspondence to be kept up by 
you through each Department to the Company. — & to forward 
such Confidential Intelligence as may be necessary from Time 
to Time. 


Your measures are to be disclosed to such of the Agents of 
any the Departments as your own Prudence shall direct to you, 
& you are to repose your confidence when you think best & to 
the Extent you may deem Safest, for the good of the Company. 


The Agent of Kentucky & the Country above are to be within 
your Countroul, & where agencies are requisite you are to ap- 
point under you, with such Extent of Power, within your own 
as may be needful, & so as to Effect the objects of your Com- 


You are to implant in the Minds of the Choctaws the strong- 
est Ideas of Civilization, of Trade, Commerce & Agriculture, & 
the Intention of the Company to Educate & Improve their Chil- 
dren ; & to promote Peace, Trade & Friendship. 


In ail Things you are to Study Peace & Prevent as much as 
Possible all Differences & Disputes taking Place between the 
Indians & our People, & to Cause the Strictest Line of Justice 
& Accommodation to take Place, on our Side ; & Establish the 
Settlement on the fairest most Peaceable & firmest Footing. 


By the Nature of your Commission all Agents in the Service 
of the Company are Subordinate to you: — General Wilkinson 
& Col. Holder will no doubt be of Singular Service in their 
respective Departments; — when your Period is Expired, new 
Appointments will be made. The two Sub Departments of 
Kentucky & of Yazoo Should be filled immediately. 


You are to be Cautious to let no one Trade with the Choc- 
taws if possible, without a License & a good Character from 

Documents. 363 

the Director, Yourself or one of your Subagents, & to request 
the Indians to suffer none but those having such License to 
Trade with them, that Frauds & Injuries may be prevented. 


You are to keep an Agent also among the Choctaws on whose 
Influence & good Character you can rely. 


You are to take Care & every Efficient means to prevent 
People settling down on the Territory before the Company, 
fixes the Mode of Settlement; excepting the few that may 
move down before that Period, according to your own Pru- 
dential Management & Judgment. 


Above all Things let the Attachment of the Spaniards and 
the Choctaws be the object, & make it their Interest. — The 
Goods Col : Holder has & those to be sent by Captn : Cape will 
I think do the Business. 

Ax r Moultrie Director, 

So. Carolina Yazoo Comp. 
9th March, 1790. 

IV. An Expression of Contemporary Opinion from Ala- 
bama on the Controversy of Georgia with President 
Adams over the Creek Indian Lands. 

The episode known as the Georgia Controversy, is one of the most 
interesting and dramatic in the annals of this country. The whole 
subject has been exhaustively reviewed by Dr. Ulrich B. Phillips in 
Chapter II, The Acquisition of the Creek Lands in his monograph on 
"Georgia and State Rights" {Annual Report American Historical 
Association, 1901, vol. II.) The most intense excitement prevailed 
in Georgia and Alabama, and indeed over the whole country. The 
following letter shows the views of an intelligent citizen of Alabama. 
Hon. Boiling Hall had been a member of Gongress from Georgia, 
1811-1817; removed to Alabama in 1818; and while he held no public 
office in the latter State, he continued to manifest an interest in 
political affairs. Mr. Barbour at the date of the receipt of this letter 
was the secretary of war in John Quincy Adams' cabinet. 

In addition to Dr. Phillips' work there are many important au- 
thorities. Among . them Edward J. Harden's Life of George M. 
Troup (1859), Hodgson's Cradle of the Confederacy (1876), and a 

364 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

voluminous Report, with Documents, made by a select committee of 
the House of Representatives, as Report No. 98, 19th Congress, 2nd 
session (8 vo. pp. 846.) 

(Barbour Papers in the New York Public Library.) 
"Ellerslie" — Montgomery County, Alabama 15th July, 1825. 

Honble James Barber 


The deep solicitude which I have ever felt for the in- 
terest of my country and the preservation of the union has in- 
duced me to address you on the unfortunate collisions which 
have recently taken place between the Governors of South 
Carolina & Georgia and the General Government — the citizens 
of those States from the commencement of the Revolution to 
the present time have been the firm and steady friends of the 
union, and I am convinced no sacrifice would be considered 
too great on their part to preserve union and harmony. On 
the other hand I must believe that if the constitutional Rights 
of those States have been infringed by the General Govern- 
ment it has been through inadvertence and not design. The 
opinion of the Attorney General on the law of South Carolina 
prohibiting the introduction of free persons of colour, at once, 
in my opinion, saps the foundation of State rights, and if ac- 
quiesced in deprives the States of regulating their internal 
police! As a citizen of a slave holding State you are not in- 
sensible of the injury which may accrue from such a prohibi- 

The Governor and citizens of Georgia have been insulted by 
an Indian agent, because they dared to place in the executive 
chair the man of their choice — and that agent still continued 
in office ! You will readily perceive that I allude to the declara- 
tions made by the agent of the Creek Nation to Colo Camp- 
bell one of the U States Commissioners : The agent told Camp- 
bell "he had prepared the Indians to ceed part of their lands, 
intimating how[ev]er distinctly that as Troup was elected 
Governor he must not expect success to attend any application 
which might be made while Troup was in office, and concluded 
by advising Colo Campbell* to resign !" the subsequent con- 
duct of the agent has proven fully that he was opposed to the 
Treaty; permit me to say that if Crowellf had been guilty of 
no other act of impropriety, than his declaration to Colo Camp- 

♦Duncan G. Campbell, of Georgia, father of Hon. John A. Campbell, 
of the United States Supreme Court bench. 

fJohn Crowell, the Indian agent, had been acting in that capacity 
since 1815. He was the only territorial representative from Alabama 
in Congress, and was the first representative elected by the people 
from that State in 1819. 

Documents. 365 

bell It was in my judgment sufficient cause for his removal. 
If justice is to be withheld, and the citizens of an independent 
State insulted, by a petty officer of the U. S. because they 
placed in the executive chair the man of their choice, then is 
our degradation complete — I know Sir that you cannot bear the 
idea — the subsequent conduct of Crowell and his subagent 
Walker proves incontestably, that his declaration to Colo- 
Campbell was not the offspring of momentary excitement. We 
hear of no exertions made by the agent to carry the views of 
the President into effect or to prepare the Indian chiefs to ceede 
their lands, but on the contrary, on the 13th of Feby the day 
after the Treaty was signed, he writes to the Secy of War to 
prevent its ratification — But Sir this is not the worst — the 
chiefs and warriors of the friendly part of the Creeks on the 
25th Jany represented to the President their danger, from 
the hostile Indians, and asked his protection and interference 
to prevent a civil war — Crowell was fully apprised of the In- 
tention of the hostile Indians to murder Mcintosh;* yet, I 
have neither seen nor heard of any exertions made on his part 
to prevent it — Now sir the most sceptical must believe if the 
agent had used the same energetic measures to preserve the life 
of Mcintosh as he did to have Stinson apprehe[n]ded (who it 
seems had interfered with his money making business by sell- 
ing a few goods to the Indians) that the life of Mcintosh 
would have been spared — On the 22nd of August 1823 the 
agent writes to the redoubted Colo. Wm. Hambly in which 
the little Prince is to be addressed in a manner to arouse his 
feelings as a warrior & a chief, ambition fear and interest are 
called in to aid his views — Stinson is to be apprehended "at all 
hazzards." // six men are not enough, send six hundred and 
take him by force if he has to destroy Mcintosh and his whole 
establishment Mcintosh has been destroyed and his whole 
establishment. Stinson was afterwards given up, [two words 
obliterated] acquited by the federal court — what further is want 
ed to prove the interested motives of Crowell, and his hostility 
to Mcintosh — I had proceeded thus far when I reed a 
paper containing the letter written by Majr. Andrew the special 
agent to Colo Crowell suspending him, in which Andrew ex- 
presses his opinion of the agents innosence in every particular 
and endeavou[r]s to throw the blame on the Govr. and people 
of Georgia! Comment is certainly unnessessary on this part 
of the special agents conduct. If Crowell is to be acquitted by 
the evidence of the white men in the nation, who are his mere 

♦William Mcintosh was the principal chief of the party among the 
Creeks friendly to the whites and in favor of exchanging their lands 
in Georgia for lands in the west. Mcintosh was murdered by a band 
of the unfriendly Creeks, April 29, 1825. 


366 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine 

creatures, and the testimony of the murderers of Mcintosh are 
to be reed, as evidence in their own defence, it will be no won- 
der that they should be acquitted and the whole blame cast on 
the Govr. of Georgia. Sir the Government of the U States, 
and of Georgia were informed of the intended murder of Mc- 
intosh. It is also proven that Crowell knew of it, yet the man 
who fought in the last war to save our fronters from indiscri- 
minate murder, has himself been murdered by the Indians 
who he conquered without one exertion made by the Indian 
agent to preserve his valuable life — 

I pray you to excuse the liberty which I have taken & be- 
lieve that my only object is the furtherance of justice and to 
aid in the restoration of that harmony so much to be wished 

I am Respectfully 
Your Obt Servt 

Boiling Hall. 

V. Florida Immigration and Politics, 1823. 

The Governor of the Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834 was 
William P. Duval. He was a native of Va., where he was born in 
1784; was a captain of mounted volunteers in the campaigns 
against the Indians in the War of 1812; was a member of Congress 
from Ky., 1813-1815. He always went to Washington before the 
expiration of each term except the last, when he saw that he could 
do nothing with Jackson, who had Eaton to provide for — as shown 
by the official "Letter Book" at Tallahassee. After his term of office 
as Governor expired, he returned to Bardstown, Ky., where he 
practiced law until 1848, when he removed to Texas. On a temporary 
visit to Washington, D. C, he died March 15, 1854. 

All in all Duval was a very interesting character. He was the 
original "Ralph Ringwood" of Washington Irving, and "Nimrod 
Wildfire" of James K. Paulding. He was a famous teller of tales, 
and when he left Pensacola for Tallahassee, some political enemy 
(perhaps Hunt, the editor of the Pensacola Gazette) wrote for that 
paper, Oct. 6, 1826, a short skit against Duval, entitled "The 
Chronicles of Florida," of which two verses are as follows: 

"4. Now William was comely to look upon and was greatly beloved 
by the old matrons of the people; and thence he took the sirname of 
Chief Mingo. 

"5. And Mingo sat him in the gates of the city of Pensacola and 
gathered unto ..him the men and matrons; for he stole away their 
hearts by the long yarns of his imagination." 

(Barbour Papers, in the New York Public Library.) 

St. Augustine Augt. 12th, 1823. 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter of the 13th 

Documents. 367 

of June last from Mr. E. Macon. The next day after his 
arrival in this city he distinguished himself in a case of murder, 
his youthful appearance was soon forgotten and he triumphed 
over an old and cunning Yankee lawyer so completely as to 
surprise and delight the audience. His adversary was thro 
[w n] down, and actually rendered incapable of answering his 
arguments, I never felt better in all my life, and I already feel 
towards Mr. Macon as if he was my kinsman. He will have 
envy and cunning and meanness to contend with in several of 
his opponants at the bar but he will triumph over them all for 
he is eloquent, inteligent and his principles are purely those 
of Virginia rest assured sir, that he shall find me his country- 
man, and of course his friend. 

I have had as might have been expected some trouble and 
much abuse, in this Territory — but the People have always 
with me, the yankees have been and will be my abusers, 
I can not (such I have meet with) venture to trust, 
and their disapoint, in their attempts to obtain the small places 
in my gift, has brought down on me all their malice and slander 
I am now happy to inform you that the People are fast driv- 
ing these men in the back ground — where I hope they will re- 
main. New York has sent her most villanous spawn to this 

I keep my course without seeming to know what they say of 
me — I go much among the Body of the People, and my ac- 
quaintance in East and West Florida is now general I have 
made it my business to pass through the whole Territory and 
I intend to repeat this visit during this fall 

The northern men are much enraged at the influence of Vir- 
ginia. These men say in a sneering manner, "The lord deliver 
poor Florida — since Virginia is the mother of us all," I hope 
and trust she find masters for them all, or I could with truth 
say god help Florida. 

Be pleased to accept the expression of my respect and esteem 

Wm. P. Duval. 

Hon le . James Barbour. 

Addressed : Hon le . James Barbour | Barboursville | Orange | 

VI. Sir Ed Belcher's Texas Colony. 

So far as a casual examination extends, the historians of Texas 
make no mention of the colonization effort, described in the follow- 
ing letter, and although "it was not a colony to be boasted about" — 
as the writer declares — the facts are sufficiently interesting to 
warrant publication. Col. James E. Saunders was long a leading 
citizen, residing at Courtland, Ala., and the author of a valuable 

368 The Gulf States Histobical Magazine 

work on Early Settlers of Alabama, posthumously published by his 
grand-daughter, Mrs. W. C. Stubbs, through whose courtesy the com- 
munication appears. Letters to the parties named in the last para- 
graph have elicited no replies. 

Mason, Texas, June 20 1891. 
James E. Sanders, Esq 

Courtland, Alabama 
Dear Sir 

Your letter to Genl. H. E. McCullough is at hand and I will 
try as far as my recollection serves to give you some informa- 

In August 1850 Sir Ed Belcher's company came over from 
England the 1st ship, the John Garrow, Capt Hamilton in com- 
mand 1200 tons Iron and base, left England sailing from Liver- 
pool — containing about 200 emigrants and landed at Galveston 
on the 27th of October 185 1 — Capt McKensie was one of the 
subdirectors and was on board with the clergyman Rev. John 
Pedcocke who had come to Texas like the rest of us influenced 
by Colton the lecturer who was connected with a party of 
Ojibewah Indians whom he had exhibited in England and 
who had three sons whom he was desirous of settling in some 
new country. 

The next ship which came and the last one brought over 
Maj. Howe who took charge of the emigrants on their arrival 
at Kimbles bend on the Brazos where the company was ulti- 
mately settled. 

Sir Edward Belcher who was Knighted for services at Nav- 
arino not as you say for his search for Sir John Franklin 
where he proved himself very incompetent and in fact did not 
show the courage in the Artie region which his former con- 
duct had led people to expect, came out by way of New York 
and went straight home again. 

The intention was to settle on the Low Bayou a stream in 
Coryell County but failure of title prevented this and the Col- 
ony moved up to a bend on the Brazos now about 60 miles a- 
bove Waco called Kimbles Bend — really a beautiful tract of 
land now worth 50 00 per acre but to which the settlers 
had no title and knew they had not when they sold. 

The Sumcox you mention was not a clergygman but a young 
gentleman of some wealth who followed the clergymans family 
out with a view of marrying his daughter who however gave 
him the mitten and married Capt McKensie. 

The colonists who were for the most part broken down 
tradesmen who had saved enough out of their home bankrupt- 
cies to come out to the land where they expected to find gold 
without much labor, and who were utterly unfitted for the pri- 
vations and trials of a frontier settlement shortly died or stray- 
ed off. [This was a verv new country then] Texas whiskey 

Documents. 369 

was too strong for Major Howe though his system had been 
hardened by polutions of anack in India and he died within a 
year Cap McKensie went home in about 1852, and I heard was 
in the Crimean War. 

Mr. Pedcock and his wife died in Burleson County. One 
of his sons lives at Pedcockes branch in Coryell Co., and an- 
other is Cashier of a Bank in Waco. 

There are some Martins yet living near Brackett in this 
State who came out on the John Garrow but how many I do 
not know. 

With these exceptions and the writer the Colony with its 
bright hopes and miserable material and management has 
faded and gone into the history of the past, and like the foam 
on the crest of the wave has failed without leaving a trace or 
track on the history of Texas. 

My impression is that the intention of the management in 
London was good and honest, but without any experience or 
knowledge of the country or what they would have to contend 
with success was impossible and failure inevitable from the in- 
ception of the scheme. And that on this side of the water 
the idea was to make these poor people their prey, and to cheat 
them into buying land without a title wmich nefarious scheme 
was completely and successfully carried out — 

The rule is that English colonies do not do [anything] in 
any land over which St. George's Cross does not fly — Individ- 
ually they are sensible and financially poor persons and we have 
thousands of such in Texas but in bodies as a colony they are 
invariably complete failures for they are unable to adapt them- 
selves to the ruder manners and customs of "Ye inhabitants" 
and always try to make a little England wherever they are in 
a body and thus render themselves unpopular. 

I left the outfit as soon as I could run away, and as no one 
was responsbile for me though I was supposed to be under the 
control of Capt. McKensie, and in fact was I expect a "Man- 
vais sujet" as no one was very anxious to detain me & there- 
fore cannot give you more detailed information about them. 

But it was not a Colony to be boasted about and no one that 
I know or can recollect amongst them was Ulysees enough to 
be a leader of men and for want of any such leadership the 
whole thing went to Hades. 

At anytime if you should desire further information you 
might write Hartley Pedcocke, Pedcockes Ranch, Coryell Co., 
or John Valentine of Brackett Texas. 

I am with respect 

H. M. Holmes. 

Belcher colony | Holmes letter | Mrs. Wm. C. Stubbs | papers 
of I her I grandfather | Col. J. E. Saunders. 





With all the legislation which records this altered attitude 
toward the Indian by national officials — executive and legis- 
lative — and philanthropists, Mr. Dawes' name is connected 
more or less closely, — of late, very closely. From the time 
that he became chairman of the Senate Committee on Indian 
Affairs down to the time of his death [Feb. 5, 1903], he has 
been the most conspicuous figure in national life dealing with 
Indian Affairs. 

When Mr. Dawes retired from the Senate, in 1893, Presi- 
dent Cleveland appointed him chairman of a commission to the 
five civilized tribes of Indians in the Indian Territory. With 
patience, tact, yet steady pressure, the commission has done its 
work during the intervening decade. Slowly but surely, the 
Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, Cherokees, and Seminoles 
after prolonged and delicate negotiations, have been partially, 
if not wholly, won to the new point of view as one conducive 1 
to their welfare as well as to that of the Government. Tribal 
courts have been given up, the common lands divided in sever- 
alty, citizenship in the United States has been sought, and sub- 
jection to federal laws such as govern white men has been 
proffered. In turn, the commission has protected the In- 
dians from their greedy enemies, the white cattle men ; it has 
been conscientious in dividing the commonwealth so as to do 
no injustice; in unraveling the conflicts between tribal and 
federal law ; and in determining and -defining the status of the 
Indian, qualities of the highest legal order have been necessary. 
— George Perry Morris, in the American Monthly Review of 
Reviews for March. 


In General Woodward's Reminiscences (1859) some ac- 
count is given of a Creek Indian named Barney Riley, who 
was a friend of Weatherford. About twelve years ago, an 
old friend of mine, William Welsh, of Neshoba County, Mis- 
sissippi, related to me the following fact about Barney Riley, 
stating that he had heard this from an old Frenchman (his name 
now forgotten) who, many years ago, lived near Philadelphia, 
in Neshoba County. This old Frenchman had once lived near 

Minoe Topics. 371 

or among the Creeks in Alabama. The story is that some 
years after the Creek war, Barney Riley committed some deed 
— perhaps it was a case of homicide — for which he was con- 
demned to death by the Creek authorities, his execution to be 
by shooting with the rifle. Riley on the appointed day rode to 
the place of execution with his little son behind him. Some 
white people present asked him why he had brought his little 
boy with him. His reply was that he wanted his son to see 
how a brave man could die. The law was carried into effect 
and Riley was executed in the presence of his son. This in- 
cident I consider perfectly authentic. 

Henry S. H albert. 
Meridian, Miss. 


The papers of historical value relating to the island are nu- 
merous, and to be found in divers public and private hands. 
Senor Brau, a local historian and head of the custom-house 
at San Juan has in his house, besides other old documents 
taken from Casa Blanca, etc., copies of papers at Madrid, Se- 
ville, and elsewhere, relating to Porto Rico ; and Dr. Coll, No. 
30 Luna street, San Juan, has some originals gathered in Porto 
Rico, and has copied some from the cathedral archives at San 
Juan, one of which is an ancient account of a visit of the bish- 
op of the diocese to Venezuela, and interesting in connection 
with the boundary arbitration between Great Britian and Ven- 
ezuela. This cathedral was founded in 15 12, and is the oldest 
in America; but the present edifice is comparatively recent. 
Some of these bishop's visits, reported by his secretary, are 
dated in 1661, 1757, and 1773. Among these ancient papers, 
of which Dr. Coll has copies, are royal cedulas concerning the 
church and correspondence between the bishop and captain- 
general about money matters, the captain-general requesting 
money in one case, the bishop contesting the propriety of con- 
tributing it, and the captain-general informing him that his 
business was simply to close his mouth and turn over the 
funds. Dr. Coll has also two volumes of "Documentos His- 
toricos Relativos a Puerto Rico," copied at Madrid, Munoz 
collection; also the first three volumes, beginning in 1839, of 
the Boletin Mercantil, a newspaper still published at San Juan ; 
a volume of 1813 of the Diario Economica de Puerta Rico; 
and one of 1821 of the Diario Liberal, published here. It ap- 
pears that the censorship was abolished about that time and a 
jury authorized to pass upon offenses of the press ; also that 
the Liberal was soon ended and the jury lasted but a couple 
of years. He also has in six volumes "Memorias Geog. Hist., 

372 The Gulf States Histobical Magazine 

Econ. and Estadisticas" of Porto Rico, Madrid, 183 1; a vol- 
ume describing the first exposition of Porto Rico, 1854; 
the first volume of poetry printed in Porto Rico, 1843 5 an d 
many other interesting materials for a history of the island, 
among them a work of his own entitled "Colon in Puerto 
Rico;" "a Memoria y Description" of Porto Rico, ordered 
made by King Phillip II in 1582, taken from the Madrid pa- 
pers; and a manuscript copy, but not the original, of the "Orde- 
nanzas de la Real Audiencia de Santo Domingo;" of 1683, af- 
terwards made applicable to Porto Rico and constituting law 
here until 1835. 

In the priests' house adjoining the cathedral I found the 
original parish registers complete from 161 6, of births, deaths, 
marriages, and confirmations. Some volumes are illegible, 
but transcriptions, made every fifty years, have preserved the 
whole. In 1858 the parish of San Francisco was separated 
from that of San Juan, and the like records are to be found, 
dating from that year, at the church of San Francisco. At 
the former place is a volume containing the names of those 
killed by the British here in 1797. The registers prior to 1616 
were burned by the Dutch 1625, who occupied San Juan, then 
a wooden town, and burned it. 

The old and curious papers of the Franciscan and Domini- 
can friars, who were driven out by a law prohibiting cloistered 
life, are in the possession of the archivist in the Intendencia 
Building. — From the "Report of the Military Governor of 
Porto Rico on Civil Affairs." Part 13 of the Annual Reports 
of the War Department for year ended June 30, 1900, pp. 470- 


The manuscripts and large accumulation of papers of 
President Jackson were placed by him in the hands of Amos 
Kendall, for the preparation of his biography. Kendall made 
but little progress with the work, and the papers by Jackson's 
direction were turned over to Francis P. Blair, Sr., for bio- 
graphical purposes. For years they had been lost sight of, but 
in 1882 they were found in "several large trunks" in the garret 
of the Globe building. The legal representatives of Gen. Jack- 
son entered suit for their recovery, but how the controversy ter- 
minated is not now known. The latest development is the 
recent presentation of the entire collection to the Library of 
Congress by the children of Montgomery Blair, son of Fran- 
cis P. Blair, Sr. 

They are very voluminous, comprising thousands of manu- 

Minor Topics. 373 

script pieces and volumes, and, in fact, at one time filled several 
barrels and various chests. They include not merely letters to 
and from General Jackson, but muster rolls, military reports, 
and various memoranda. They run back prior to the year 
1800, and come down to the time of Jackson's death in 1845. 
The most important of them are from 1812 on. They have 
been received by the Library, but cannot for some time be made 
accessible, since they will have to be gone over carefully in de- 
tail before access will be safe and practicable. 
The letter of donation is as follows : 

"1651 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
"Washington, D. C, February 20, 1903. 
"Herbert Putnam, Esq., 

"Librarian of Congress. 
"My Dear Sir: We inherited from our father, the late Montgomery 
Blair, a collection of papers and manuscripts consisting principally 
of official and personal correspondence of Andrew Jackson, also 
memoranda and reports written by Andrew Jackson and others 
relating to his times and various incidents in his career. It occurs 
to us that these papers, relating as they do to personages and events 
so important in our National history, should be in a permanent 
place of deposit where they would be well cared for, properly classi- 
fied, indexed, filed, and with the aid of experts be made accessible 
to historical investigators. 

"The Library of Congress being the National Library and having 
an absolutely safe building with ample accommodations, expert 
service and with the duty and inclination to make the material in 
its custody useful to students, and having already a considerable 
mass of manuscript material relating to American History, has 
seemed to us the natural and fitting depository. We have therefore 
decided to give this collection of papers to the Library of Congress 
and by this instrument do convey to the said Library all our right, 
title and interest therein, conditionally on the papers being accepted 
by you on behalf of the Library for the purposes and uses as here- 
inbefore stated. It is possible we may make further contributions 
to these papers. We wish the collection to be known as the 'Mont- 
gomery Blair Collection' and entered as a gift from us his children. 

"Yours very truly, 

"Minna Blair Richey, 
"Montgomery Blair, 
"Gist Blair, 
, "Woodrury Blair." 

374 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 


After more than thirty-five years Congress has responded 
to its duty, and has provided for the official publication of the 
rosters of the officers and enlisted men of the Union and Con- 
federate Armies. In 1874 preliminary steps were taken to- 
ward the publication known as "The Official Records of the 
War of the Rebellion/' which was completed in 1901 in one 
hundred and twenty-eight books. This work embraced the 
official documentary material affecting the history of the war. 
Now it is proposed to publish the personnel of the troops, 
rounding out and completing the series already published. 

The law is as follows, forming a paragraph in the legisla- 
tive, executive and judicial appropriation act, approved Feb. 
25, 1903 • 

"That under the direction of the Secretary of War the Chief of 
the Record and Pension Office shall compile, from such official records 
as are in the possession of the United States and from such other 
authentic records as may be obtained by loan from the various States 
and other official sources, a complete roster of the officers and enlisted 
men of the Union and Confederate Armies." 

The Secretary of War has already taken up the execution of 
the task. It is proposed to secure the loan from States and 
other repositories of "any and all authentic Confederate re- 
cords that can be found." This appeal should meet a prompt 
and hearty response. The following is a copy of the official 
communication from the War Department to Hon. Wm. D. 
Jelks, Governor of Alabama, which is doubtless similar to that 
addressed to other executives. 

War Department, 
Washington, March 16, 1903. 
The Governor of the State of Alabama, 

Sir: There is a very general desire on the part of the surviving 
participants of the great struggle in which the country was engaged 
from 1861 to 1865, and on the part of the descendants of those who 
have passed away, for a publication that shall be accessible to the 
general public and shall show the names of those who, either as 
officers or enlisted men, bore arms for the Union or for the Con- 
federacy during the great war. In the opinion that this desire is 
one that should be gratified, and that can be gratified, in great 
measure at least, by compiling and publishing, as a continuation of 
the publication known as the "Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Armies," a complete list or roster of the officers and 
men who served in those armies during the civil war, this Depart- 
ment recommended at the last session of Congress the enactment of 

Minor Topics. 375 

a law authorizing the compilation and preparation of such a roster 
for publication. That recommendation was followed by the enact- 
ment of a provision of law, which is embodied in the Legislative, 
Executive and Judicial Appropriation Act approved February 25, 
1903, and which is as follows: 

(Here is given the law as set forth above.) 

The Department is prepared to enter at once upon the work of 
making the compilation thus authorized, and to push it to completion 
as rapidly as possible. There will be little or no difficulty in making 
the Union part of the roster complete, but there will be great difficulty 
with regard to the Confederate part bcause of the incompleteness of 
the collection of Confederate records in the possession of this Depart- 
ment. It is of the first importance, therefore, that no effort shall 
be spared to secure the temporary loan to the War Department, for 
the purpose of copying, of any and all authentic Confederate records 
that can be found anywhere. Many of these records are in the pos- 
session of the various States and it is hoped will be made readily 
accessible, but there are others that are widely scattered among his- 
torical and memorial associations and private citizens. The problem 
of how to find and procure the loan of these scattered records is a 
difficult one, but it is one that must be solved in order that the Con- 
federate soldier shall receive the full credit that is due him in the 
roster that is to be compiled. 

I earnestly invite your co-operation with the Department in an 
effort to make this compilation as nearly complete as it is possible 
to make it, and I shall be glad to have the benefit of any suggestions 
that you can make as to the manner in which that end can be best 
attained. The work will be in the immediate charge of Brigadier 
General F. C. Ainsworth, Chief of the Record and Pension Office of 
this Department, and I beg leave to suggest that, if the plan herein 
outlined meets your approval, you designate some official of your 
State to communicate with him relative to the details of the work 
and the steps to be taken in the furtherance of it. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Elthu Root, 

Secretary of War. 



[This Department is intended for practical purposes. General invita- 
tion is extended all readers to use it. Communications in reply to que- 
ries, or on other subjects should be addressed to the EDITOR. No 
answers to queries will be given by private correspondence.] 

Cherokee Towns and Villages in Alabama. — Replying to the 
inquiry of Mr. James Mooney in the November issue of this Magazine, 
p. 219, as to what Cherokee towns in this State had town houses, I 
will say that I know of the following: Crowtown, Gunter's village 
(for the entire Creek Path settlement), Turkey town and Willstown. 
If there -were any others I have been unable to ascertain the fact 
after considerable effort. 

Oliver D. Street. 

Guntersville, Ala. 

Descendant of Lafayette. — One of the attaches of the French 
Embassy at Washington is Vicompte de Chambrun, a great-grandson 
of Gen. Lafayette. He was the representative of the Lafayette family 
at the Rochambeau ceremonies in Washington, D. C, and is a brother 
of Marquis de Chambrun, a member of the French Chamber of 
Deputies, and the ranking representative of the family. 

Secret Societies in the South During the War.— Mr. Mayo 
Fesler, fellow in history at the University of Chicago, who is pre- 
paring a thesis on the "History of Secret Societies During the Civil 
War" writes asking for information concerning the "Knights 
of the Golden Circle" which is said to have existed prior to the war 
in Texas and other Southern States. The alleged purpose of the 
society was the extension of slavery into Mexico and Cuba. He 
desires the information which is indicated in the following questions: 

1. Was there an organization in the South prior to the civil war 
called the "Knights of the Golden Circle?" 

2. When and where did it exist? 

3. What was its avow r ed purpose? 

4. How extensive was it? 

5. Did such an organization exist in the Southern army during 
the war? If so, what connection had it with the organization in the 
Northern border States? 

Daniel Hickey. — There are two early settlers in the Gulf States 
region of whom I have long been trying to get extended information. 
Daniel Hickey who was born in Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, in 
1740, and marrying Martha Scriven of Worcestershire, England, came 
to this country 1770, with an English grant of land about Baton 
Rouge and died 1808, a very wealthy man, leaving a son, Colonel 
Philip Hickey of Hope Estate, Baton Rouge, who was so extensively 

Notes and Queries. 377 

connected with the early history of Louisiana and Texas, that you 
have probably often seen his name in your researches. The latter was 
my husband's grandfather, and I remember him well, staying three 
months at his plantation in 185S. I desire to know more than I 
have told you about Daniel Hickey and shall be very much obliged 
for anything you can tell me, especially of his early life. We have a 
letter dated 1769 — in Limerick, Ireland — in which it appears he was 
attached in some way to "Governor Montfort Browne," and it seems 
likely he was brought over by him, who was in the army and at one 
time Governor of the Bahamas. We have also the original parch- 
ment making him a Master Mason of the Lodge St. Andrew of Edin- 
burgh in Pensacola, July 19, 1776. The other about whom I wish to 
know is 

James Mather. — He was the third Mayor of New Orleans. His 
daughter, Ann, married Philip, son of Daniel Hickey. I sought this 
information from the Southern members of the family, but they 
seemed to have saved no papers. My husband doubtless did know 
but he died in 1874. He had, however, many interesting papers about 
Col. Philip Hickey's connection with the early government of 
Louisiana which my son, Dr. Morgan, Professor at Harvard, has 
kept carefully. Of course there is nothing about the family in them. 

I have corresponded with Earl Cathcart about James Mather, but 
learned little. His mother, Henrietta Mather, was the niece of 
James, and married the military governor of Canada afterwards 
Sir Alexander Cathcart. I shall be under obligations for any in- 
formation you may give me and thank you in advance for any 
courtesy in that direction. 

Mrs. Morris B. Morgan. 

Cambridge Mass. 

State Nicknames. — The Southern Chronicle, Columbia, S. C, June 
25, 1845, gives the following States with the nicknames by which 
their people are known. An inquiry into the origin of these desig- 
nations would doubtless be curious if not profitable. The names 
are: The inhabitants of Maine are called foxes; New Hampshire, 
granite boys; Massachusetts, Bay Staters; Vermont, Green mountain 
boys; Rhode Island, gun flints; Connecticut, wooden nutmegs; 
New York, knickerbockers; New Jersey, clam catchers; Pennsyl- 
vania, leatherheads; Delaware, musk-rats; Maryland, crow 
thumpers; Virginia, beagles; North Carolina, tar boilers; South 
Carolina, weasels; Georgia, buzzards; Louisiana, cre-owls; 
Alabama, lizards; Kentucky, corn crackers; Tennessee, cotton- 
manies; Ohio, buckeyes; Indiana, hoosiers; . Illinois, suckers; 
Missouri, pewks; Mississippi, tadpoles; Arkansas, gophers; 
Michigan, woolverines; Florida, fly-up-the-creeks; Wisconsin, 
badgers; Iowa, hawkeyes; N. W. Territory, prairie dogs; Oregon, 
hard cases. 

3 7? 


Statues of Count Pulaski and Baeon Von Steuben. — An ap- 
propriation of fifty thousand dollars each was made by the last Con- 
gress for the erection of statues to Baron Von Steuben and Count 
Casimir Pulaski, Revolutionary patriots. (See this Magazine, July, 
1902, p. 59.) 

Statue of Gen. Robeet E. Lee. — The Legislature of Virginia has 
provided for placing a statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee in statuary hall 
in the capitol at Washington. It is to be one of the two which 
the State is authorized under the law to place there. 

National Hall of Recobds. — The purchase of square 143 in Wash- 
ington City has been authorized by Congress as a site for a Hall of 
Records, and four hundred thousand dollars has been appropriated 
for that purpose. Preliminary plans have been authorized on a 
basis of a maximum cost of $2,000,000. The execution of the pur- 
chase is in the hands of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Allegorical Statue of the Mississippi Riveb. — Parker G. Head, 
an American sculptor, at Florence, Italy, has about completed a fine 
allegorical statue in Carrara marble of the Mississippi River. He 
has been engaged on it for seventeen years and it was originally 
intended as a private gift to the city of New Orleans. Recently 
efforts have been made by St. Louis and also by St. Paul to obtain 
it, but it has been secured by a group of citizens to be placed in one 
of the public parks of Minneapolis. 

Official Flag fob the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. — The 
board of directors on the 10th of Feb.,1903, adopted an official flag 
for the Exposition. A blue field extends one-third of the length from 
the staff, and from this field stretch three horizontal bars, red, white 
and yellow. On the blue field a circle of stars representing the 
fourteen States of the Louisiana Purchase surrounding a fleur-de-lis. 
It includes the colors of Spain. France and the United States, the 
three countries that have had possession of the Louisiana Territory. 

Historical Woek: in Georgia. — The Governor of Georgia has 
appointed ex-Gov. Allen D. Candler Commissioner of Records in that 
State. The appointment is authorized by the following paragraph 
in the general appropriation bill: 

"For republishing earlier Georgia Reports, where copyrights on 
same have expired and for compiling and publishing under the 
direction of the Governor the Colonial, Revolutionary and Con- 
federate records of Georgia, such sum as may be necessary to pay the 

Historical News. 379 

contract price for such work, to be paid only out of the money re- 
ceived into the Treasury during the years 1903 and 1904 from the 
sales of such republished Georgia Reports, as provided for by the 
Act of December 16, 1S99, and from the sale of such Colonial, Revo- 
lutionary and Confederate records so published." 

Twelfth Continental Congees s, Daughters of the American 
Revolution. — The 12th Continental Congress of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution convened in Washington city Feb. 22, 
and was in session until Feb. 28, 1903. The session was full of 
spirit and interest, and much business of importance transacted. 
The report of the treasurer showed a most healthy financial con- 
dition. During the preceeding year three thousand, seven hundred 
and thirty-six new members were added to the rolls, of whom 
twenty-four were "real daughters." There are now six hundred and 
thirty-nine organized Chapters, an increase of thirty-nine during the 
past year. Volumes XV and XVI of the Lineage Book were pub- 
lished during 1902 and Vol. XVII is in preparation. Mrs. Charles 
W. Fairbanks of Washington, D. C, was re-elected president general. 
The historian general is Mrs. Anna Newcomb McGee, and the assistant 
historian general is Mrs. Mary S. Lockwood, both of Washington. 

Veto of Proposition to Erect Statue to George Rogers Clark. — 
The Legislature of Indiana, recently in session, passed a bill which 
provided for the placing of a statue of Gen. George Rogers Clark in 
statuary hall, at Washington. This bill has been vetoed by Gov. 
W. T. Durbin, his message containing the following grounds of 
dissent, which will be read with interest by all students of history: 

"That Clark was a powerful agent in advancing the civilization 
of the Northwest territory no one will controvert. Impartial his- 
tory, however, has fixed his place as a pioneer soldier. It is to be 
regretted that so brave a warrior should have so serious a cloud 
resting on his own loyalty and patriotism. He was discredited by 
his own State. There is no question but that he characterized the 
government of the United States as weak and without character and 
was willing to join the army of Spain. In the face of this record 
and because his selection, if not otherwise objectionable, would not 
recognize a citizen of Indiana, I cannot approve the bill." 

Organization of the Florida Historical Society. — On Wednesday, 
Nov. 26, 1902, in the editorial rooms of the Florida Times-Union and 
Citizen, at Jacksonville, the "Florida Historical Society" was organ- 
ized. There had been a preliminary meeting and all details had 
been arranged. At the meeting Maj. George R. Fairbanks presided, 
and the secretary was E. W. Peabody. A constitution and by-laws 
were adopted, after which ex-Governor Fleming placed in nomination 
Major Fairbanks for president. In nominating him Governor 

380 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

Fleming feelingly reviewed the distinguished services rendered to 
Florida by Major Fairbanks, covering many years. His nomination 
was warmly received and by a rising vote he was elected unani- 
mously. Major Fairbanks, in responding, expressed himself in 
strong terms of the important work the society had before it. He 
outlined the great and unselfish work the organization had under- 
taken, and the important place Florida occupied in the history of 
the country. 

G. W. Wilson was elected secretary, and Rev. V. W. Shields 
treasurer. F. P. Fleming was elected first vice-president, W. A. 
Blount, of Pensacola, second vice-president, and J. F. Welborne, of 
Sanford, third vice-president. The following executive committee 
was chosen: James P. Taliaferro of Jacksonville, George P. Raney 
of Tallahassee, C. M. Cooper of Jacksonville, Minor S. Jones of 
Titusville and E. W. Peabody of Sanford. President and secretary 
of the society are ex-ofncio members. 

The dues of the society were fixed at $5.00 per annum. 

The scope and purpose of the society are declared as follows: 

"To preserve, to gather, to file and protect materials bearing upon 
the history of Florida. To secure everything of a printed and 
documentary character, to gather personal reminiscences under the 
following divisions: 

"1. All books and pamphlets whatever, relating to Florida, its 
people, or any part of its history. To search Spanish, French and 
English or other foreign archives. To purchase old manuscripts. 

"2. To preserve public documents and State papers of our public 
men. To file speeches made in Congress by our delegations. To 
compile biographical sketches of men who have become or are 
becoming a part of our history. 

"3. All kinds of manuscripts and documents. Old private letters 
and correspondence upon public matters, letter books, diaries, 
journals, scrapbooks. To induce our old citizens to furnish remi- 
niscences and personal recollections of incidents of the early days. 

"4. All Florida Legislative documents. All writings of Florida 
authors. Florida educational and religious literature, Church his- 
tory. Journals of conventions, conferences and associations; and 
catalogues or announcements of educational institutions. 

"5. Old Florida newspapers, modern newspapers of special interest, 
special editions; old and rare maps, maps of counties, towns and 

"6. To gather relics of pioneers and of pioneer life, as articles of 
dress, implements of labor, implements of the chase and household 
furnishings. Historical relics of eminent Foridians, war relics, 
Indian relics, geological surveys and specimens. 

"7. Paintings or photographs of all prominent men and women in 
Florida history, photographs of historical localities, historic houses. 

"8. Special relics of the Spanish, English and French occupancy, 

Historical News. 381 

mound builders and prehistoric evidences, Indian wars, civil war, 
history of products, progress and development. 

"9. Anecdotes of war veterans and of public men, etc., etc." 

Death of Dr. Jabez Lamar Monroe Curry. — On Feb. 12, 1903, at 
Ashville, N. C, where he was sojourning for his health, Dr. J. L. M. 
Curry passed to "where beyond these voices there is peace." He 
was interred at Richmond, Va., where he had lived for many years 
prior to his removal to Washington city, his home at the time of his 
death. Dr. Curry was born in Lincoln county, Ga., June 5, 1825, of 
distinguished Revolutionary ancestry. In 1837 he came with his 
father to Talladega county, Ala., where he was reared, where he 
entered upon his long and useful career, and in consequence of 
which he always regarded Alabama as his home State. He was a 
graduate of the University of Georgia, and of the Harvard law 
school. He served in the Mexican war, and was successively a 
member of the Alabama Legislature, a presidential elector, a mem- 
ber of the U. S. Congress, a member of the Confederate Congress, 
a lieutenant-colonel of cavalry in the C. S. A., a Baptist minister, 
an educator, a diplomatist, and an author. In 1881 he became the 
general agent of the Peabody fund, a position he held until his death, 
excepting the years of his residence abroad as our representative in 
Spain, 1885-1888. It was while in this station that he arranged the 
preliminary steps for the quadri-centennial of the discovery of 
America, and he was also of much assistance to students in procuring 
access to documents, archives, etc. In 1902 he again returned to 
Spain as our special envoy at the coronation of the young Spanish 
king. Dr. Curry's work as agent of the Peabody and Slater funds 
(being chosen to the management of the latter in 1891) was notable. 
He stood for educational advancement in its higher, fuller and 
broader aspects, and in this ministry he continued persistently as 
long as he lived. Dr. Curry was a prolific writer, and possessed a 
versatile genius. His work to 1897 listed in Owen's "Bibliography 
of Alabama" in the Report of the American Historical Association 
for 1897, embraces six pages. He manifested at all times the keenest 
interest in history and historical effort, and his example and 
sympathy were always helpful. He participated in the preliminary 
conference, and was present at the organization of the Southern 
History Association in Washington city, April 24, 1896. He was 
chosen to be the first 1st vice-president of the organization, and on 
the death of the first president, Dr. Wm. L. Wilson, he was elected 
his successor. It was in his library at Washington that the first 
meeting of the administrative council of the new Association was 

In his death good citizenship, the forces of education, historical 
enterprise and all forms of philanthropy lost a friend, a sympathizer, 
and a co-laborer. 



Notable Men of Alabama, in two volumes, is the title of a work 
which is announced as in preparation by the Southern Historical 
Association of Atlanta, Ga. It will consist of biographical and 
genealogical sketches with portraits. 

The Methodist Review, of Nashville, with its issue for January, 
1903, becomes The Methodist Quarterly Review, and from a bi- 
monthly becomes a quarterly as the name indicates. 

The Seicanee Review for January, 1903, has no historical papers 
affecting the field covered by this Magazine. However there is an 
interesting review of Prof. James A. Harrison's "Virginia edition of 
Poe," in 17 volumes, from the press of Thomas Y. Crowell, New 

The publishers, A. N. Marquis & Co., Chicago, announce the publi- 
cation, sometime during the year, of the 1903 edition of Who's Who 
in America. It will be carefully revised, and with the addition of 
several meritorious names, will be strictly brought to date. 

In the January, 1903, issue of the South Carolina Historical and 
Genealogical Magazine the "Papers of the Second Council of Safety" 
and the "Letters of Hon. Henry Laurens to his son John" are con- 
tinued. The genealogical contribution is "The Descendants of Col. 
William Rhett, of South Carolina," by Barnwell Rhett Heyward. 

Hon. Ariosto A. Wiley, of Alabama, has reprinted his remarks in 
eulogy of the Life and Character of the Hon. Reese Calhoun BeGraff en- 
vied, late a member of Congress from Texas, delivered in the TJ. S. 
House of Representatives, Jan. 25, 1903 (8 vo. pp. 6.) 

The following are the contents of the Quarterly of the Texas State 
Historical Association, January 1903: "The Tampico Expedition," 
by E. C. Barker; "Tienda da Cuervo's Ynspeccion of Laredo, 1757," 
by H. E. Bolton; "Reminiscences of C. C. Cox" (continued) ; "Remi- 
niscences of Early Texas," by J. H. Kuykendall; Book Reviews, 
Notes and Fragments, and Affairs of the Association. 

Charles J. Haden, Esq., of the Atlanta, Georgia, bar, on Sept. 29, 
1902, delivered an address before the Illinois Bankers' Association, 
at Peoria, on "The South, a Field where the West may Expand." 
The address displays an admirable temper and graphically sets forth 
the facts in support of the position assumed. It has been issued 
in pamphlet form (8 vo. pp. 8.) 

Book Notes and Reviews. 383 

To enable the Secretary of War to purchase from Francis B. 
Heitman, the compiler, the manuscripts of the "Historical Register 
of the United States Army," compiled from the official records 
of the War Department from seventeen hundred and eighty-nine to 
1903, three thousand dollars, to be immediately available, was ap- 
propriated by Act of Congress, approved March 2, 1903. For printing 
an edition of six thousand copies of the Register by the Public 
Printer — one thousand for the use of the Senate, two thousand for 
the use of the House of Representatives and three thousand for the 
War Department — the sum of twelve thousand dollars was appro- 

The February announcement of The Macmillan Company promises 
the appearance during the spring of A History of the Confederate 
"War, in 2 volumes, octavo, by George Cary Eggleston. It will em- 
brace a preliminary account of the causes that brought about the 
fratricidal struggle, and will endeavor to present "without a trace 
of partisanship" the entire history of the four years of conflict. 

The same publishers announce the preparation, in two volunes, 
of A History of the United States Since the Civil War, by William 
Garrott Brown of Boston. It will be a narrative of the principal 
events in the entire field of American History, and exhibit the im- 
portant changes in American life since the War between the States. 
Mr. Brown is well known as a brilliant writer, his principal work 
being biographies of Andrew Jackson, of Stephen A. Douglas, "The 
Lower South in American History," and a "History of Alabama" for 
use in schools. 

The American Historical Review for January, 1903, has an 
exceptionally strong body of contents: "The Study of the Lutheran 
Revolt," by James Harvey Robinson; "Geneva before Calvin," by 
Herbert Darling Foster; "The Constitution and Finance of the Royal 
African Company of England from its Foundation till 1720," by W. 
R. Scott; "The Plantation Type of Colony," by L. D. Scisco; and 
"The State of Franklin," by George Henry Alden. The Documents 
embrace a letter of William Bradford and Isaac Allerton, 1623, and 
a number of letters of Samuel Cooper to Thomas Pownall, 1769-1777. 
The Reviews of Books number sixty pages, and represent in the 
highest degree the type of an appropriate review. The Notes and 
News embrace many items of interest. 

The January, 1903, number of The Virginia Magazine of History 
and Biography is unusually full in materials for Virginia local 
history, consisting of valuable items affecting Westmoreland, Henry 
Alleghany, and Northampton counties. The "Abridgement of 
Virginia Laws, 1694," "The John Brown Letters," the "Ferrar 
Papers," "Virginia Militia in the Revolution," and several genealogies 
are continued. There are also contributions on "Virginia News- 

384 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

papers in Public Libraries," the "House of Burgesses, 1683-4," 
"Virginia in 1C3 6-8," and "Virginia Gleanings in England." 

Under the title of Business Opportunities in Texas (.1902, 8 vo. pp. 
137), J. C. Abernathy of Houston, Texas, has collected an extensive 
fund of useful and valuable data concerning the business conditions, 
public lands, agricultural, horticultural, and mineral resources, and 
the manufacturing possibilities of the State. An account of the 
oil industry is fully presented. Several tables of statistics appear 
to fortify descriptive portions of the work, and there are a number 
of illustrations. There seems to be no effort to be exhaustive, but 
rather to make reliable indications, which will suggest and stimulate 

The spring list of the publications of Houghton, Mifflin & Com- 
pany, Boston, contains the announcement of the early appearance 
of a volume on Texas, to form a part of the "American Common- 
wealth Series." It is stated that it will present the history of the 
Lone Star State in three parts: the first part containing an account 
of how Texas first came into historic view as the territory where 
Spanish and French colonization overlapped, and how the latter 
prevailed; the second shows how the hardy, adventurous Americans 
were drawn to the land, and how after possessing it, they wrested 
it from Mexico and brought it into the United States; and the 
third presents the historic growth into the Texas of to-day. 

The four first numbers in the Publications of the Southern 
History Association for January, 1903, consist of original docu- 
mentary material: "General Joseph Martin," by John Redd, which 
has already appeared in part in the Va. Mag. of Hist, and Biog., 
April, 1899; "A Southern Sulky Ride," (continued); "Early 
Quaker Records in Virginia," (continued); and "Texas Revolu- 
tionary Sentiment." Dr. Stephen B. Weeks follows these with a 
review of the work and Reports of the Alabama and the Mississippi 
History Commissions. The editor, Dr. Colyer Meriwether, has the 
usual editorial departments, Reviews and Notices, Periodical 
Literature and Notes and News. 

Dr. J. Morton Callahan contributes the opening paper to the South 
Atlantic Quarterly for January, 1903, on "The Confederate Diplo- 
matic Archives — the Pickett Papers." In 1901 he published, through 
the Johns Hopkins Press, a volume on The Diplomatic History of 
the Southern Confederacy,' of which this paper is simply the first 
chapter done over. The recent death of Col. L. Q. Washington, Mr. J. 
P. Benjamin's assistant secretary of State, made a review of the 
subject of interest. The remainder of the number embraces the 
following papers: "The Renaissance of New England," by Edwin 
Mims; "The Passing of a Great Literary Force," by Henry N. 
Snyder; "Some Recent Cromwellian Literature," by W. Roy Smith; 
"Southern Poetry, 1849-1881," by Wm. A. Webb; "Moses Coit Tyler 

Book Notes and Reviews. 385 

and Charles Sumner," by Wm. H. Glasson; "The French Constitu- 
tion of 1791 and the United States Constitution," by C. H. Ramme!- 
kamp; "Science and Culture," by W. L. Poteat; "Some Fugitive 
Poems of Timrod," by James B. Routh, Jr.; "Two Recent Southern 
Books on the Negro," by Wm. H. Glasson and J. S. Bassett; Reviews 
and Literary Notes. 

The leading paper in the American Historical Magazine for 
January, 1903, is "William Blount and the Old Southwest Territory," 
(with portrait), by the editor, A. V. Goodpasture. This is the fullest 
biographical sketch of this eminent man which has yet been pub- 
lished, and it is made the more valuable by reason of the presentation 
of the annals of the old Southwest Territory, of which Mr. Blount 
was the first governor. Two educational articles are given: "The 
Genesis of the Peabody College for Teachers," by Dr. W. R. Garrett, 
and "The Development of Education in Tennessee," by H. M. Doak. 
Local history is represented by a completion of Mr. J. G. Cisco's 
sketch of "Madison County." An unsigned diary of a trip "From 
Bardstown to Washington in 1805" comprises a valuable original 
contribution. The paper of Dr. R. A. Halley on "The Preservation 
of Tennessee History" is a strong presentation of the necessity of 
inaugurating a plan for the safe and orderly preservation of the 
records and archives of Tennessee. The examples of North Carolina, 
Alabama, and Mississippi are noted with approving comments. The 
act creating the Alabama Department of Archives and History is 
printed in full. 

The newspaper press has widely published, with uniformly favor- 
able comment, the argument made by Col. A. K. McClure before the 
Legislature of Pa., in favor of a bill providing that Pennsylvania 
and Virginia shall unite to erect an equestrian statue to Lee on 
Seminary Hill at Gettysburg (8 vo. pp. 13.) "I come before you, 
not to plead the cause of the Confederate; it is crystallized in history 
and adds lustre to the annals of American heroism." With this 
eloquent introductory sentence, Col. McClure proceeds to point out 
the peculiar significance of the position of Pennsylvania in the great 
struggle — "the battlefield of Gettysburg is an integral part of Penn- 
sylvania," "the duty of Pennsylvania [is] to make the battlefield 
of Gettysburg its own complete historian," — "This is not a mere 
sentimental proposition. It is simply a proposition to make the 
history of Gettysburg complete by the tributes of North and South 
to the brave men whose heroism makes Grecian and Roman story 
pale before it." He emphasizes the value to the true appreciation 
of the valor of the Union soldier, in the appropriate exaltation of 
the great leader of the opposing army. Considered in its broader 
aspects this effort, with others of like kind, indicates the approach 
of the day and hour when the epic years from 1861 to 1865 will be 
viewed as a joint heritage of matchless glory and valor to North 
and South alike. 

386 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 


CIETY. Constitution and By-Laws. Charter Members. [Jack- 
sonville, 1903.] (8 vo. pp. [4.] Cover title only.) 

This is the first publication of the new society, the formation of 
which is noticed on a preceding page. It is intended simply as a 
brief administrative circular to call attention to the new organiza- 
tion. It would be well for the society in the very beginning to give 
more attention to certain details, the absence of which will always 
be noticeable in any publication which emanates from an historical 
body. Particular reference here is to the lack of title page, imprint 
and pagination. It would also be well to adopt a scheme or system of 
numbering by which librarians, bibliographers and collectors could 
keep track of all the publications issued. 

ALABAMA SKETCHES. By Samuel Minturn Peck. A. C. McClurg 
& Co., Chicago, Publishers, 1902. (8 vo. pp. 299. $1.00.) 

This is a dainty volume of eleven fanciful stories, with their set- 
tings in West Alabama, most of them in Oakville which is no other 
than Tuskaloosa the native home of Mr. Peck. The stories are brim- 
ming with interest, and, with the exception of an uncanny snake 
episode, they suggest a semi-historic truthfulness which enhances 
interest. There is the graphic blending of negro dialect, political 
plots, quaint superstition, humorous farce, a weird snake story, 
patriotism and fortitude meeting the conditions created by the ad- 
vance of Federal armies into Alabama, love's toils and victories, and 
rewards to long tested patience. The stories are told in happy con- 
versational style, and all end well. Lovers are mated. Virtue con- 
quers vice. 

Joel C. DuBose. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

FIELD BALL FAMILY. From 1640 to 1902. By T. H. Ball, 
Crown Point. Press of J. J. Wheeler, Crown Point, Ind. (8 vo. 
80-J-14 portraits and plates.) 

Branches of this family are found in the Gulf states, which makes 
mention of this publication appropriate here. The author resided 
for many years in Alabama, and during the time compiled Clarke 
County, Alabama, and its Surroundings (1882; 8 vo. pp. 782), a 
work filled with valuable local historical materials. Later he col- 
laborated, with Prof. Henry S. Halbert, a history of The Creek War 
of 1813 and 181 ' f (1895). 

There are several Ball families in the United States, but the re- 
lationship is not ascertained and here made clear, if indeed any 

Book Notes and Reviews. 387 

exists. The compiler does not appear to have added much to the 
general data already known concerning the family, although his 
industry in gathering details as to the descendants of the emigrant 
ancestor is to be commended. Unfortunately he has adopted a very 
crude and unsatisfactory arrangement. It is the duty of every com- 
piler of a genealogy to follow the methods of preparation now in 
use by experts, and which have been evolved after long experience. 

HISTORY OF THE NATION. By Rufus Rockwell Wilson. 
Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1901 (8 vo. 2 vols, 
pp. 408, 423; illustrated.) 

This work is one which will be read with genuine interest by those 
who may wish to obtain a general and hasty view of the history 
of the National Capital, and the part it has played in our annals. 
Inasmuch as the author professes that it is "intended principally 
for popular reading," too severe canons of criticism should not be 
applied. It is quite apparent, however, that there is very little 
originality displayed, save in the grouping and purely literary fea- 
tures. There are some instances, it is suspected, in which Mr. 
Wilson has quoted at length from well known authors without credit. 
There is very little of Washington local history. 

But viewing the city, during its hundred years of existence, 
as the political center of the republic, the birthplace of parties and 
legislation, the training-ground and forum of one generation after 
another of public men, the author has produced a narrative at once 
brilliant and fascinating. Glimpses of public men, anecdotes of 
political and social life, add to the charm of the work. In a typo- 
graphical way the volumes are a delight to the eye, and the illustra- 
tive features are attractive. 

ney Whitman. New York, D. Appleton and Co. 1903. (8 vo. 
pp. 346; portraits. $1.60 net.) 

Students who delight in the contemplation of the larger aspects of 
world history will find in this volume a fund of reminiscences of the 
great unifier of Germany of absorbing interest. Indeed a German 
publisher says that it is the most interesting work on Bismarck 
which has ever appeared. In 18S6 Mr. Whitman published a small 
study on "Imperial Germany," which met great favor from critics as 
a work of insight and penetration, in the interpretation of the Ger- 
man national character. It was read and reread by the Prince, and 
brought an invitation to his home. This visit was made shortly 
after Bismarck retired from office, and Mr. Whitman was his guest 
ten times during the last seven years before his death. The inti- 
macy thus acquired makes the record of the recollections and im- 
pressions of much historical interest. Perhaps the interpretation 
of Mr. Whitman will do more to give the world an accurate impres- 
sion of the stature of the "Iron Chancellor" than can otherwise be 
obtained. Certain it is that nothing is unimportant which can be 
chronicled about one whose life is so bound up with the history of 
a great people. 

388 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

cis Adams. Second edition, enlarged. Boston and New York 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1902. (8 vo. pp. 442. $1.50 net.) 

A second edition of this volume is made necessary within the year 
of first publication in order to include a later address by the author 
before the Phi Beta Kappa Society of the University of Chicago, 
entitled "Shall Cromwell Have a Statue?" The value of the public 
utterances of Mr. Adams makes this collected volume of importance 
to the historian. On its first appearance, indeed on the separate ap- 
pearance of the papers, much discussion favorable and unfavorable 
was provoked. The title paper, doubtless so placed in order to give 
a certain picturesque ring, was the subject of a partial refutation in 
this Magazine by John W. DuBose, in a paper entitled "The Tragedy 
of the Commissariat" (July, 1902, p. 27). The second paper, which 
deals with "The Treaty of Washington/' is clearly the most valuable 
one in the volume, at least from the clear and vivid recital of facts, 
even if the event noticed is not to others quite as important as it 
appears to Mr. Adams. The three following papers cannot be no- 
ticed in detail, but they will repay careful study. They are: "The 
British Change of Heart," "An Undeveloped Function," and "A Plea 
for Military History." The concluding number — "Shall Cromwell 
[Lee] Have a Statue?" — is as the author observes, "the obvious se- 
quel" to "Lee at Appomattox." The public reception of the position 
of Mr. Adams is thus stated in the preface: "The result was unde- 
niably instructive. A very general response followed from all sec- 
tions of the country, though more especially from the South. The 
character of that response varied. The response from the North 
was, as a rule, couched in terms of general dissent from the propo- 
sition; but this dissent, whether uttered through the press or by 
letter, was in do single case couched in the declamatory, patriotic 
strain, at once injured, indignant, and denunciatory or vituperative, 
which would no less assuredly than naturally have marked it thirty 
years ago." 

York and London, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1902. (8 vo. 
pp. 603; illustrated. $2.00 net.) 

The public is in a certain sense familiar with the great war in 
South Africa. This familiarity and acquaintance, however, is so im- 
perfect in detail and accuracy that a connected narrative must be 
hailed with much satisfaction. The foregoing work is the first au- 
thentic account from the Boer side, and its sympathetic tone may be 
inferred from the title. Mr. Davitt, to use his -own terse statement, 
in October, 1899, resigned his membership in the British House of 
Commons "as a personal, and political protest against a war which 
I [he] believed to be the greatest infamy of the nineteenth century." 
He then proceeded to the Transvaal where he became acquainted with 
the Boer leaders and obtained the facts for his narrative. These he 
graphically sets forth and while there is often prolixity the interest 
does not flag. Everything, however, is set forth in such a way as to 
excite sympathy and interest for the Boers, with a corresponding 
hatred and distrust of the British. The volume does not rise to the 
dignity of a historical work and can only be regarded as the partisan 
recital of ai. eager and. willing advocate. 

Book Notes and Reviews. 380 

Compiled by Mary Lord Harrison. Indianapolis, the Bowen- 
Merrill Company, 1901. (8 vo. pp. 532; portrait. $3.00 net.) 

In 1893 General Harrison retired from the Presidency and at once 
returned to his law practice. Until his death he led an active life, 
and with the prestige of his former position as executive head of the 
United States, his professional services were often in demand, and 
he frequently appeared on patriotic and social occasions. His pen, 
too, was often in requisition for contributions to periodicals. This 
volume is a compilation of his literary work from the close of his 
administration. He was non-resident professor of law at Leland 
Stanford, Jr., University from 1893 to 1898, and the first seven 
articles in the work are the lectures delivered by him there. The 
remainder of the volume contains addresses and papers on a great 
variety of topics, governmental, religious, educational, political and 
patriotic. Gen. Harrison was a strong man — of clear thought and 
fearless utterance, and while his constitutional views are largely 
those to be expected from a previous leader of the Republican party, 
for that very reason they can be more safely taken as representative. 

yer, D. D. Together with a story of the Author's life, written 
by his daughter. Atlanta, Ga.; Foote & Davies Company, 1902. 
(12 mo. pp. 294; portrait. $1.00.) 

This is a delightful little volume. It is without pretense. Vigor- 
ous and stately style are not attempted. Written and originally 
published as a series of papers in the Christian Index, they have 
been collected and published through the filial regard of the author's 
daughter. The book is what the title imports — reminiscenses, and 
not a history — and yet a fund of valuable historical material has 
been brought together. In the opening paragraph of the sketch of 
Dr. John L. Dagg the author says: "They are not written merely 
to gratify the curiosity of our readers, but that they may hold in 
grateful remembrance the labors and the virtues of the fathers and 
mothers of our denomination in Georgia. The study of their lives 
should inflame our zeal, elevate our motives and guide our methods 
in the work of the Lord." Through sketches of pioneer preachers 
and laymen interesting glimpses are given. of the manners, customs, 
the social and the spiritual life of the community. The future his- 
torian of Georgia will find much here to ponder in arriving at a 
correct estimate of the State at this period. 

The short story of the life of Mr. Plillyer by his daughter, as part 
two, is prepared with excellent taste, and forms a fit sequel to the 
valuable work done by him which comprises the major part of the 

THE MISSISSIPPI BUBBLE. By Emerson Hough, The Bowen- 
Merrill Co., 1902. (12 mo. pp. 452; illustrated. $1.50.) 

Mr. Hough, with much good literary work to his credit, has ex- 
celled himself in this volume, and has proved his right to a place 
among the very best writers of historical fiction. No better selection 
of theme or period could have been made. In the first half of the 

390 The Gulf States Historical Magazine 

eighteenth century the eyes of Europe were drawn anew to the West- 
ern world. In France at a crisis in her control of the boundless 
province of Louisiana, there appeared on the scene a man, but a 
short time before unknown to fame — plain John Law of Lauriston. 
Bold, of striking personality, a deep thinker, of unbounded confi- 
dence in himself, one of the greatest of the world's financiers — this 
Law is the hero of the story, which has its scenes laid successively 
in England, America and France. The author has, it appears, suc- 
ceeded in presenting in a series of graphic chapters, a correct com- 
parative picture of many phases of life in Europe and Amer- 
ica for the period. The temper for speculation, the spirit of ro- 
mance, the love for adventure, the unsettled disposition of people 
of all classes, which characterized the age of The Grand Monarque, 
are all forcefully developed and without effort. In the evolution of 
the plot, in the situations and in the climaxes the author is excep- 
tionally happy. Especially strong are the chapters descriptive of 
the storm on the Western lakes, the maize, the death of Louis, and 
the little supper of the regent. It is proper to observe that the 
American scenes of the story are not concerned with the gulf region, 
then a part of Louisiana. The interest is sustained throughout, and 
a desire to know more of the history of the times of the Mississippi 
Bubble will inevitably follow a perusal. 

MISSISSIPPI from March 14, 1902, to Oct. 1, 1902. By Dunbar 
Rowland, Director. Jackson, Miss., 1902. (8 vo. pp. 91.) 

Notice of the establishment and organization of this Department 
has previously appeared in this Magazine (July, 1902, p. 65) ; and 
recently an account was given of its first annual meeting (January, 
1903, p. 295). Inasmuch as the report of the Director was there sum- 
marized, it will not be necessary to here notice its contents at length. 

The object of the report, which is prepared by law, is to present 
an account of the first seven months' work of the newly established 
Department. Its examination with reference to the rescue, preser- 
vation and cataloguing of the priceless manuscript treasures of the 
State, must fill the heart of every student as well as of every pa- 
triotic Mississippian with profound gratitude. It seems hardly too 
much to claim that but for this Department these records would have 
been lost or thrown away on the removal of the State officials into 
the new capitol. The Director says: "The condition in which I 
found the official records of Mississippi is the most convincing argu- 
ment in favor of the establishment of this Department and impresses 
the importance of having a designated official whose duty it is to 
care for the accumulated historical treasures of a hundred years." 

Without any special model in the compilation, Mr. Rowland has 
shown excellent taste in the arrangement and in an orderly devel- 
opment of his materials. He appropriately begins with an account 
of the condition of public opinion leading up to the act of establish- 
ment by the Legislature, followed by the proceedings of the trustees 
charged with the executive control of the Department, and a discus- 
sion of the duties imposed. The principal part of the volume, how- 
ever, is devoted to an account of the condition of the State official 
records, with indications, in partial lists, of the rich extent and va- 
riety of the collections Notwithstanding the numberless evidences 

Book Notes axd Reviews. 391 

of neglect, indifference and vandalism, Mr. Rowland finds that the 
archives "are in a fair state of preservation." Full details of the 
recovery of the Confederate War records are given (see this Maga- 
zine, Sept. 1902, p. 147), and also an account of the Hall of Fame 
vote whereby the people of the State by vote designated ten Missis- 
sippians whose portraits should be placed in the rooms of the De- 
partment in the new capitol. The people of Mississippi and Mr. 
Rowland are congratulated on the excellent work accomplished and 
on the future outlook. 

It is proper to note, as a matter of bibliographic interest, that this 
edition of the report is a reprint, with changed pagination, from 
vol. vi of the Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, 1902. 
This will probably account for the fact that the volume contains no 
index, an almost unpardonable omission. 

mance from 1620 to 1902. By Winthrop L. Marvin. New York, 
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1902. (8 vo. pp. 444. $2.00 net.) 

The manifest purpose of this book is to hasten the day of the 
renaissance of the merchant navy and to quicken American interest 
in maratime affairs. The title is more comprehensive than is jus- 
tified by the text and is therefore misleading. The New England 
Merchant Marine, With Especial Reference to Salem, Mass., would 
be more consistent. If it were not for a few facts of general history 
on sea reciprocity, impressment and embargo, the book would una- 
voidably be classed as local history. 

As a literary production it possesses unqualified charm. As a pic- 
turesque narrative of the romance, tragedy, virility and grim humor 
of the sea and the Yankee seafaring man it is the peer of any. As 
a crafty argument for a ship subsidy bill it is adroit and effective. 
"The historical principle of national protection and encouragement 
to our maratime interests" is ably set forth by illustration as well 
as political and economic axioms. Doubtless those gentlemen whose 
"pocket nerve" is affected by ship subsidy legislation will lay hold 
upon these arguments with gratitude and avidity. The spirit of the 
production lacks breadth. The author's hatred of and vindictiveness 
towards the British "makes the judicious to grieve." The fact that 
lie is a "descendant of a long line of New England ship owners and 
seamen" explains much. He declares in his preface that he has ex- 
ercised an honest effort to make his pages "interesting and inform- 
ing rather than controversial." In the former respect he has suc- 
ceeded. In the two latter he has failed. Ke is informing, but his 
information is at variance with the facts in many respects. There 
is a truism to the effect that "figures do not lie." Statistics do, 
however, because statisticians are but men. Mr. Marvin has not 
supplied himself with all the facts. In his efforts to immortalize one 
particular section (which by the way we are noc prepared to accept 
as the nation) he has sadly neglected the claims of others. The pro- 
duction is controversial and inconsistent. The author's conception 
of a patriot depends entirely upon whose ox is gored. He gives to 
the Continental Yankee privateer a halo, but to the Confederate 
cruiser a crown of thorns; canonization for the Yankee tar of the 
American Revolution, crucifixion for the Confederate sailor. It is 
his treatment of this phase of the subject, the Confederate sea ser- 
vice, which is most distasteful and inaccurate. We controvert the 

392 The Gulf States Histoeical Magazine 

-statements not for argument, but for the cause of history and truth. 
In speaking of the damage which the Confederate ("Anglo-Confeder- 
ate" he calls them) cruisers did to Yankee commerce he says: 
"Nobody regrets more bitterly now than Southern men them- 
selves the terrible after effects of this blow at American prestige 
upon the ocean." We doubt the truth of that statement, and would 
be glad to have Mr. Marvin's authority for making it. Although the 
-owners of all ships and cargoes destroyed by the "Alabama" and other 
Confederate cruisers were indemnified for their losses Shylock is still 
crying, "my pound of flesh," "my ducats" and "my daughter." 

In reply to his arraignment of Semmes for burning the Yankee 
whalers and other vessels for "acting as prize court as well as cap- 
tor," he is reminded of the time when Semmes carried at once seven 
prizes into Cuba, a neutral port, and left them in trust with the 
Spanish authorities until the claims could be legally adjudicated 
and when, lo, instead of that natural expectation being compiled 
with he beheld his prizes promptly returned to their original own- 
ers. The Confederate ports were blockaded, no neutral ports were 
open to his prizes. In obedience therefore to the orders of Secretary 
Mallory to do "the greatest amount of damage in the least amount 
of time," as well as his inability to do otherwise, he burned his 
prizf"\ The following paragraph from the book under review is an 
elo nt apostrophe to the excellent performance by the Confederate 
se ^ of a designated task and makes good reading for Southern 
y a: 

"All around the world our [New England] splendid American ships 
and barks that had long been the aristocrats of the ocean, command- 
ing the choicest freights and the highest prices, now suddenly became 
outcasts, reduced to hunting for trade in ballast or accepting cheap 
or offensive cargoes that nobody else would take." 

In speaking of the Alabama and the Florida he says: "It was an ob- 
vious breach of neutrality to build these ships in Britain for use 
against a friendly power." But Semmes says: "The commission of a 
public ship, signed by the proper authorities of the nation to which 
she belongs is complete proof of her national character, and from the 
moment that her commission is read on her quarterdecks she becomes 
the personification of the sovereign power, and the sovereign avows 
herself responsible for her acts. No one of these acts can be impeach- 
ed on the ground that antecedently to her becoming a ship of war she 
committed some offense against the laws of nations or against the mu- 
nicipal law of some particular nation." The Alabama was neither fit- 
ted out nor commissioned as a ship of war until it was out of British 
waters, and therefore there was no breach of the neutrality law. 
"The commission of a public ship, when duly authenticated imparts 
absolute verity and the title is not examinable.. ..The property must 
be taken to be duly acquired and cannot be controverted. This has 
been the settled practice between nations and it is a rule founded in 
public convenience and policy and cannot be broken in upon without 
endangering the peace and repose, as well of neutrals as belligerent 
sovereigns." Mr. Marvin is referred to the opinion of the Supreme 
court as delivered by Mr. Justice Story in the case of the Santissima 

As to the vainglorious boast upon the part of the author of the 
superior discipline and marksmanship of the Kearsarge over the 
Alabama at the fatal fight at Cherbourg he is reminded of two 
things, first, that the Alabama was designed as a scourge of the ene- 
my's commerce rather than for battle. She was to defend herself 
simply if defense became necessary. Certainly she did not antici- 
pate a couflict with an armored battleship, which the Kearsarge 

Book Notes and Reviews. 393 

practically had become with the iron chains protecting her below the 
waterline, and secondly, that she had been cruising for two years 
without an opportunity to re-supply her ammunition. Target prac- 
tice was not expedient under these circumstances. The ammunition 
with which she fought the Kearsarge was damp and untrustworthy. 
But for this fact the rifled percussion shell whose cap failed to ex- 
plode when lodged near the sternpost of the Kearsarge (where there 
happened to be no chains) the result might have been reversed. As 
to the charge that the crew of the Alabama was composed mainly of 
trained gunners of the British ship "Excellent," we accept the state- 
ment of Admiral Raphael Semmes, C. S. N., commander of the Ala- 
bama, who says in his Service Afloat that "the charge was without 
foundation." The book is dedicated to President Roosevelt. 

Marie Bankhead Owen. 
Montgomery, Ala. 

l tf 

f v;ro 

3 ? f 


Gulf States Historical 

Vol. I, No. 6. Montgomery, Ala., May, 1908. Whole No. 6 





By Andrew James Miller, of Montgomery. 

The subject of the permanency of literary fame is obviously 
one too largts to be even superficially treated in a single article, 
■and I shall, therefore, only take a hasty glance at its eccentric 
operation with the authorship of the South. 
, We are almost daily reminded of the great uncertainty of lit- 
erary fame. This is strangely true of the meritorious as well 
as unworthy literary work, since we can see that men of great 
genius and originality have occasionally shared the fate of those 
who never even deserved ephemeral fame. This fact demon- 
strates one thing very clearly, — that genius alone will not in- 
sure popularity, while death lays his icy fingers on authors, as 
well as kings, and may cover them all with the dust of for- 
get fulness, and with as little discrimination. 

The theories concerning books that live are numerous and 
often very contradictory. Just why one book should live 
and another die is not explained upon the ground of its purity 
of diction, elaborate plot, or play of intellectual and complicated 
forces. Neither is it explained by its perfection of art or those 
many aesthetic adornments which belong to the true masters 
of letters, culture, refinement, aesthetic training, and all the 
many elements of knowledge, which are only aids to the true 
and real interest of a book that will live. It is the human ele- 

396 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

Bient, the appeal to the basic, common and universal emotions, 
the touch of nature, which is the real life-essence of a book. 

This fact is illustrated more clearly in the drama. How many 
persons in an average audience are competent to give an author- 
itative opinion on the real art of the play ? Of course there are 
few, but the drama is not merely a question of art, and there 
are few actors who are not willing to commit a crime against 
art to "play to the gallery," because to play against the 
gallery is a crime against common sense. 

It is so with books. Outside of a proper literary presenta- 
tion, they, too, must have that human element, which is always 
a part of the "play to the gallery." x\nd this again depends 
largely upon the whims of a varying and evanescent public taste. 
It is, in fact, nothing short of the verdict that must emanate 
from blind chance and impious fate. 

There is certainly something to be said in favor of luck in 
literary effort, however much scientific people may scoff at its 
existence. It is idle to say that literary men have all the like 
chances : there is no fioodtime to fortune with some and no ebb- 
time with others. Occasionally some obscure and timorous 
writer gets a piece of good luck, which makes amends for a life- 
time of neglect; but this is very rare. Even the major portion 
of the few, whose works succeed, generally die before they are 

In considering the neglect into which the names of many 
Southern authors have fallen, liberal allowance must be made 
for the changed conditions of our national life, and the radical 
differences in the environment of two distinct epochs of South- 
ern civilization. This fact is so manifest that no example or 
argument is necessary to elucidate it. Besides, manners change, 
forms of expression change, methods of plot and treatment 
change, while the refinement of one age may be regarded as 
coarseness in the next. Indeed, it must be admitted that much 
of the fiction of thirty or forty years ago was too richly inter- 
larded with exalted chivalry, high-flown gallantry, emotional ex- 
cesses, fainting heroines, love-lorn heroes, oppressed innocence 
and black-hearted villains. It would offend a few authors of 
this past generation, who are still living, to single out the par- 
ticular works of this more or less namby-pamby character. 
That such literary work has enjoyed its eohemeral popularity 
and been forgotten, creates no surprise, as it deserved no better 

But what are we to say of the work of not a few genuine 
literary artists, whose productions were great both in concep- 

Forgotten Southern' Authors. 397 

tion and in execution, but whose creations have been allowed to 
pass into forgetfulness ? Such has been the fate of those we 
will here enumerate, as well as many others which the limits 
of this article will, not permit us to mention. 

Out of the illustrious coterie of minstrels of the war period, 
there is one sing'er of sweetest lyrics, whose entire works are 
resplendent with richest garlands of lyrical grandiloquence. 
This is Frank O. Ticknor, of Georgia, whose rare poetic gifts 
do not now awaken the absorbing interest they once did, when 
that martial anthem, ''The Virginians of the Valley" was pub- 
lished. No lover of true poetry can fail to be impressed with 
the fire and eloquence of this grand lyric. Paul Hayne said 
that "Its heart-drawn pathos and half subdued passion is more 
effective than the famous 'Ode' of James Russell Lowell." 
Among his other equally noted poems are the "Sword in the 
Sea," and "Little Giffen," which once had a great vogue, but 
are now only recalled by a passing reference. 

William Gilmore Simms furnishes a prominent example of 
forgotten genius. 

This South Carolina bard was once the central figure of 
Southern admiration and applause. He wrote many poems, most 
of which show a clear and lucid style, keen observation, lively 
description and strong imagination. The longest and possibly 
the most noted of his many poetic productions was "Atlantis," 
dealing with the legends afterwards so seriously treated by 
Ignatius Donnelly. His collection of "War Poetry of the 
South," which appeared in 1867, was enthusiastically received, 
and continued in popularity up to the time of his death, in 
Charleston, three years later. 

In the early part of the last century, there came to this country 
a young scion of nobility, the son of a king, who settled in 
Tallahassee, Fla., and became a naturalized citizen. Imbued 
with our republican institutions, he set to work upon a "His* 
tcrv of Republican Government, as perfected in America," 
which occupied him twelve years, and which subsequently ran 
through more than fifty editions. That author was Napoleon 
Murat, son of the king of Naples and prince of two Sicilies. 
Though he enjoyed such an immense vogue and such a distin- 
guished lineage, it is said that this work died before the author. 

Though the present generation is quick to drop one author for 
another, our grandparents were less fickle in regard to their 
favorites. There was a time, for instance six decades ago, 
when the lvrics of Richard Henrv Wilde, of New Orleans, met 

39S The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

with great popular favor, and until the war period, his "My 
Life is Like the Summer Rose" was rehearsed in every South- 
ern household. Equally popular was his work upon the "Love, 
Madness and Imprisonment of Torquato Tasso," which displays 
much research and profound study, showing also a deep sensi- 
bility and a philosophic mind. Yet, the uncertainty of literary 
fame was never more marked than in his case, when it is 
next to impossible to secure a copy of his once popular pro- 

The Old Dominion, prolific in gifted writers, has pro- 
duced no one who made a more profound sensation, in Southern 
literary circles, than John Esten Cooke. His works, once im- 
mensely popular, are in a highly romantic vein, and his graceful 
style abounds in many noble and heroic passages. There were 
few Southerners in the years immediately succeeding the civil 
war, who were not familiar with "Surrey of Eagle's Nest," 
and "Hilt to Hilt," as well as the series of other books published 
by this author. But they are now seldom heard of, or found 
displayed upon the book counters, having had their day and 
passed into the shadow. 

At one time the gifted poet, A. J. Requier, singularly felici- 
tous in his purity of taste, was a household word in Southern 
homes. It was when civil strife had precipitated untold hard- 
ships and the South was travailing in sackcloth and ashes, that 
his once famous "Ashes of Glory" appeared. Its lofty senti- 
ments, though tinged with sadness, struck the depths of hearts 
bowed with a national grief, lending a melancholy sweetness 
to sorrow and death. But, as we receded from that dark epoch, 
w r hich had inspired this great lyric, and time had mellowed our 
grief w ? ith calm resignation, we suffered this poet and his heart- 
message to pass almost completely into the night of forgetf ill- 

It is not often that the public man combines the qualities of 
statesman and romancer, and achieves distinction in both. Yet, 
such was the happy lot of John Pendleton Kennedy, of Bal- 
timore, several times a member of Congress, and Secretary oi 
the Navy under President Fillmore. This distinction, however, 
did not surpass the popularity of his "Horse-Shoe Robinson," 
which became a furore in literary circles, and enjoyed an un- 
precedented circulation. But, both the statesman and the au- 
thor have passed into comparative obscurity, realizing the state- 
ment of DeQuincey, that "every age buries its own literature." 

One of the best and most reliable histories of the war of 1812 
was written bv Robert Breckenridsre McAfee, who was also a 

Forgotten Southern Authors. 399 

Kentucky lawyer of distinction, and represented the United 
States at Bogota in 1S33-37. His "Journal," too > was invalu- 
able to subsequent historians for important data concerning the 
early history of Kentucky, which work gained for him a mem- 
bership in the Royal Antiquarian Society of Denmark. These 
marks of distinguished consideration, however, both at home 
and abroad, have not saved his name from that neglect which 
has attended so many other Southern authors. 

More than a half centry ago Edwin Forrest, then in his prime, 
as the king of tragedians, offered a prize of $1,000 for the best 
drama by an American author. This prize was won by George 
Henry Miles, of Baltimore, who was then 25 years of age. He 
produced "Mohammed," which had an exceptional run in all 
the Eastern theatres, and the popular young dramatist was the 
recipient of endless ovations. This was followed by many plays, 
sketches and poems, while his "Troubadour's Song" made a 
great hit years afterward. Though Miles was the popular toast 
of the period, his short and brilliant career is now but a misty 
memory in dramatic circles. 

Possibly no name of the tumultuous civil war peri- 
od has been more obscured than that of one of its most 
gifted and enthusiastic historians, Edward A. Pollard. 
As editor of the Richmond "Examiner" he was one of 
the most earnest advocates of the Southern cause, although a 
staunch and active opponent of the policies of President Davis. 
Among his numerous works he may be best recalled by his 
"Lost Cause," which was published the year following the close 
of the war. Though interlarded with many inaccuracies and 
strong prejudices, it had a phenomenal sale, and, for the time, 
made him one of the most prominent figures in the South. It 
is probable, however, that outside of special repositories, it 
would be hard today to find a copy of this once popular work, 
while the name of Pollard is even omitted from many current 
biographical works. 

Alabama has not kept green the memory of John Sanders 
Holt. Jeremiah Clemens, Julia Pleasants, Mrs. E. W. Bellamy, 
and Elizabeth Caroline Lee Hentz. Florida has been remiss in 
her duties to Mrs. George E. Spencer. Georgia has practically 
forgotten Thomas Holley Chivers, Joseph Beckham Cobb, 
William H. Sparks, Maria J. Westmoreland, Francis R. 
Goulding. and Buckingham Smith. Mississippi was once 
proud of Irwin Russell, Sarah Anne Dorsey, Catherine 
Ames Warfield, Catherine Sherwood McDowell and Rose Vert- 

400 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

ner Jeffrey. Kentucky has had William Ross Wallace, Ben- 
jamin Drake, Mrs. Ann Ketchum, Sallie Rochester Ford, John 
Price Durbin, Robert Breckenridge McAfee, and Sarah L. 
Bolton. Louisiana has produced Charles F. Delery, Adrien E. 
Roquette, Susan Blanchard Elder, Ada Isaacs Menken, and Mrs. 
Ct-lia V. Jemison. North Carolina has not been true to the 
memories of Francis Lister Hawks and Richard Irving Dodge. 
Tennessee, with the gifted Murfrees, has neglected William 
Randolph Hunter and David Rice McAnally. Virginia has a 
long list of those who have shed a brilliant light upon the fields 
of literature, among whom can be mentioned John Finley, 
Blanche Roosevelt Macchetti, David Hunter Strother, Isa 
Carrington Cabel, Eliza Ann Dupuy, Mary Greenway Mc- 
Clelland, Fanny Murdaugh Downing, and William A. Carruth- 
ers. Finally, South Carolina should be chided for her neglect 
to Isaac Harby, Henry Tudor Farmer, Mary S. Spindler, Mrs. 
Susan King Bowen, Francis Elizabeth Barrow, Mrs. Caroline 
H. Jarvey, Wm. Elliott, and Mrs. Julia C. R. Dorr. 

I cannot resist, in this connection, a brief reference to the 
questions underlying the ephemeral and permanent elements of 
literary work. Xo general theory can be made applicable to 
the fickle, many-sided and vacillating features of public taste, 
but we do know some of the fundamental essentials to any liter- 
ary work that expects to live, and have an influence with suc- 
ceeding generations. 

No author can expect to live enshrined in the memory of 
posterity who is untrue to his art. No matter what may be his 
theme, the subject entails upon him certain obligations, the pri- 
mary and most important one being the presentation of it logi- 
cally, and in harmony with the place and epoch he 
has chosen, and all of its accessories and surroundings. 
To paint the rough countenance and warped morals of a rag 
picker with the same delicacy as the smooth face of the refined 
toilets of the proud : to mix indifferently, in some historical 
scene, old things with modern ornaments, or modern, with an- 
cient accessories, are the errors and falsities which the imper- 
tinence of some and the ignorance of others have accustomed 
us to tolerate, but which are condemnable and will surelv pass 
awav, like other fads and foibles, into the forgotten. 

Of the modern books, which have made a great noise in the 
literary world, mav be mentioned "When Knighthood was in 
Flower." As an historical romance, which it professes to be, 
it is faulty and incongruous ; its character sketching is defective, 

Fokgottex Southern Authors. 401 

and it is plentifully supplied with platitudes and nonsensical ex- 
travagancies. Tt will not stand a comparison with many of the 
works of Scctt and Froissart. 

"The Choir Invisible" put James Lane Allen at the top 
of the ladder, and he was a momentary rage. His style is sober 
and serious, evincing a peculiar order of minor genius. Yet, 
the work has few, if any, lasting qualities, and, like the mass of' 
modern fiction, will soon be forgotten. 

"The Hon. Peter Sterling" of the unfortunate Paul Leicester 
Ford, and "Janice Meredith," by the same author, have achieved 
great popularity and an almost phenomenal demand. They dis- 
play much human insight, and are worthily written. But, the 
chief interest they arouse is from their realism, which is a 
short-lived fancy of the modern literary world. To these might 
appropriatelv be added "A Fool's Errand," "Called Back," "Mr. 
Barnes of New York," "The Quick or the Dead/' "Robert 
Elsmere," "Dodo," "Trilby," and all the weird creations of 
Rider Haggard, Marie Corelli, and some others. 

The second obligation of the author is to draw from the sub- 
ject all of which it is capable; to tell us seriously, sincerely and 
completely all that he may have seen, felt or desired in that con- 
nection. We have a right to expect this much from all candi- 
dates for public favor, while they are reflecting the moral and 
intellectual tergiversations of society. The chief offenders 
against this obligation have been the satirists, pseudo-philoso- 
phers, many of the critics, and not a few of the exponents of 
biblical dogma and doctrine. It would appear absolutely impos- 
sible for certain authors to treat kindly and justly a subject 
which happens to be inconsistent with their views of philosophy. 
The present German emperor, in his state papers and public 
addresses, is an impersonation of this idea. Right and wrong 
are absolute entities to him, and there can be no paltering be- 
tween the two. His moral world has but two dimensions, and 
he cannot comprehend a third. This same arrogance is mani- 
fested even in Emile Zola, when he appeared as the analyst of 
the religious sentiment in man. In this, he presents conspicu- 
ously the spectacle of a novelist out of place, formulating coun- 
sel without wisdom, and pretending to illustrate a subject, which 
he casts into deeper mystery. 

In conclusion, we will hastily scan style, the final element in 
the life of literature. The poet Watson tells us that it is 
"the great antiseptic in literature and the most powerful 
preservative against decay." This is probably the view of a 

402 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

large number, who are competent to pass judgment upon it, 
and yet it does not somehow co-ordinate with many conspicu- 
ous examples in literary history. Take, for example, Thucy- 
dides and Aristotle. The style of the former is often akin to 
that of the famous Mrs. Gamp, while that of Aristotle may be 
said to be conspicuous by its absence ; yet these authors are full 
of vitality, by dint of their strength, spirit and wisdom. On 
the other hand, it may be said that Virgil lives by virtue of his 
undefmable style, which breathes throughout the "Aeneid," in 
music unrivalled and unapproached. It is thus seen that Virgil 
lives by his style, while the others live in spite of theirs. Style 
is, therefore, a matter of mystery, exceedingly difficult to fathom, 
and certainly not governed by any uniform rules, since the 
humorist and dialect writer can sometimes achieve as lasting 
fame as the great allegorical and ideal conceptions of a Milton 
or a Dante. 

To summarize, it would seem axiomatic that the popularity 
of a book affords no certain test of its greatness : that, as read- 
ers grow in numbers, there will ever be an increasing de- 
mand for books that can be enjoyed without effort ; that a truly 
great book is a rare production and always will be; that the 
excessive literary activity of an age may add to the number of 
highly cultivated authors, without adding much to the list of 
those who are destined to live. 






Contributed by Dunbar Rowland, Director of the Mississippi De- 
partment of Archives and History. 

This letter may be found in an executive journal of Governor 
Claiborne on file in the Mississippi Department of Archives 
and History, which is doubtless one of the most valuable sources 
of primary material relating to the Louisiana purchase in ex- 
istence. It seems that Governor Claiborne kept two sets of 
journals, one as a public record, the other for his own private 
use. The latter set is now a part of the Archives of Mississippi, 
presented, no doubt, by J. F. H. Claiborne, the historian. — D. R. 

New Orleans, Jan. 2nd, 1804. 


The tranquility in which I found this Province is uninter- 
rupted, and every appearance promises a continuation of it. 
This is the season of festivity here and I am pleased to find 
that the change of Government has given additional spirit to 
the public amusements. 

It gives me great satisfaction to learn from every side the 
favourable inclinations of the people and their confidence in the 
justice and generous intentions of the American Government 
towards the Province. You may be assured that nothing has 
been left undone on my part which could strengthen that 
friendly opinion. 

If I have a political uneasiness at this moment it arises from 
the great latitude of the powers with which I am temporarily 
intrusted. The exercise of descritionary power in matters of 
moment is to me an irksome duty. I feel sensibly the weight 
of the responsibility which rests on me. I have ever indulged 
an anxious hope that Congress will soon relieve me from that 
difficulty. The establishment of a government for this Prov- 
ince Will I presume be a matter of immediate consideration, 
and cannot be determined more speedily than I wish. In the 

404 The Gii.e States Historical Magazine. 

meantime I propose no exercise of my authority ,except such 
as the peace of the Province and the conciliation of general con- 
fidence in the Government shall peremptorily require. 

To attempt a general renovation of the late system of Govern- 
ment would be a vain labor. 

The original principles of the system have been long lost sight 
of: Government had scarcely a nerve not wounded by corrup- 
tion ; the business in every department was wrapped up in mys- 
tery and intrigue and has been left in confusion perhaps inex- 

I once had a respect for the character of Governor Salcedo, 
but my good opinion of him has ceased, for it is a shameful 
fact that under his administration not only many posts of hon- 
or and of profit in his gift were sold, but that even when exer- 
cising the sacred character of a Judge he often rendered his de- 
cisions to the highest bidder. 

This only can be said in extenuation of his conduct, that 
he is superanuated and that his eldest son, a young man who 
bears an unfortunate character in this place, had acquired and 
still maintains a ruinous influence over his aged father. After 
such account of the head you wil not be surprised that the 
same depravities pervade the system in every direction. 

The state in which I found the jurisprudence of the country 
embarrasses me extremely. The arrears of business in this de- 
partment are very great. Many of the causes are of consider- 
able importance and some of them have been pending for up- 
wards of twenty years : corruption had put her seal upon them, 
but now that seal being broken, few can see the necessity of 
further delay. Much is expected by the people from the up- 
right and pure character of the American Judiciary, and they 
manifest great impatience for it to be put in operation but it 
is impossible to indulge their expectations immediately. To go 
through the several causes now pending and the prodigious 
accumulation of written testimony with which I understand them 
to be loaded would require not onlv an intimate knowledge of 
the Spanish language (for to translate the records I am cred- 
ibly informed would be the work of years) but also an ac- 
quaintance with the Spanish laws and habits of practice. 

Characters with such qualifications, and men to whom may 
be safely confided so important a trust are not to be found 
easily. I wish it was possible to recommence all those causes 
without injury to the parties ; but in manv of them there is, I 
understand, material testimony on record which never can be had 

Louisiana Affaiks in 1804. 405 

again. Under existing circumstances I feel a great reluctance 
in exercising any judicial authority. Under the Spanish Gov- 
ernment there was a right of appeal to the Governor General 
at the Havannah from the Governor's court here; and as that 
of course no longer exists, were I to perform the office of Judge 
my decisions must be final, and I might be accused of arrogat- 
ing to myself a plenetude of power which the haughtiest of my 
Spanish predecessors had never employed. 

I at first thought of merely appointing Alcades or Magistrats 
for the preservation of order and the recovery of small debts 
but from a number of urgent applications from the mercan- 
tile interests and other influential characters, I have been in- 
duced to establish a temporary court to consist of seven Magis- 
trates ; and at the recommendation of the Municipality their 
jurisdiction is extended to the recovery of debts not exceeding 
three thousand dollars, with a right of appeal to the Governor 
in all cases above five hundred dollars. The establishment of 
a court with powers thus extensive may perhaps for a time rec- 
oncile the inhabitants of this place to a suspension of the func- 
tions of the Governor's court. The jurisdiction of this tem- 
porary court will not at present extend beyond the limits of the 
city, and the characters, who compose it are men whose standing 
in society, and talents, appear to me most likely to render their 
appointments acceptable to the people. To this measure I was 
pressed by the actual necessities of the society. I have endeav- 
ored to make the arrangements in such a manner as to be most 
efficient and agreeable to the wishes and habits of the inhabi- 
tants and I hope it will meet with the President's approbation. 

Mr. Trist has I presume apprized Government of the pres- 
ent state and prospects of the Revenue. I have therefore only 
to add that all his measures appear to me to have been dictated 
by sound policy and a conciliatory disposition; and that his at- 
tentions to the duties of his department have been exemplary'. 

Permit me also to mention that the military arrangements 
made by General Wilkinson meet my approbation ; and that 
his measures have been well directed to maintain good order, 
and support the civil authority. 

I have taken no measures for the organization of the militia, 
and shall await instructions from the President. At present 
I have no reason to apprehend any public inconvenience from a 
short delay. I, however, propose to commission two or three 
volunteer companies who contemplate offering their services. 

In the different prisons of this city I have found upwards of 

406 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

one hundred prisoners, some of whom had been there from ten 
to thirteen years on suspicion of crimes of which it does not 
appear they were ever convicted and some for offenses of a very 
trivial nature. I was anxious to place among the first acts of 
the American Government one in which justice and humanity 
united; but understanding that the Spanish authorities claimed 
some of the prisoners I had an explanation on the subject 
with Mr. Laussat and it seems a principle had been settled 
between him and the Marquis de Cassa Calvo that all prison- 
ers confined for territorial offenses or offenses merely against 
the country passed with the sovereignty of the country; but 
that the Spaniards were entitled to retain such as were con- 
fined for offenses against the Crown or Flag of Spain — as 
Treason, Military Crimes, &c. The Marquis, however, has 
given me reason to believe that the Spanish prisoners will be 
set at large immediately and requested that they might be de- 
tained until arrangements could be made to that effect. Of 
the prisoners who have fallen within my province, I have al- 
ready released five, and shall proceed to set, I believe, the whole 
at large. Their detention would be attended with a heavy pub- 
lic expense, and could answer no good purpose ; as it apears to 
me very questionable whether any principle of law would jus- 
tify our noticing offenses of which we had no cognizance at 
the time of their commission. 

It is also' to be presumed that many of them are innocent 
and if others less deserving should be included in the general 
amnesty it is more pleasing that our error is on the side of 
mercy Less happy events have in other places thrown open 
prison doors and I confess I should feel a pang if the present 
qccasron so glorious to my country should be disgraced bv the 
rattling of a single chain. 

nrlfnf Z mySeIf V Sha " be ab ' e t0 brin £ the ex P«^s of the 
present temporary Government within narrower limits than I 

at first expected and from Mr. Trist's representation I am in- 
demands ^ reCdptS '"" be comme "surate to my 

tnl he m Zt ant Zu S T" as the Dlanters in this cou » tr v apoear 
to be wea Ithy Their habits of living are luxurious and expen- 
sive But by far the greater part of the people are denlorablv 
uninformed. The wretched policy of the late Government hav- 
mg discouraged the education of youth, the attainments of some 
of the first people consist onlv of a few exterior accomplish- 
ments. Frivolous diversions seem to be among their primarv 

Louisiana Affairs in 1804. 407 

pleasures, and the display of wealth and the parade of power 
constitute their highest objects of admiration. 

Republicanism has many professed admirers here: There is 
something in the plain principles of equal rights which comes 
within the scope of the meanest capacity, and is sure to be agree- 
able because it is flattering to the self-complacency of every in- 
dividual. But I fear that Republicanism among all her friends 
here will find but few who have cultivated an acquaintance with 
her principles. But when the minds of the people become a little 
expanded I doubt not but they will be useful if not zealous 
members of our Commonwealth. Among the first objects there- 
fore to be attended to is, some effectual plan of immediately 
introducing into this Province some system of education. I 
have already communicated to the Municipality of the city my 
wishes on the subject and shall urge them to some prompt meas- 
ure. The city is rich in lands and houses as well as contingent 
revenues and have it in their power to be liberal in the en- 
couragement of public establishments. The sons of ignorance 
and affluence are too apt to be content with their condition and 
I do fear if the task of education be left entirely to private in- 
stitutions but little improvement will insue. I therefore hope 
that the Government will take early measures to erect schools 
and as soon as possible some superior seminaries of literature 
in the Province. 

Permit me before I conclude to repeat my solicitude for the 
early establishment of some permanent Government for the 
Province, not merely on account of my personal interests in the 
amelioration of that measure, but for the sake of the country. 
When the charms of novelty have faded and the people have 
leisure to reflect they will I fear become very impatient in their 
present situation. I could wish that the constitution to be given 
to this District may be as republican as the people can be safely 
entrusted with. But the principles of a popular Government 
are utterly beyond their comprehension. The representative sys- 
tem is an enigma that at present bewilders them. Long inured 
to passive obedience they have, to an almost total want of polit- 
cal information superadded an inveterate habit of heedlessness 
as to measures of Government, and of course are by no mean* 
prepared to make any good use of such weight as they may 
prematurely acquire in the national scale. For nearly the same 
reasons their establishment of a Judiciary on American princi- 
ples will have to encounter the most serious difficulties. Not 
one in fifty of the old inhabitants appear to me to understand 

408 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

the English language. Trials by jury at first will only embarrass 
the administration of justice, though I presume a short ex- 
perience would be sufficient to convince any reasoning society 
of the inestimable advantages of that happy system. 

The services of the volunteers from the Mississippi Terri- 
tory will I presume be dispensed with in a few days. Their 
return will be directed by General Wilkinson. I cannot for- 
bear again recommending this spirited little Corps to the atten- 
tion of the President. Their duty has been hard and the sea- 
son severe; yet no single instance of desertion has occurred 
among them, and their conduct has with the exception of five 
or six individuals, been uniformly orderly and obedient. Some 
complimentary communication to them thro' the Secretary of 
War, would be but a just tribute to their merits, and might 
have a happy effect in case of future emergencies. 

I have the honor to be, 

W r ith great respect, 

Y. Ob. Servant, 
(Signed) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

The Honble 

James Madison, 
Secry of State. 


By Dk. W. H. Blake, Sheffield, Ala. 

During the War of Secession coal from mines from Saint 
Clair ccunty, Alabama, was supplied to the Confederate 
arsenal at Selma. Most of this coai was mined by Ragland 
and Sims at a place now called Ragland, two miles west of 
Coosa river. Part of it was mined by Crandle and Anderson 
at a place cne mile west of Ragland. From these mines the 
coal was hauled to the river on wagons and there loaded on flat 
boats. Some of these boats were floated down the river to Yel- 
low Leaf, now Wilsonville, and there the coal was transferred 
to railroad cars and shipped over the Selma, Rome and Dalton 
raiircad to Selma. The greater number of the boats were 
floated down the Coosa river to the Alabama river, and thence 
by Montgomery to Selma. Ira Harmon, who acted as pilot 
for these boats, is still living. The writer recently visited him 
at his home one mile south of Easonville in St. Clair county. 
The statements set forth in this article were made by Mr. 
Harmon on this visit. He is an intelligent old man, now feeble 
with the infirmities of age, but his straightforward, blunt state- 
ments bear evidence of the energy and courage of his earlier 

Ira Harmon was born among the western foothills of the 
Great Smoky mountains in Greene county, Tennessee. When 
a child of six years his father moved to Talladega county, Ala- 
bama. Pioneer methods of travel are illustrated by a descrip- 
tion of this move. The elder Harmon placed his family on a 
flat boat on the Nolichucky river, floated down this stream to 
the Holston river, and, continued down the Holston to the 
Tennessee river. The latter stream was followed to a point 
near Chattanooga. From this point the family were carried 
overland across the "divide" to the headwaters of the Oosta- 
naula river. Another beat was here built, and they floated down 
to Rome. Ga., and thence down the Coosa river to Talladega 
county, where the elder Harmon settled and where Ira Har- 
mon was reared. 

Talladega county was rich in agricultural products before the 
days of railroads in that section. Ira Harmon gained his ex- 
perience as pilot, and floating these products down the Coosa 

410 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

river to market. When asked the date of his first trip, he could 
not remember, but stated that on this trip, when his boat was 
twelve miles north of Wetumpka at the "Devil's Stair Case," 
Miller's comet made its appearance, causing alarm among the 
crew; and on reaching Wetumpka the next day, the town was 
in commotion and excitement, caused by the appearance of the 
comet. To those who have seen the Coosa river above We- 
tumpka it is evident that no small degree of courage and judg- 
ment were required to conduct loaded boats with safety over 
these shoals. Higher up the river are other rapids, where the 
fall is greater, the current swifter, and the passes more difficult 
to make. There are jutting cliffs projecting into the channel 
at many of the abrupt bends in the river, and if the boats were 
not steered clear of these menacing rocks it meant destruc- 
tion to craft and freight, and, perhaps, the crew. These same 
projecting rocks produced giant whirlpools whose circling vor- 
texes swallowed up everything that entered them. What was 
most dangerous of all were the hidden rocks in the channel of 
the stream whose location must be known to be avoided. 

It was in the face of such difficulties as these that Ira Har- 
mon supplied coal to the Confederate arsenal at Selma. He 
states that the mine operated by Ragland and Sims from 1861 
to 1865 was not under the control ©f the Confederate Govern- 
ment, but that their coal was sold at Montgomery and Selma. 
During the latter part of the war Crandle and Anderson operated 
their mine under the supervision and control of the Confederate 
Government. The labor at both mines was done chiefly by 
negro slaves, many of whom had been recently brought to* that 
section as refugees from Kentucky and Tennessee. Negroes 
also constituted the crews for the boats. The usual size for 
these boats was fifty feet long, eighteen feet wide and thirty ' 
inches in depth. The largest boat built was seventy-eight feet 
long, twenty-two feet wide and thirty inches in depth. The 
amount of coal carried on each boat was from twenty to fifty- 
two tons. The trip down the river could be made only when 
the stream was swollen. Sometimes the loaded boats would 
have to wait for months until there was water enough in the 
river to enable them to pass over the shoals. During this time 
of waiting the boat's crew was employed in building new 
boats. They would go into the forest, cut down trees, split 
them, and hew the halves into shape for the sides of the boats. 
Since tall, large trees, free from knots, were required, such 
timber was not always easily found. Some of the trees were 

Coal Barging in War Times, 1861-1865. 411 

hauled six to eight miles. Pine and poplar, chiefly pine, were 
used to make the gunnels. The bottoms of the boats were made 
o^ sawed lumber, fastened to the gunnels with wooden pegs. On 
a trip down the river from two to eight boats were carried at 
the same time — usually about five. Five men were required 
for each boat. Under favorable conditions the trip from Rag- 
land to Montgomery could be made in three days. Mr. Harmon 
states that he had made the trip from Ragland to Wetumpka 
in a day and night. Sometimes it would require two weeks 
for the .same trip. If conditions -were unfavorable the boats 
were tied itp to the bank at night, and if there was wind 
or fog on the river it was sometimes necessary to remain tied 
up several days. Wind gave much trouble, especially if the 
boats were loaded with cotton. The time to go from Montgom- 
ery to Selma was two days and nights. On delivering the 
coal the boats were sold, and the return trip made from Selma 
back to the Coosa river by railroad. If the coal was sold at 
Montgomery, the crew went on down the river to Selma to re- 
turn from there by railroad. The price received for coal 
in Montgomery from 1861 to 1865 was one hundred to one 
hundred and twenty-five dollars per ton. The price paid a 
pilot for his services on each trip during the war was one 
hundred dollars in Confederate money. The price paid before 
and after the war for the same trip was twenty-five dollars; 
some times, after the war, as much as fifty dollars. There 
were others boating on the Coosa during the war, and many 
boats with their "freight were lost. 

Mr. Harmon relates many interesting stories connected with 
these trips. On one occasion the coal on a boat was discovered 
to be on fire. In- removing the coal to put out the fire, it was 
discovered that the negroes on the boat had stolen a hog be- 
fore starting on the trip, and had hidden it beneath the coal, to 
be eaten up as they went down the river. 

About thirty miles below Wilsonviile the country is 
mountainous and wild. The river here runs, for some 
distance, close to the base of tall, almost perpendicu- 
lar, rocky cliffs. For two years, on different trips, 
smoke had been seen rising from beneath an overhanging rock 
among the cliffs. On one occasion, the river being very high, 
Mr. Harmon was enabled to run his boat close up to this "smok- 
ing rock." Then he saw a fire burning, and, near by, were 
eight men lying on the ground with their faces downward. 
They had seen the boat approaching and did this to avoid recog- 


412 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

nition. They were bushwhackers — men who were in hiding 
to keep out of the Confederate army. This was their rendez- 
vous. The overhanging rocks sheltered these war-time cave- 
dwellers from the rain ; the river cut off approach on one side, 
and the cliffs made their retreat almost inaccessible on the other. 
Several months afterwards Mr. Harmon mentioned this discov- 
ery to a Confederate officer at the mines. ''Why haven't you 
told this before now?" said the officer. "And you had sus- 
pected all the time that this was a bushwhackers' camp?" "Yes." 
said Mr. Harmon, "but had it ever occurred to you which 
was of more importance to the Confederate Government, coal 
for its arsenal at Selma or these bushwhackers as soldiers ? To 
disturb these men means to endanger the life of every man 
who passes these cliffs on a flat boat." "Perhaps, after all, you 
are right, Mr. Harmon," said the officer, and the bushwhackers 
went unmolested. 




Meridian, Miss. 

In the early spring if 1895, I wrote to Col. John H. Law- 
rence, the United States clerk at the Sac and Fox agency, Okla- 
homa, requesting him to make some inquiry relative to four old 
Shawnee friends, who were members of the detachment to 
which I belonged, while serving in Col. M. T. Johnson's regi- 
ment of Texas troops in the summer and fall of i860. Their 
names were Jack, aged at that time about 55, Blackfoot, about 
30, and William and Nabors, who were very young, iS or 20. 
The following letters are the result of my correspondence with 
Col. Lawrence. 

Mr. Walter H. Shawnee gives the best account I have ever 
seen in regard to the segregation of the Absentee Shawness from 
the parent tribe. His second letter confirms the Choctaw tradi- 
tion of the war which that tribe once had with the Shawnees, 
which event must have occurred when the Shawnees lived in 
Tennessee in the Cumberland valley. The Choctaw tradition of 
this war can be seen in the American Antiquarian, vol. ix, Jan., 
18S7. H. S. H. 

Tecumseh, Okla., March 25th, 1896. 
Prof. H. S. H albert, 

Conehatta, Newton Co., Miss. 
Dear Sir — 

In a conversation with Col. J. H. Lawrence, the U. S. Clerk 
at the Sac & Fox Agency, Oklahoma, Saturday last, I have 
learned that you are familiar with the history of the Absentee 
Shawnees ; and have some knowledge of the Texas-Mexico war. 
Mr. Lawrence stated that he was in receipt of a letter of recent 
date from you, inquiring of four Abeentee Shawnees in particu- 
lar, who were members of your company in Texas against the 
Comanches and other tribes. This letter is now in our possession. 
and we shall endeavor to trace the parties for you at the earliest 
date. One of these Absentee Shawnees who would know some- 
thing o-f the individuals and give all proper information is Mr. 
Big Jim, Chief of the Upper band of Absentee Shawnees who 
were in Texas at this time, and is at present in Washington, 
D. C, and will not be here for two weeks more. Big Jim is 

414 The Gulf States Historical Magazine. 

about 60 years of age, was born and raised on the Sabine reser- 
vation in Texas, and his father was for years the principal Chief 
of the Absentee Shawnees, and, I am told, one of the signers of 
the Sam Houston treaty with the confederated tribes and the 
provisional government. 

Now, I am a young man of the Absentee Shawnees, born 
since the Civil war, and the secretary of the business com- 
mittee of the tribe, and if you will pardon the request, would 
be glad to narrate something of the past history of the tribe, 
and also ask some questions relative to the same. As you are 
doubtless " aware, the Absentee Shawnees have been an unfor- 
tunate people, asd have no annuities nor lands; we became 
destitute at the close of the war, and at the mercy of friends 
were provided homes in the Indian Ter. by the U. S. 
government; our lands formerly belonged to the Creeks and 
Seminoles, and by the treaty of 1866 were set apart for the 
settlement of friendly homeless Indians and freedmen. A 
singular incident in connection with our settlement upon the 
present reservation may prove interesting, showing that we 
have met always with an "irony of fate." The Absentee Shaw- 
nees crossed the Red river into the Indian Territory in the fall 
and winter of 1839, and settled among the Creek Indians on 
the South Canadian and Little Rivers in the southwestern cor- 
ner of the Nation. Here they lived until the year '61, when 
they fled from that country as a result of the war, settling near 
Arkansas City, Kan., on the Arkansas River, until the year 
1867, when our Chief, John White, and Samuel Hill, interpreter, 
were sent to Washington to secure homes in the Territory. The 
war had devasted their property and reduced them to abject 
poverty. Chief John White was successful and was sent to 
locate his people en any unclaimed lands ceded by the Creeks 
and Seminoles, and was given five years to report his selection. 
He selected the present reservation, and the Absentee Shawnees 
were settled here in 1868. The following year the citizen 
Pottawatomie Indians of Kansas were sent to select their tribe 
a reservation, and their delegation were suited with the same 
lands. Finding that the Shawnees had not made a report of 
their selection, the Pottawatomies at once notified the Depart- 
ment of their selection of the reservation, stating that no per- 
sons occupied the same except a few Chickasaw negroes. They 
received the reservation. The Shawnees continued to reside 
upon the same, and Congress by the act of May 23, 1872, gave 
them an equal right with the Pottawatomies. Now, I would 

The Absentee Shawnee Indians. 415 

like to trace the history of the Absentee Shawnees, and in con- 
clusion will submit a few questions upon them, which I would 
like for you, if you are aware of the facts, to give me. 

The Shawnees are divided into five clans or bands, viz : Spi- 
to-tha, Chi-lah-cah-tha, Ha-tha-we-ke-lah, Bi-co-we-tha, and 
Ki-spo-ko-tha. In the year about 1745, the three latter band's 
became dissatisfied and left their hunting grounds on the Cum- 
berland River in Kentucky, and emigrated to New Spain prior 
to the year 1793, and were settled on a grant of land near Cape 
Girardeau, now in the State of Missouri, by grant from the 
Spanish Government through Baron de Carondelet. This reser- 
vation was about twenty-five miles square. In the year 1825, the 
Shawnees residing within the State of Missouri made an ex- 
change of these lands for a reservation west of that State 
equal to fifty miles square, situate on the Kansas river, and 
estimated to contain 1,600,000 acres. In this treaty it was 
agreed that the tract should belong to the Shawnees of Missouri 
and those of the same nation then residing in Ohio who might 
wish to emigrate to that country. The Ohio fellows consti- 
tuted the first two bands, and constituted the warlike element 
of the Shawnee tribe, and are Tecumseh's Indians. They were 
finally settled at Wapaughkonnetta, where they possessed 94,- 
000 acres of land, and in the treaty they made in 1832, they 
were to receive in lieu of the lands they held there 100,000 acres 
within the tract equal to fifty miles square, granted to the Mis- 
souri Shawnees. The Missouri Shawnees, however, did not 
move to the Kansas reservation, but after selecting the said 
lands in Kansas, removed into the Territory of Arkansas, and 
remained there until the year 1832, when a treaty was con- 
cluded with them (jointly with the Dela wares) to remove all 
their bands out of Arkansas. In that winter the Missouri 
Shawnees removed out, but instead went down into Mexico 
(now Texas) and got into the Texas-Mexico war, taking sides 
with the former, notwithstanding that the latter had granted 
them a reservation on the Sabine River. They finally grew 
tired of war, and agreed to leave the country by coming to the 
Indian Territory to live at peace. The Texas grant, I have 
understood, was repudiated by the State. Coming back to the 
first two mentioned bands. They were shipped out of Ohio 
in the year 1833-4, and settled on the Kansas reservation, styl- 
ing themselves the "Shawnee Nation." The "absent Indians" 
were not considered by the government, and the United States 
pretended to recognize the Kansas Indians as the "now united 

416 The Gulf States Historical Magazlne. 

bands of Shawnees." They remained peaceably on the lands 
until the year 1854, when the government agents sent out to 
get the lands proceeded with negotiations embodying a sale of 
the lands of the reservation. No effort was made to find the 
Absentee Indians, or to have them repr